Presentation on theme: "MapReduce Online Tyson Condie UC Berkeley Slides by Kaixiang MO"— Presentation transcript:
MapReduce Online Tyson Condie UC Berkeley Slides by Kaixiang MO
Outline Background Motivation: Block vs pipeline Hadoop Online Prototype Model Pipeline within job Online Aggregation Continuous Queries Conclusion
Background Map Reduce system – Massive data parallelism, batch-oriented, high through put – Fault tolerance via putting results on HDFS However, – Stream process: analyze streams of data – Online aggregation: used interactively
Motivation: Batch vs online Batch: – Reduce begin after all map task – High through put, high latency Online – Stream process is usually not fault tolerant – Lower latency Blocking does not fit online/stream data – Final answers only – No infinite streams Fault tolerance is important, how?
Map Reduce Job Map step – Parse input into words – For each word, output Reduce step – For each word, list of counts – Sum counts and output Combine step (optional) – Preaggregate map output – Same with reduce
Hadoop Online Prototype(HOP) Major: Pipelining between operators – Data pushed from mapper to reducer – Data transfer concurrently with map/reduce computation – Still fault tolerant Benefit – Low latency – Higher Utilization – Smooth network traffic
Performance at a Glance In some case, HOP can reduce job completion time by 25%.
Pipeline within Job Simple design: pipeline each record – Prevents map to group and combine – Network I/O heavy load – Map flood and bury reducer Revised: pipeline small sorted runs(spills) – Task thread: apply map/reduce function, buffer output – Spill thread: sort & combine buffer, spill to file – Task Tracker: handle service consumer requests
Utility balance control Mapper send early results: move computation(group&combine) from mapper to reducer. If reducer is fast, mapper aggressive++, mapper sort&spill-- If reducer is slow, mapper aggressive--, mapper sort&spill++ Halt pipeline when: backup or effective combiner Resume pipeline by: merge&combine accumulated spill files
Pipelined Fault tolerant(PFT) Simple PFT design (coarse): – Reduce treats in-progress map output as tentative – If map succeed accept its output – If map die, throw its output Revised PTF design (finer): – Record mapper progress, recover from latest checkpoint – Correctness: Reduce task ensure spill files are good – Map tasks recover from latest checkpoint, no redundant spill file Master is more busy here – Need to record progress for each map, – Need to record whether each map output is send
System fault tolerant Mapper fail – New mapper start from checkpoint and sent to reducer Reducer fail – All mapper resend all intermediate result. Mapper still need to store the intermediate result on local disk, but reducer dont have to block. Master fail – The system cannot survive.
Online aggregation Show snapshot of reducer result from time to time Show Progress (reducer get %)
Pipeline between jobs Assume we run job1, job2. job2 needs job1s result. Snapshot the output of job1 and pipeline it to job2 from time to time. Fault tolerant: – Job1 fail: recover as before – Job2 fail: restart failed task – Both fail: job2 restart from latest snapshot
Continuous Queries Mapper: add flush API, store it locally if reducer is unavailable Reducer: run periodically – Wall-clock time, logical time, #input rows, etc – Fix #mapper and #reducers Fault tolerant: – Mapper cannot retain infinite results. – Reducer: saving checkpoint using HDFS
Impact of #Reducer
When #reducer is enough, faster. When #reducer is not enough, slower. – Not able to balance workload between mapper and reducer
Small vs Large block When using large block, HOP is faster because reducer doesnt wait.
Small vs Large block When using small block, HOP is still faster, but advantage is smaller.
Discussion HOP improved hadoop for real time/stream process, useful with few jobs. Finer granularity control may make task master busy, affect scalability. When there is a lot of jobs, it may increase computation and decrease through put. (busier network, many overhead for master)