4DEFINITION Working drawing is a set of drawing used during the work of making a product.Working drawingDetaildrawingAssembly
5DEFINITIONDetail drawing is a multiview representation of a single part with dimensions and notes.Assembly drawing is a drawing of variousparts of a machine or structure assembled in their relative working positions.
6PURPOSEDetail drawing conveys the information and instructions for manufacturing the part.Assembly drawing conveys1. completed shape of the product.2. overall dimensions.3. relative position of each part.4. functional relationship among various components.
8INFORMATION IN DETAIL DRAWING 1. General informationTitle block2. Part’ s information2.1 Shape descriptionObject’sviews2.2 Size description2.3 SpecificationsNotes
9GENERAL INFORMATION Name of company Title of drawing (usually part’s name)Drawing sheet numberName of drafter, checkerRelevant dates of action (drawn, checked, approved etc.)Revision tableUnitScaleMethod of projection
10PART’ S INFORMATION Shape Orthographic drawing Size Pictorial drawingSizeDimensions and TolerancesSpecificationsPart number, name, number requiredType of material usedGeneral notesHeat treatmentSurface finishGeneral tolerances
11RECOMMENDED PRACTICE Draw one part to one sheet of paper. If not the case,- apply enough spacing between parts.draw all parts using the same scale.Otherwise, the scale should be clearly note under each part’s drawing.Standard parts such as bolt, nut, pin, bearingdo not require detail drawings.
12PLACING AN INFORMATION (This course)Completed dimensionorthographic drawingPart No., Part name, material, Number requiredNotesTitle blockUnit, fillets & rounds sizes etc.
15TYPES OF ASSEMBLY DRAWING 1. Exploded assembly drawingsThe parts are separately display, but they are aligned according to their assembly positions and sequences.2. General assembly drawings.All parts are drawn in their working position.3. Detail assembly drawingsAll parts are drawn in their working position with acompleted dimensions.
22REQUIRED INFORMATION IN GENERAL ASSEMBLY DRAWING 1. All parts, drawn in their operating position.2. Part list (or bill of materials, BOM)Item numberDescriptive nameMaterial, MATL.Quantity required (per a unit of machine), QTY.3. Leader lines with balloons around part numbers.4. Machining and assembly operations and critical dimensions related to operation of the machine.
23PLACING AN INFORMATION (This course)- Assembled parts- Reference numbersPart listGeneral notesTitle block
24PART LIST (BOM) (This course) Locate above or beside the title block. Fill the table from the bottom.3SET SCREW1Stainless Steel,M3 HEX SOCK CUP PT2SHAFT1Stainless Steel1SUPPORT2Cast IronNO.PART NAMEREQD.MATL. & NOTE
26STEPS TO CREATE ASSEMBLY DRAWING 1. Analyze geometry and dimensions of all parts in order to understand the assembly steps and overall shape of device or machine.2. Select an appropriate view.3. Choose major parts, i.e. parts that haveseveral parts assembled on.4. Draw a view of major parts according to aselected viewing direction.
27STEPS TO CREATE ASSEMBLY DRAWING 5. Add detail view of the remaining parts at theirworking positions.6. Apply section technique where relativepositions between adjacent parts are neededto clarify.7. Add balloons, notes and dimensions (if any).8. Create BOM.
28GENERAL PRACTICE The number of views can be one, two, three or more as needed, but it should be minimum.A good viewing direction is that represents all(or most) of the parts assembled in their workingposition.
29EXAMPLE : Selection of a necessary view GivenPart APart BStudent AStudent BWhich is an appropriate view for assembly drawing ?
30GENERAL PRACTICEHidden lines usually omit unless they are absolutely necessary to illustrate someimportant feature that the reader mightotherwise miss.
31EXAMPLE : Hidden lines omit or not ? Part APart BBCGoodPoor
32EXAMPLE : Hidden lines omit or not ? Part APart BABGoodPoor
33EXAMPLE : Hidden lines omit or not ? Part APart BABGoodPoor
34GENERAL PRACTICE Section technique is usually need to clarify mating of the parts.Use different section line styles for adjacent parts.Part APart BCorrectBetterColorOFFON
35SECTION LINE PRACTICE Do not draw section lines on sectional view of standard parts.Threaded fastenerWasher(longitudinal cut of) Solid shaft, Pin, Key
44INTERPRETING ASSEMBLY DRAWING 1. Assemble steps.2. Function of each part in machine.3. Design concept.
