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Information Processing & Decision making Chapter 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Information Processing & Decision making Chapter 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Information Processing & Decision making Chapter 6

2 Aim To learn about the information processing model and what factors are at play when we make decisions To understand how memory is formed and what gets in the way of recalling information

3 Objectives 1.To learn about how we process new information 2.To understand how memory stores new information and its associated problems 3.To understand the decision making model and its limitations 4.To understand the basics of human learning

4 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model StimulusPerceptionAnalysisActionFeedbackCorrection

5 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Stimulation from senses: (Sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, time, danger) E.g. Seeing traffic in your peripheral vision Sensory threshold: Not all stimulation is sufficient to generate a neural pathway E.g. soft wind on skin or a faint noise Repetitive stimulation can be damaging/dangerous A repetitive stimulus can cause the receptor to adapt and fail to recognise it e.g. the murmur from the engine thats accepted but worsens, or the annunciators that are always on and you fail to recognise a critical one

6 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Perception (recognise, classify, remember) Once senses have received information about the environment, the brain makes sense of it (e.g. a group of sounds becoming a sentence) E.g. That aircraft is heading straight for me at my level! Senses are continually gathering new information to continually update a mental model of ones surroundings (Situational awareness) Abnormalities in the perception model can include: Illusions (false perceptions due to misinterpretation of a given stimulus)

7 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Perception (cont.) Agnosia: Where one loses the ability to recognise or interpret stimuli that is known Usually associated with brain injury or neurological illness Can be visual or auditory Hallucinations: False perceptions of non-existent visual and auditory stimuli Can occur in any sense visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile, proprioceptive, thermoceptive, etc Caused by neurological illness, brain lesions or excessive drug use

8 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Analysis (decision making, relevance) The brain scans the memory banks for a construct that the new information will fit into, otherwise new information is more difficult to assimilate E.g, Danger! Im going to need to turn away otherwise well collide! Where old constructs do exist, the new information is interpreted and remembered if deemed important Error of Expectation: Stress can cause us to stay on one task without multi-tasking across a number of other, more important tasks (e.g. the student who is under stress carrying out a diversion, but failing to recognise that they are heading for a mountain range at their level)

9 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Action (doing something or nothing, e.g. fight or flight) Based on the analysis of the stimulus, the brain may link it with a learned threat and cause the body to act, react or refrain (fight or flight) E.g. Using knowledge of how to turn to avoid collision Or using another, more dangerous, evasive technique

10 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Action (cont.) Response time for action following perception of a stimulus can be milliseconds to several seconds, depending on several factors, such as; The complexity of the decision & action and the current workload; The level of perceived threat; The social acceptability of the decision/action; How well prepared, knowledgeable and experienced you are in recognising that stimulus (e.g. engine failure Vs electrical fire); The degree of arousal

11 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Action (cont.) Another example, As you select gear down for landing, a horn unexpectedly activates. The decisions that now need to be made are: 1.Avoid the high workload / associated risk at a critical phase of flight – Go Around! 2.Establish how to silence the loud, distracting noise and determine the cause. Troubleshooting - Is the gear is unsafe? Or is the switch faulty? 3.Radio call – Going around or declaration of emergency - Pan Pan 4.Carry out checklist items to rectify the problem Throughout the decision making process of a simple, unexpected event, one needs to switch between priorities and ensure the safe operation of the flight. One must decide HOW to Aviate, Navigate, Communicate. The speed at which this decision making process is carried out can be maximised if the procedure is practiced regularly (e.g. drills or SIM)

12 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Feedback (check outcome of action) Based on action, the body receives immediate feedback and learns if the action was appropriate E.g. What was the result of turning away from traffic. Am I clear? Should I have turned the other direction? What will I do in future? Feedback is available all the time, in everything we do: Control input gives feedback of changing course/altitude Button input activates a change in information Feedback is a process in which information about the past or the present influences the same phenomenon in the present or future.

