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Qualifying Examination A Decentralized Location and Routing Infrastructure for Fault-tolerant Wide-area Applications John Kubiatowicz (Chair)Satish Rao.

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Presentation on theme: "Qualifying Examination A Decentralized Location and Routing Infrastructure for Fault-tolerant Wide-area Applications John Kubiatowicz (Chair)Satish Rao."— Presentation transcript:

1 Qualifying Examination A Decentralized Location and Routing Infrastructure for Fault-tolerant Wide-area Applications John Kubiatowicz (Chair)Satish Rao Anthony JosephJohn Chuang

2 Outline Motivation Tapestry Overview Examining Alternatives Preliminary Evaluation Research Plan

3 New Challenges in Wide-Area Trends: –Moores Law growth in CPU, b/w, storage –Network expanding in reach and bandwidth –Applications poised to leverage network growth Scalability: # of users, requests, traffic Expect failures everywhere –10 6 s of components MTBF decreases geometrically Self-management –Intermittent resources single centralized management policy not enough Proposal: solve these issues at infrastructure level so applications can inherit properties transparently

4 Clustering for Scale Pros: –Easy monitor of faults –LAN communication Low latency High bandwidth –Shared state –Simple load-balancing Cons: –Centralized failure: Single outgoing link Single power source Geographic locality –Limited scalability Outgoing bandwidth Power Space / ventilation

5 Global Computation Model Leverage proliferation of cheap computing resources: cpus, storage, b/w Global self-adaptive system –Utilize resources wherever possible –Localize effects of single failures –No single point of vulnerability Robust, adaptive, persistent

6 Global Applications? Fully distributed share of resources –Storage: OceanStore, Freenet –Computation: SETI, Entropia –Network bandwidth: multicast, content distribution Deployment: application-level protocol Redundancy at every level –Storage –Network bandwidth –Computation

7 Key: Routing and Location Network scale stress on location / routing layer Wide-area decentralized location and routing on an overlay Properties abstracted in such a layer –Scalability: million nodes, billion objects –Availability: survive routine faults –Dynamic Operation: self-configuring, adaptive –Locality: minimize system-wide operations –Load balanced operation

8 Research Issues Tradeoffs in performance vs. overhead costs –Overlay routing efficiency vs. routing pointer storage –Location locality vs. location pointer storage –Fault-tolerance and availability vs. storage, bandwidth used Performance stability via redundancy Not: –Application consistency issues –Application level load partitioning

9 Outline Motivation Tapestry Overview Examining Alternatives Preliminary Evaluation Research Plan

10 What is Tapestry A prototype of a dynamic, scalable, fault-tolerant location and routing infrastructure Suffix-based hypercube routing –Core system inspired by PRR97 Publish by reference Core API: –publishObject(ObjectID, [serverID]) –msgToObject(ObjectID) –msgToNode(NodeID)

11 Design Goals Scalability –Millions of nodes, billions of objects Self-configuration / Dynamic operation –Dynamic insertion –Surrogate Routing Fault-resilience / Self-maintenance –Transparent operation despite failures Exploit redundancy for performance stability

12 Plaxton, Rajamaran, Richa 97 Overlay network with randomly distributed IDs –Server (where objects are stored) –Client (which want to search/contact objects) –Router (which forwards messages from other nodes) Combined location and routing –Servers publish / advertise objects they maintain –Messages route to nearest server given object ID Assume global network knowledge

13 Basic Routing 005712 012 3 45 6 7 340880 012 3 45 6 7 943210 012 3 45 6 7 834510 012 3 45 6 7 387510 012 3 45 6 7 727510 012 3 45 6 7 627510 012 3 45 6 7 Example: Octal digits, 2 18 namespace, 005712 627510 005712 340880 943210 387510 834510 727510 627510

14 Publish / Location Each object has associated root node, e.g. identity f( ) Root keeps a pointer to objects location Object O stored at server S –S routes to Root(O) –Each hop keeps in index database Client routes to Root(O), route to S when found R C S

15 Whats New PRR97 Benefits: –Simple fault-handling –Scalable: state: bLog b (N), hops: Log b (N) b=digit base, N= |namespace| –Exploits locality –Proportional route distance Limitations –Global knowledge algorithms –Root node vulnerability –Lack of adaptability Tapestry Inherited: –Scalability –Exploits locality –Proportional route distance New: –Distributed algorithms –Redundancy for fault-tolerance –Redundancy for performance –Self-configuring / adaptive

16 Fault-resilience Minimized soft-state vs. explicit fault-recovery Routing –Redundant backup routing pointers –Soft-state neighbor probe packets Location –Soft-state periodic republish 50 million files/node, daily republish, b = 16, N = 2 160, 40B/msg, worst case update traffic 156 kb/s, expected traffic for network w/ 2 40 nodes 39 kb/s –Hash objectIDs for multiple roots P(findingReference w/ partition) = 1 – (1/2) n where n = # of roots

17 Dynamic Surrogate Routing Real networks much smaller than namespace –sparseness in the network Routing to non-existent node (or, defining f: (N) (n), where N = namespace, n = set of nodes in network ) Example: Routing to root node of object O Need mapping from N n

