Christian Branches in Europe Fig. 6-2: Protestant denominations, Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europea result of many historic interactions.
Eastern Orthodox 14 self governing sectors Tend to be located in East Europe 40% belong to Russian Orthodox 20% Romanian Orthodox 10% Bulgarian, Greek, Serbian
Western Hemisphere 90% Christian Roman Catholic: 95% LA/ 25% NA Protestant 50% US –Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostal and Lutheran
Christian Branches in the U.S. Fig. 6-3: Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
Other Christian sects Coptic Church Ethiopian Church Armenian Maronites in Lebanon Mormons
Islam Fastest growing Middle East and North Africa:50% Other areas: Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Philippines and Nigeria
Branches of Islam Sunni 83% Shiite or Shia16% Iran, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan 90% of Iran is Shiite Europe: 3% France largest %
Nation of Islam Born in 1930 Desire of American blacks to be freed from White oppression Members of lost Islamic tribe Founded by Elijah Muhammad
Buddhism Mahayana: China, Japan and Korea Theravadists: Southeast Asia Tantrayanists: Tibet and Mongolia
Other Universalizing Sikhism: combines Hinduism and Islam/rejects formalism Jainism: revolt against authority of early Hindu doctrines Bahai: founded in Iran universal faith
Ethnic Strong territorial and cultural ID Member by birth or adoption of life style Distinctive closed community Does not seek converts
Hinduism Oldest religion 97% India Up to individual best way to worship Mono/Poly? All related to Brahma No founder or single holy book
Hinduism Allegiance to a particular god 70% Vishnu/Krishna 25% Sivaism
Coexist with Buddhism Confucius: Correct behavior/roles in society Daoism (Taoism) in harmony with nature/ mystical and magical aspects: balance yin/yang Shintoism: Japan forces of nature ancestor worship/ emperor deity
Judaism 17 million Three branches Orthodox, Conservative and Reform 6 million in US/mostly in cities 4 million in Israel
Variations in Distribution of Religions (1) Origin of religions –Origin of universalizing religions –Origin of Hinduism Diffusion of religions –Diffusion of universalizing religions –Lack of diffusion of ethnic religions
Origin of Christianity Founded upon teaching of Jesus Born Bethlehem 4 BC died 30AD Four gospels of followers document Pope heads the Church hierarchy Grace through sacraments Belief in body and blood of Jesus in Eucharist
Christianity split Eastern Orthodox: rivalry between Pope of Rome and Patriarchy of Constantinople: final 1054 Protestantism: Reformation Martin Luther posts theses in Wittenberg: grace through faith rather than sacraments
Origins of Islam Trace lineage through second wife of Abraham and son Ishmael Wandered the desert reaching Makkah Muhammad born in Makkah:570 revelation from God through Gabriel
Islam Quran: Gods words as revealed to Muhammad Suffered persecution flee to Madina Accepted in Madina: returns to Makkah with army and establish religion
Differences branches Disagreement as to line of succession in Islamic leadership Shiites claim Ali descendents as leaders: cousin and son in law of Muhammed Sunnis claim leadership by qualified not by lineage
Differences Sunnis: effectiveness of family and community in solving lifes problems Shiite believe that imam sole source of true knowledge
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama: 563 BC in Nepal: son of a Lord; easy life Encountered aged, disease, corpse Left age 29: enlightenment through meditation Theravada: wisdom: monastic: personal salvation: good behavior Mahayana: compassion: Salvation can aided by superhuman sources of merit
other Sikhism: Guru Nanak traveled 500 years ago Nine other Gurus succeed Fifth guru complied/edited book of scriptures Remains clustered in Punjab When India divided prefer to live in Hindu dominated India
Bahai Begun in Iran Strong opposition from Shiite Muslims: Bab executed Bahaullah prophet arrested and exiled to Baghdad Appointed his son/leader and interpreter of teaching
