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Presentation on theme: "GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES Chapter 25"— Presentation transcript:

Manufacturing Processes, 1311 Dr Simin Nasseri Southern Polytechnic State University

2 Material Removal Processes
A family of shaping operations, the common feature of which is removal of material from a starting workpart so the remaining part has the desired geometry. Material Removal Machining – material removal by a sharp cutting tool, e.g., turning, milling, drilling. Abrasive processes – material removal by hard, abrasive particles, e.g., grinding. Nontraditional processes - various energy forms other than sharp cutting tool to remove material, e.g. electrochemical and thermal energy processes.

3 Machining Processes Planing Traditional Chip Removal
Nontraditional Machining Ultrasonic Electrical Discharge Electro-arc Optical Lasers Electrochemical Chem-milling Abrasive Jet Cutting Electron Beam Machining Plasma Arc Machining Turning Milling Drilling Boring Reaming Shaping Sawing Broaching Planing Grinding Honing Lapping

4 Abrasive Machining Material removal by action of hard, abrasive particles usually in the form of a bonded wheel Generally used as finishing operations after part geometry has been established by conventional machining Grinding is most important abrasive process Other abrasive processes: honing, lapping, superfinishing, polishing, and buffing

5 Why Abrasive Processes are Important
Can be used on all types of materials Some can produce extremely fine surface finishes, to m (1 -in) Some can hold dimensions to extremely close tolerances

6 Grinding Material removal process in which abrasive particles are contained in a wheel that operates at very high surface speeds.

7 Figure 25.1 Typical structure of a grinding wheel.
Wheel Structure The grinding wheel: is usually disk‑shaped and precisely balanced for high rotational speeds. Consists of abrasive particles and bonding material. Abrasive particles accomplish cutting. Bonding material holds particles in place and establishes shape and structure of wheel. Figure Typical structure of a grinding wheel.

8 Abrasive Material Properties
High hardness Wear resistance Toughness Friability - capacity to fracture when cutting edge dulls, so a new sharp edge is exposed

9 Traditional Abrasive Materials
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) ‑ most common abrasive Used to grind steel and other ferrous high‑strength alloys Silicon carbide (SiC) ‑ harder than Al2O3 but not as tough Used on aluminum, brass, stainless steel, some cast irons and certain ceramics

10 Hardness of Abrasive Materials
Abrasive material Knoop hardness Aluminum oxide Silicon carbide Cubic boron nitride Diamond (synthetic)

11 Surface Finish Two main categories of grinding:
Most grinding is performed to achieve good surface finish Best surface finish is achieved by: Small grain sizes Higher wheel speeds Denser wheel structure = more grits per wheel area Two main categories of grinding: Surface grinding Cylindrical grinding

12 Four Types of Surface Grinding
Figure 25.7 (a) Horizontal spindle with reciprocating worktable, (b) horizontal spindle with rotating worktable, (c) vertical spindle with reciprocating worktable, (d) vertical spindle with rotating worktable.

13 Surface Grinder Figure Surface grinder with horizontal spindle and reciprocating worktable (most common grinder type).

14 Cylindrical Grinding Figure Two types of cylindrical grinding: (a) external, and (b) internal.

15 Other Abrasive Processes
Honing Lapping Superfinishing

16 Honing Abrasive process performed by a set of bonded abrasive sticks using a combination of rotational and oscillatory motions. Creates a characteristic cross‑hatched surface that retains lubrication. Grit sizes range between 30 and 600. Surface finishes of 0.12 m (5 -in) or better. Figure The honing process: (a) the honing tool used for internal bore surface.

17 Honing Common application is to finish the bores of internal combustion engines.

18 Figure 25.17 The lapping process in lens‑making.
Uses fluid suspension of very small abrasive particles between workpiece and lap (tool). Lapping compound - fluid with abrasives, general appearance of a chalky paste. Applications: optical lenses, metallic bearing surfaces, gages. Figure The lapping process in lens‑making.

19 Superfinishing Similar to honing - uses bonded abrasive stick pressed against surface and reciprocating motion Differences with honing: * Shorter strokes * Higher frequencies * Lower pressures between tool and surface * Smaller grit sizes Figure Superfinishing on an external cylindrical surface.


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