18 PRR97 Approach to f(N i ) Given desired ID N i, –Find set S of nodes in existing network nodes n matching most # of suffix digits with N i –Choose S i = node in S with highest valued ID Issues: –Mapping must be generated statically using global knowledge –Must be kept as hard state in order to operate in changing environment –Mapping is not well distributed, many nodes in n get no mappings

19 Tapestry Approach to f(N i ) Globally consistent distributed algorithm: –Attempt to route to desired ID N i –Whenever null entry encountered, choose next higher non-null pointer entry –If current node S is only non-null pointer in rest of route map, terminate route, f(N i ) = S Assumes: –Routing maps across network are up to date –Null/non-null properties identical at all nodes sharing same suffix

20 Analysis of Tapestry Algorithm Globally consistent deterministic mapping Null entry no node in network with suffix consistent map identical null entries across same route maps of nodes w/ same suffix Additional hops compared to PRR solution: Reduce to coupon collector problem Assuming random distribution With n ln(n) + cn entries, P(all coupons)= 1-e -c For n=b, c=b-ln(b), P(b 2 nodes left) = 1-b/e b = 1.8 10 -6 # of additional hops Log b (b 2 ) = 2 Distributed algorithm with minimal additional hops

21 What if Not consistent? Two cases –A. If a node disappeared, and some node did not detect it. Routing proceeds on invalid link, fails No backup router, so proceed to surrogate routing –B. If a node entered, has not been detected, then go to surrogate node instead of existing node New node checks with surrogate after all such nodes have been notified Route info at surrogate is moved to new node

22 Properties of Overlay Logical hops through overlay per route Routing state per overlay node Overlay routing distance vs. underlying network –Relative Delay Penalty (RDP) Messages for insertion Load balancing

23 Alternatives: P2P Indices Current Solutions: –DNS server redirection, DNS peering Content Addressable Networks –Ratnasamy et al., ACIRI / UCB Chord –Stoica, Morris, Karger, Kaashoek, Balakrishnan MIT Pastry –Druschel and Rowstron Microsoft Research

24 Comparing the Alternatives Properties –Parameter –Logical Path Length –Neighbor-state –Routing Overhead (RDP) –Messages to insert –Consistency –Load-balancing TAP. ChordCANPastry Log b (N) Log 2 (N) O(d*N 1/d ) O(d) Base b bLog b (N) O(1) O(1) ? App-dep. EventualEpoch ??? Good Log b (N) Log 2 (N) NoneDimen dBase b bLog b (N)+O(b) O(Log 2 2 (N)) O(d*N 1/d ) Good O(Log b 2 (N))O(Log b (N)) Designed for P2P Systems

25 Outline Motivation Tapestry Overview Examining Alternatives Preliminary Evaluation Research Plan

26 Evaluation Metrics Routing distance overhead (RDP) Routing redundancy fault-tolerance –Availability of objects and references –Message delivery under link/router failures –Overhead of fault-handling Locality vs. storage overhead Optimality of dynamic insertion Performance stability via redundancy

27 Results: Location Locality Measuring effectiveness of locality pointers (TIERS 5000)

28 Results: Stability via Redundancy Impact of parallel queries on multiple roots on response time and its variability. Aggregate bandwidth measures b/w used for softstate republish 1/day and b/w used by requests at rate of 1/s.

29 Application-level multicast –Leverages Tapestry for scale fault-tolerance –Optimizations Self-configuring into sub-trees Group ID clusters for lower b/w Example Application: Bayeux Root --10 -010 --00 ---0 -110 -100 -000 0010 1110

30 Research Scope Effectiveness as application infrastructure –Build new novel apps –Port existing apps to scale to wide-area Use simulations to better understand parameters effects on overall performance Explore further stability via statistics Understand / map out research space Outside scope: –DoS resiliency –Streaming media, P2P, content-distribution apps

31 Timeline 0-5 months Simulation/analysis of parameters impact on performance Quantify approaches to exploit routing redundancy, analyze via simulation Finish deployment of real dynamic Tapestry Consider alternate mechanisms –Learn from consistent hashing

32 Timeline 5-10 months Extend deployment to wide-area networks –Nortel, EMC, academic institutions –Evaluate real world performance Design and implement network-embedded SDS (w/ T. Hodes) Optimizing routing by fault prediction –Integrate link-characterization work (Konrad) Start writing dissertation

33 Timeline 10-13 months Finish writing dissertation Travel / Interviews Graduate

34 Chord Distributed hashtable State: Log 2 (N) ptrs Hops: Log 2 (N) Key: –Correlation between overlay distance and physical distance occurs over time 0 16 8 4 2 1

35 CAN Distributed hashtable addressed in d dimension coordinate space State: O(d) Hops: expected O(dn 1/d ) Key: –Lack of network distance correlation partially offset by heuristics & redundancy –Soft-state immutable objects, consistency by epochs?

36 Pastry Incremental digit routing like Plaxton Object replicated at x nodes closest to objects ID State: b(Log b N)+O(b) Hops: O(Log b N) Key: –Does not exploit locality well –Infrastructure controls replicates and their placement –Questions of security, confidentiality, consistency? (Immutable objects?)

37 Algorithm: Dynamic Insertion New node desires integration w/ ID xxxxx Step 1: copy route map recursively ----x ---xx -xxxx --xxx

38 Dynamic Insertion cont. Step 2: Get relevant data from surrogate inform edge nodes of your existence Step 3: Notify neighbors to optimize paths surrogate --xxx.......

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