Hinduism Not originate from specific founder Term: 6 th century BC refers to people in India Prior to written history/earliest documents 1500BC Aryans from Central Asia brought
Hinduism More of a way of life: worship in home is common Pilgrimages, rituals, festivals Fundamental doctrine karma Ideal to move up hierarchy/ escape cycle of rebirth through union with Brahman Reincarnation
Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
Christianity Diffusion Relocation diffusion: missionaries carry along Roman Empire routes Commercial towns and military settlements: Paul of Tarsus Contagious diffusion: Contact with believers
Diffusion Hierarchical diffusion: Emperor Constantine encouraged 312 Period of decline/fall of Roman empire Kept alive in Ireland and Scotland
Diffusion Contagious diffusion: Eastern Orthodox from Constantinople north and northeast Protestantism: both contagious and hierarchical as political leaders would convert
Diffusion Era of European colonialism Missionary activity: conversion and marriage
Diffusion of Islam Fig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
Diffusion of Islam Muhammads successors organize armies: Conquer Africa, Asia and Europe Extends from Morocco to India and from Turkey to Ethiopia
Diffusion Relocation: to Sub Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia Hierarchical: Arab traders to Indonesia and other areas: economic ties and cultural influence with leaders
Diffusion Spread into Christian strongholds creates conflict Iberian peninsula, Southeast Europe, Crusades
Diffusion of Buddhism Fig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
Diffusion Buddhism 6 th century: reaction to social hierarchy of Hinduism Siddhartha Gautama: Salvation attained by anyone 3 rd century: Asoka a convert Asoka leader of large and powerful state
Diffusion Rule country in accordance with teaching of Buddha Sent missionaries to carry message Spread to Sri Lanka, Tibet, east to China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam etc over span of 10 centuries Sri Lanka longest tradition
Diffusion Merchants along trading routes Chinese rulers allow monks and translations Declines in region of origin
Diffusion of Ethnic Religions Lack missionaries devoted to conversion Universalizing mingle with them African traditions added to Christianity and Islam Buddhism mingle with Shinto and Daoism
Diffusion of Hinduism Born in Western part of India (Pakistan) and spread eastward First attach itself to traditional faiths and then supplant them Assimilate teachings into own Emergence of compromise religion
Hinduism Did disseminate into Southeast Asia but was overtaken by others Island of Bali remains Hindu refuge when Islam engulfed Java Developed Syncretic faith: Hindu, Buddhist, animist and ancestor Few nonIndian conversions
Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
Judaism Most Jews not lived in Eastern Med since 70AD Romans force Diaspora Most to Europe a few to North Africa and Asia
Variations in Distribution of Religions (2) Holy places –Holy places in universalizing religions –Holy places in ethnic religions The calendar –The calendar in ethnic religions –The calendar in universalizing religions
Holy places Ethnic: less widespread/derive from physical environment Universalizing: cites and places associated with founders life Pilgrimages both sacred/Hindus and Muslims especially
Holy places in Universalizing Buddhism and Islam place emphasis on identifying shines
Holy Sites in Buddhism Fig. 6-9: Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddhas life and are clustered in northeastern India and southern Nepal.
Mecca, Islams Holiest City Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and is the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.
Places of Worship
Makkah Birthplace of Muhammad Holiest object: Kaba Built by Abraham and Ishmael Contains black stone given to Abraham by Gabriel as a sign of covenant with Ishmael and the Muslim people
Madinah Muhammad received his first support Muhammads tomb here Every one is expected to undertake a pilgramage to Mecca
Hindu Holy Places Fig. 6-11: Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.
