9 Christian Branches in Europe Fig. 6-2: Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe—a result of many historic interactions.
10 Eastern Orthodox 14 self governing sectors Tend to be located in East Europe40% belong to Russian Orthodox20% Romanian Orthodox10% Bulgarian , Greek, Serbian
11 Western Hemisphere 90% Christian Roman Catholic: 95% LA/ 25% NA Protestant 50% USBaptist, Methodist, Pentecostal and Lutheran
12 Christian Branches in the U.S. Fig. 6-3: Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
13 Other Christian sects Coptic Church Ethiopian Church Armenian Maronites in LebanonMormons
14 Islam Fastest growing Middle East and North Africa:50% Other areas: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Philippines and Nigeria
15 Branches of Islam Sunni 83% Shiite or Shia16% Iran, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan90% of Iran is ShiiteEurope: 3% France largest %
16 Nation of IslamBorn in 1930Desire of American blacks to be freed from White oppressionMembers of lost Islamic tribeFounded by Elijah Muhammad
17 Buddhism Mahayana: China, Japan and Korea Theravadists: Southeast Asia Tantrayanists: Tibet and Mongolia
18 Other UniversalizingSikhism: combines Hinduism and Islam/rejects formalismJainism: revolt against authority of early Hindu doctrinesBaha’i: founded in Iran universal faith
19 Ethnic Strong territorial and cultural ID Member by birth or adoption of life styleDistinctive closed communityDoes not seek converts
20 Hinduism Oldest religion 97% India Up to individual best way to worshipMono/Poly? All related to BrahmaNo founder or single holy book
21 HinduismAllegiance to a particular god70% Vishnu/Krishna25% Sivaism
22 Coexist with Buddhism Confucius: Correct behavior/roles in society Daoism (Taoism) in harmony with nature/ mystical and magical aspects: balance yin/yangShintoism: Japan forces of natureancestor worship/ emperor deity
23 Judaism 17 million Three branches Orthodox, Conservative and Reform 6 million in US/mostly in cities4 million in Israel
24 Variations in Distribution of Religions (1) Origin of religionsOrigin of universalizing religionsOrigin of HinduismDiffusion of religionsDiffusion of universalizing religionsLack of diffusion of ethnic religions
25 Origin of Christianity Founded upon teaching of JesusBorn Bethlehem 4 BC died 30ADFour gospels of followers documentPope heads the Church hierarchyGrace through sacramentsBelief in body and blood of Jesus in Eucharist
26 Christianity splitEastern Orthodox: rivalry between Pope of Rome and Patriarchy of Constantinople: final 1054Protestantism: ReformationMartin Luther posts theses in Wittenberg: grace through faith rather than sacraments
27 Origins of IslamTrace lineage through second wife of Abraham and son IshmaelWandered the desert reaching MakkahMuhammad born in Makkah:570 revelation from God through Gabriel
28 Islam Quran: God’s words as revealed to Muhammad Suffered persecution flee to MadinaAccepted in Madina: returns to Makkah with army and establish religion
29 Differences branchesDisagreement as to line of succession in Islamic leadershipShiites claim Ali descendents as leaders: cousin and son in law of MuhammedSunnis claim leadership by qualified not by lineage
30 DifferencesSunnis: effectiveness of family and community in solving life’s problemsShiite believe that imam sole source of true knowledge
31 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama: 563 BC in Nepal: son of a Lord; easy life Encountered aged, disease, corpseLeft age 29: enlightenment through meditationTheravada: wisdom: monastic: personalsalvation: good behaviorMahayana: compassion: Salvation can aided by superhuman sources of merit
32 other Sikhism: Guru Nanak traveled 500 years ago Nine other Gurus succeedFifth guru complied/edited book of scripturesRemains clustered in PunjabWhen India divided prefer to live in Hindu dominated India
33 Baha’iBegun in IranStrong opposition from Shiite Muslims: Bab executedBaha’u’llah prophet arrested and exiled to BaghdadAppointed his son/leader and interpreter of teaching