13 1. Information Processing Information Processing Model Correction (become more accurate) Memory is stored to assist with the action and recognition of future stimuli. It is then retrieved when appropriate in like circumstances. It is the learning from feedback. E.g. How much quicker will you be to act upon receiving this picture?

14 2. Memory Types of Memory Sensory Memory Retains visual and auditory information of stimuli 1 [visual] and 5 [auditory] seconds. Unless coded and assimilated into meaning, it will be forgotten Important for quick recognition and application in the fight or flight response. Further stimuli is needed to confirm the threat of the stimulus How many ball passes??

15 2. Memory Types of Memory Try the memory test on the next slide…

16 Types of Memory Sensory Memory (cont.) How much can you remember? 2. Memory

17 Types of Memory Try again with How many ball passes? 2. Memory

18 Types of Memory Working memory/Short-term memory Limited capacity (i.e. RAM) of stored information relevant to NOW E.g. ATC: Turn left 290, contact Approach The pilot will generally remember the information long enough to set the HDG bug/change the frequency for seconds. Stress and fatigue reduce this time. The more relevant the information, the longer it will be remembered E.g. Track direct to the field, maintain 1500, traffic 1nm ahead is a Tobago What about: Track direct Liszt, cleared RNAV Zulu, RWY 12, sector entry, report established ?? Grouping information also helps in memory recall. E.g. a set of checklists may be grouped together to form a word (HASELL, PUFLR) 2. Memory

19 Types of Memory Long-term memory Once information has been interpreted and made relevant (i.e. adapted to an existing construct), it can be stored for a longer period of time (mins to decades) Studies show long term memory is stored as Procedural (meaning, how) and Declarative (factual) Long term memory is not always completely accurate. Constant revision of items will increase retention and accuracy of information 2. Memory

20 Problems with Memory Amnesia Total or partial loss of memory following brain injury Normally effects the event memory not the meaning memory, i.e. will be able speak logically and express correct emotions, but not be able to recall a particular event Neurological disorders Alzheimers Disease (most common form of dementia) Hyperthymesia (not really a problem…) Where one can recall the vast majority of personal experiences and events in his or her life and many insignificant things most would forget 2. Memory

21 3. Decision Making The Basic Process 1.Identify the decision/problem 2.Generate possible solutions 3.Analyse solutions 4.Decide on the solution most likely to succeed 5.Act on the decision 6.Receive feedback and if not satisfactory, repeat steps As you learn a new task, the decision making centre of the brain is very active - little time or resources can be devoted to outside stimuli E.g. listening to the instructor while learning to fly S&L As you become more proficient, the decision making centre is freed up for more complex tasks E.g learning navigation once you know how to fly the aeroplane

22 Problems Even when the decision maker has decided upon a particular task, the execution of the task may be incorrect E.g. the experienced airline captain who applies a correct checklist but at the incorrect time Multi-tasking is impossible The brain is a single-channel processor Some believe they are very good at multi-tasking, but the skill is in switching back and forth 3. Decision Making

23 Problems Response time and decision making time is enhanced by 1.Being fit, well rested, well prepared, practiced, relaxed 2.The amount of spare capability 3. Decision Making

24 Problems As one becomes overloaded, the brain begins to shed the load by focusing on only one task (tunnel vision) Emotions can play a strong role in decision making - the instinctive response E.g. a pilot learning how to flare will often flare too high in response to the emotional desire to prolong impact with the ground As a pilot, avoiding decisions can cause more stress E.g. Avoiding the arduous task of conducting a 1:60 on a navigation exercise will lead to being unaware of your position down the track. Stress is relieved by action – fight or flight 3. Decision Making

25 Problems External stress can bring on the need to act NOW - delayed action creates unpleasantness E.g. A pilot delays the decision to turn back when the cloud ahead is lowering. The cause is an illusion of cloud height and perceived distance from the aeroplane The result is being closed in under low cloud with nowhere to go Visual illusion caused by sloping terrain under a blanket cloud layer 3. Decision Making