Hinduism Tied to physical geography Natural features among holiest shrines: riverbanks or coastlines Pilgrimage: act of purification: achieve redemption: bathing in holy rivers Ganges: connection to Siva Importance of shrines by tradition not doctrine
Cosmogony: set of beliefs concerning the origin of universe Chinese: balance of yin and yang Christianity and Islam: God created the universe: physical and human Christians: Earth given to finish task of creation Islam: Humans representatives of God but not partners
Some views Development of wilderness way to serve God/ Use of Earths natural resources May regard natural disasters as punishments for sins Or view environmental hazards as normal and unavoidable
Calendar in Ethnic Celebration of the seasons Critical for successful agriculture Rituals for favorable environmental conditions or give thanks for success
Jewish calendar Ethnic: based on agriculture of Israel Grains planted in autumn: Time of hope and worry. Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur Sukkoth: final gathering and preparation for next year
Jewish Pesach: Passover: offered God first fruits of new harvest and sacrifice a young animal Shavuot: comes at end of the grain harvest
Jewish calendar Tied to Exodus of Jews from Egypt Pesach: liberation/Sukkot:wandering/ booths Shavuot: 10 comandments Israel: Uses the lunar calendar: 350 days/appearance of new moon Add extra month seven out of every 19 years for holidays
Jewish Pesach: Passover: offered God first fruits of new harvest and sacrifice a young animal
Solstice Longest day or shortest day Significance for ethnic Relgions Stonehenge: Southwest England: Druids Washington DC
Islamic Calendar Strict lunar calendar Muslim holidays arrive at different seasons Ramadan
Christian, Buddhist and Sikh Holidays Protestant and Roman Catholic: Gregorian calendar Eastern Orthodox uses Julian calendar Easter: first full moon following the spring equinox Christmas: Northern hemisphere winter Different conditions for different areas
Buddhist holidays Birth Enlightment Death Not everyone celebrates on same day
Organization of Space Places of worship –Christian worship –Places of worship in other religions Sacred space –Disposing of the dead –Religious settlements –Religious place names Administration of space –Hierarchical religions –Locally autonomous religions
Christian churches Gathering of believers Expression of religious principles Attendance considered important Traditionally: prominent position in community Expense is a factor
Church Architecture Modeled after Roman buildings Gothic: floor plan in form of a cross Reflect cultural values Eastern Orthodox: ornate Protestant may be asture Availability of materials
Mosque Space for community assembly Not viewed as sanctified Usually in larger cites Organized around a central courtyard Minaret are distinctive
Hindu Sacred structures for collective worship not as important Religious functions can take place at home Temple: serves as a home to one or more gods
Buddhist and Shintoist Pagodas Prominent and visually attractive Tall many sided towers, tiers, balconies and slanting roofs May contain relics of Buddha Not designed for congregational worship Individual prayer or meditation
Disposing of the Dead Burial: Christians, Muslims and Jews in a designated area May be aligned in a traditional direction Traditionally used cemeteries as public open space China encouraged cremation
Other Methods Hindus: generally practice cremation: act of purification Used in Europe before Christianity Free soul from the body: nomads unwilling to leave dead behind Zoroastrians/Tibetans exposure of dead
Place Names in Québec Fig. 6-12: Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns are named after saints.
Hierarchical Well defined geographic structure and organizes territory Roman Catholic Pope, Archbishops, Bishops, Priest Individual parishes work closely with centrally located officials Latter Day Saints: Strong organization wards, stake, board and president
Growth Roman Catholic Southwest and suburbs Declining in inner cities and rural areas Mormons: wards
Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. Fig. 6-13: The Catholic Church divides the U.S. into provinces headed by archbishops. Provinces are divided into dioceses, headed by bishops.
Local Autonomy Islam: neither religious hierarchy nor formal territorial organization Link of religious territory with secular states: more explicit commands Governments may include administrators interpret law
Islam High degree of communication and migration: pilgrimage to Makkah Uniformity is fostered by Islamic doctrine: Islamic schools
Protestant Extremely autonomous to somewhat hierarchical Baptist and United Church of Christ Presbyterian intermediate Episocopalian, Lutheran and Methodist: similar to Roman Catholic
Ethnic Judaism and Hinduism no centralized structure of religious control Judaism: only 10 adult males Hinduism in home
Religious Conflicts Religion vs. government policies –Religion vs. social change –Religion vs. Communism Religion vs. religion –Religious wars in the Middle East –Religious wars in Ireland
Jerusalem Fig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel Fig. 6-15: The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted with the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War.
The West Bank: Political and Physical Geography Fig. 6-16: Political control of the West Bank has been split between Palestinians and Israelis (though under overall Israeli control). The West Bank includes many of the higher altitude areas of the region.
Israels Security Zone in Lebanon Fig : Israel established a security zone in southern Lebanon in When Israel withdrew in 2000, the UN helped draw the boundary between the countries.
Protestants in Northern Ireland Fig. 6-17: Percent Protestant population by district in Ireland, When Ireland became independent in 1937, 26 northern districts with large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the United Kingdom.