45EXAMPLE 1 : Shaft support on a machine housing Assemble steps1. Install bearing to the shaft.2. Install the bearing-shaft unit to the housing.3. Install the cover plate.4. Tighten the screw.
46Functions of main parts EXAMPLE 1 : Shaft support on a machine housingFunctions of main parts1. Bearing : Support the rotating shaft.2. Cover : Control an axial movement.- Prevent the bearing unit from rotation.
47EXAMPLE 1 : Shaft support on a machine housing Design conceptAvoid direct contact between rotating shaft and housing as well as cover plate by using a bearing and clearance holes.
48EXAMPLE 2 : Leakage prevention unit Assemble steps1. Wrap a packing to the shaft.2. Install studs to the casing.3. Install the gland ring where its holes align with stud.4. Place the washer and tightening the nut.CasingGlandPacking
49EXAMPLE 2 : Leakage prevention unit Function1. Packing : Preventing the leakage of a fluid inside the casing.2. Gland : Press the packing to make it radial expand and press the shaft surface.CasingGlandPacking
50EXAMPLE 2 : Leakage prevention unit Design conceptAvoid direct contact betweenrotating shaft and casing as wellas gland ring’s hole.CasingGlandPacking
51EXAMPLE 3 : Fixing parts on a shaft. Assemble steps1. Place the keys on the key seats.2. Insert the parts to the shaft until their surfaces lean against the shoulder.3. Insert collar and then pin or retaining ring into the groove.
52EXAMPLE 3 : Fixing parts on a shaft. Function1. Key : Preventing rotational movement of parts.2. Pin and retaining ring : Prevent axial movement of parts on the shaft.
53EXAMPLE : Fixing parts on a shaft. Design conceptRetaining ring can resistlower axial force than collar& pin unit.
54EXAMPLE : Parts with tapered holes on tapered shaft. Assemble steps1. Insert the part on the tapered end of the shaft.2. Insert the washer (non-standard).3. Tightening the nut.
55EXAMPLE : Parts with tapered holes on tapered shaft. Function1. Washer : Improve the distribution the tightening force on the part.
56EXAMPLE : Parts with tapered holes on tapered shaft. Design conceptLength of the taperedportion and depth of thetapered hole require acalculation.
57EXAMPLE : Parts having preloaded spring Assemble stepsSpring infree length1. Insert the spring into the casing.2. Tighten the rod to the spring loader.3. Close the cap and tighten.
58EXAMPLE : Parts having preloaded spring Function1. Spring plunger : Transmit a force from rod to spring.- Keep the spring in a position.
59EXAMPLE : Parts having preloaded spring Design conceptSpring plunger has a sphericalsurface contacts to the cap;therefore, the rod can align itselfto original position.
61POINTS TO CONSIDER1. Surface finishing2. Tolerance Size Geometry
62SURFACE FINISHINGSurface finishing means the quality of a surface. It relates to the level of roughness of a surface.Purpose1. To control the accuracy in positioning and tightness between mating parts.2. To reduce the friction, especially for the part moves relative to other parts.
63Surface Control Why do we need to control surface characteristics? Rough surfaces cause friction and wearIt is difficult to make accurate measurements from rough surfaces
64Surface Characteristics RoughnessSmall hills and valleys found on a surfaceDefined as the arithmetic average of the deviations above and below a mean height of a surfaceExpressed in microinches or micrometers.
65Surface Characteristics WavinessSurface irregularities greater than roughnessExpressed in inches or millimetersLayDirection of tool marks on a machined surface.
66Surface Texture Symbols .25 inches.125 inSurface Control SymbolMaterial must be removedMaterial must not be removedMaterial removal not specifiedAutumn 2009
67Lay Symbols Parallel to line representing surface Perpendicular to the line representing the surfaceBoth directions to the line representing the surfaceMultidirectional marksCircularRadialLay particulate, non-directional, protuberantBar addedMSymbollocationCRP
68Examples with Roughness and Lay Average roughness is inches, which isoften referred to as 24 microinches or µ inches.Material must be removed.242814Maximum average roughness is 28 microinches.Minimum average roughness is 14 microinches.Material must not be removed.Average roughness is 45 microinchesLines on the surface are radial with respectto the center of the surface45R
69AssignmentYou are to complete the drawing and the work sheets handed out.They are due on