34 Hinduism Not originate from specific founder Term: 6th century BC refers to people in IndiaPrior to written history/earliest documents 1500BCAryans from Central Asia brought
35 Hinduism More of a way of life: worship in home is common Pilgrimages, rituals, festivalsFundamental doctrine karmaIdeal to move up hierarchy/ escape cycle of rebirth through union with BrahmanReincarnation
36 Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
37 Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
38 Christianity Diffusion Relocation diffusion: missionariescarry along Roman Empire routesCommercial towns and military settlements: Paul of TarsusContagious diffusion: Contact with believers
39 Diffusion Hierarchical diffusion: Emperor Constantine encouraged 312 Period of decline/fall of Roman empireKept alive in Ireland and Scotland
40 DiffusionContagious diffusion: Eastern Orthodox from Constantinople north and northeastProtestantism: both contagious and hierarchical as political leaders would convert
41 Diffusion Era of European colonialism Missionary activity: conversion and marriage
42 Diffusion of IslamFig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
43 Diffusion of IslamMuhammad’s successors organize armies: Conquer Africa, Asia and EuropeExtends from Morocco to India and from Turkey to Ethiopia
44 Diffusion Relocation: to Sub Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia Hierarchical: Arab traders to Indonesia and other areas: economic ties and cultural influence with leaders
45 Diffusion Spread into Christian strongholds creates conflict Iberian peninsula, Southeast Europe, Crusades
46 Diffusion of BuddhismFig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
47 DiffusionBuddhism 6th century: reaction to social hierarchy of HinduismSiddhartha Gautama: Salvation attained by anyone3rd century: Asoka a convertAsoka leader of large and powerful state
48 Diffusion Rule country in accordance with teaching of Buddha Sent missionaries to carry messageSpread to Sri Lanka, Tibet, east to China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam etc over span of 10 centuriesSri Lanka longest tradition
49 Diffusion Merchants along trading routes Chinese rulers allow monks and translationsDeclines in region of origin
50 Diffusion of Ethnic Religions Lack missionaries devoted to conversionUniversalizing mingle with themAfrican traditions added to Christianity and IslamBuddhism mingle with Shinto and Daoism
51 Diffusion of HinduismBorn in Western part of India (Pakistan) and spread eastwardFirst attach itself to traditional faiths and then supplant themAssimilate teachings into ownEmergence of compromise religion
52 HinduismDid disseminate into Southeast Asia but was overtaken by othersIsland of Bali remains Hindu refuge when Islam engulfed JavaDeveloped Syncretic faith: Hindu, Buddhist, animist and ancestorFew nonIndian conversions
53 Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
54 Judaism Most Jews not lived in Eastern Med since 70AD Romans force DiasporaMost to Europe a few to North Africa and Asia
55 Variations in Distribution of Religions (2) Holy placesHoly places in universalizing religionsHoly places in ethnic religionsThe calendarThe calendar in ethnic religionsThe calendar in universalizing religions
56 Holy places Ethnic: less widespread/derive from physical environment Universalizing: cites and places associated with founder’s lifePilgrimages both sacred/Hindus and Muslims especially
57 Holy places in Universalizing Buddhism and Islam place emphasis on identifying shines
58 Holy Sites in BuddhismFig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.
67 Makkah Birthplace of Muhammad Holiest object: Ka’ba Built by Abraham and IshmaelContains black stone given to Abraham by Gabriel as a sign of covenant with Ishmael and the Muslim people
68 Madinah Muhammad received his first support Muhammad’s tomb here Every one is expected to undertake a pilgramage to Mecca