26 Problems Destination-obsession can be very compelling and disastrous! Many fatal accidents continue to occur Visual illusions, by their very nature, create conflicting messages. The eyes send a message to the brain for interpretation that does not assimilate with existing knowledge E.g. False horizon caused by a layer of cloud beneath the aeroplane 3. Decision Making

27 Dangerous Personality Factors Dangerous personality factors in decision making include: Invulnerability: It wont happen to me! I know better! Anti-Authority: Itll be ok, just trust me Machoism: Its just a little bit of weather, lets not be soft! Were going to continue Impulsive: Lets give it a shot, see what happens Resignation: Well, looks like were in it! Not much we can do about it now! 3. Decision Making

28 Groupwork Factors Group decision making can have drawbacks. Studies have shown the following documented effects: Groupthink The groups seeks conformity, i.e. it wants agreement to form among individuals In order to achieve agreement, group members minimise conflict by foregoing their ideas and viewpoints Arguments are rare due to the team members loyalty for the group The group results in an idea/decision/motion that was not originally held by the individuals of the team. I.e. a distinct lack of individual creativity and independent thinking 3. Decision Making

29 Groupwork Factors (cont.) Group polarisation Tendency for groups to make more severe decisions than the individuals If the team members are inclined to be cautious, the overall group decision tends to be more cautious than if they were on their own (and vice-versa) The group's viewpoint may further change based on the intensified views of the individuals (more cautious or more risky) E.g. Main and Walker (1973) found that, when they examined the decisions of Federal district court judges sitting either alone or in groups of 3, in the 1,500 cases where judges sat alone, they took an extreme course of action only 30% of the time. When sitting in a group of 3, they took an extreme course of action 65% of the time. 3. Decision Making

30 Groupwork Factors (cont.) Diffusion of responsibility An individual is less likely to take responsibility for a result/action/inaction when they are surrounded by others. The individual seems to assume someone else has it under control Generally occurs when the group exceeds 3 people The Bystander Effect During early morning in March, 1964 Kitty Genovese, 28, made her way back to her New York apartment from work when she was stabbed to death. The attack lasted for at least 30mins during which Kitty screamed and pleaded for help. The murderer fled the scene after attracting attention of a neighbour, soon to return to finish the assault. Newspaper reports claimed that over a dozen witnesses had heard or observed part of the attack, yet failed to intervene or contact the police until after the attacker fled and Kitty had died 3. Decision Making

31 Sensory Overload Short Term (Sensory) Memory Excessive stimuli reduces the length of time one can hold new information (about 7 items for seconds) How many times have you missed most or all of a complex radio call from ATC? Central Decision Maker The brain as a single channel processor (one thing at a time) Pilots learn to switch between tasks E.g. changing the COMMS frequency while turning onto an assigned HDG Excessive or conflicting information will compromise the brains ability to prioritise and switch tasks, leading to stress and fatigue 3. Decision Making

32 Sensory Overload Central Decision Maker Example, Colgan Flight 3407: 3. Decision Making

33 4. Learning 3 Types of Learning Episodic Memory Stores information about events without any conscious effort. An unconscious collection of personal experiences and events Semantic memory Stored knowledge, meanings and understanding of concepts. Factual information and general knowledge about the world. Used to apply meaning to new information, promoting retention Motor memory Strengthening of neural pathways once a task has become repeated and practiced E.g. You know how to land the aeroplane as a result of learning the power setting (semantic) and the inputs on the control column (motor)

34 3 Types of Learning (cont.) Certain stimuli, such as a fright, will enhance memory retention E.g. the load factor in a spiral dive Motor memory is best stored through 3 phases: Learn, execute, practice Forgetting is simply an inability to recall learned information. Common causes: Improper storage (not understood) Not seeing the relevance Lack of recent recall Age Anxiety Fatigue 4. Learning

35 Chapter 6 Questions?


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