69 Hindu Holy PlacesFig. 6-11: Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.
70 Hinduism Tied to physical geography Natural features among holiest shrines: riverbanks or coastlinesPilgrimage: act of purification: achieve redemption: bathing in holy riversGanges: connection to SivaImportance of shrines by tradition not doctrine
71 Cosmogony: set of beliefs concerning the origin of universe Chinese: balance of yin and yangChristianity and Islam: God created the universe: physical and humanChristians: Earth given to finish task of creationIslam: Humans representatives of God but not partners
72 Some viewsDevelopment of wilderness way to serve God/ Use of Earth’s natural resourcesMay regard natural disasters as punishments for sinsOr view environmental hazards as normal and unavoidable
73 Calendar in Ethnic Celebration of the seasons Critical for successful agricultureRituals for favorable environmental conditions or give thanks for success
74 Jewish calendar Ethnic: based on agriculture of Israel Grains planted in autumn: Time of hope and worry. Rosh Hashanah and Yom KippurSukkoth: final gathering and preparation for next year
75 JewishPesach: Passover: offered God first fruits of new harvest and sacrifice a young animalShavuot: comes at end of the grain harvest
76 Jewish calendar Tied to Exodus of Jews from Egypt Pesach: liberation/Sukkot:wandering/ booths Shavuot: 10 comandmentsIsrael: Uses the lunar calendar: 350 days/appearance of new moonAdd extra month seven out of every 19 years for holidays
77 JewishPesach: Passover: offered God first fruits of new harvest and sacrifice a young animal
78 Solstice Longest day or shortest day Significance for ethnic Relgions Stonehenge: Southwest England: DruidsWashington DC
79 Islamic Calendar Strict lunar calendar Muslim holidays arrive at different seasonsRamadan
80 Christian, Buddhist and Sikh Holidays Protestant and Roman Catholic: Gregorian calendarEastern Orthodox uses Julian calendarEaster: first full moon following the spring equinoxChristmas: Northern hemisphere winterDifferent conditions for different areas
81 Buddhist holidays Birth Enlightment Death Not everyone celebrates on same day
82 Organization of Space Places of worship Sacred space Christian worshipPlaces of worship in other religionsSacred spaceDisposing of the deadReligious settlementsReligious place namesAdministration of spaceHierarchical religionsLocally autonomous religions
83 Christian churches Gathering of believers Expression of religious principlesAttendance considered importantTraditionally: prominent position in communityExpense is a factor
92 Buddhist and Shintoist Pagodas Prominent and visually attractiveTall many sided towers, tiers, balconies and slanting roofsMay contain relics of BuddhaNot designed for congregational worshipIndividual prayer or meditation
93 Disposing of the DeadBurial: Christians, Muslims and Jews in a designated areaMay be aligned in a traditional directionTraditionally used cemeteries as public open spaceChina encouraged cremation
94 Other MethodsHindus: generally practice cremation: act of purificationUsed in Europe before ChristianityFree soul from the body: nomads unwilling to leave dead behindZoroastrians/Tibetans exposure of dead
95 Place Names in QuébecFig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.
96 Hierarchical Well defined geographic structure and organizes territory Roman Catholic Pope, Archbishops, Bishops, PriestIndividual parishes work closely with centrally located officialsLatter Day Saints: Strong organization wards, stake, board and president
97 Growth Roman Catholic Southwest and suburbs Declining in inner cities and rural areasMormons: wards
98 Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. Fig. 6-13: The Catholic Church divides the U.S. into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces are divided into dioceses, headed by bishops.
99 Local AutonomyIslam: neither religious hierarchy nor formal territorial organizationLink of religious territory with secular states: more explicit commandsGovernments may include administrators interpret law
100 Islam High degree of communication and migration: pilgrimage to Makkah Uniformity is fostered by Islamic doctrine: Islamic schools
101 Protestant Extremely autonomous to somewhat hierarchical Baptist and United Church of ChristPresbyterian intermediateEpisocopalian, Lutheran and Methodist: similar to Roman Catholic
102 EthnicJudaism and Hinduism no centralized structure of religious controlJudaism: only 10 adult malesHinduism in home
103 Religious Conflicts Religion vs. government policies Religion vs. social changeReligion vs. CommunismReligion vs. religionReligious wars in the Middle EastReligious wars in Ireland
104 JerusalemFig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
105 Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-15: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.
106 The West Bank: Political and Physical Geography Fig. 6-16: Political control of the West Bank has been split between Palestinians and Israelis (though under overall Israeli control). The West Bank includes many of the higher altitude areas of the region.
107 Israel’s Security Zone in Lebanon Fig : Israel established a security zone in southern Lebanon in When Israel withdrew in 2000, the UN helped draw the boundary between the countries.
108 Protestants in Northern Ireland Fig. 6-17: Percent Protestant population by district in Ireland, When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.
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