Methods and Tools you will learn 3 Work breakdown structure Task List Scheduling and Gantt Charts: Critical Path Method Tasks are the building blocks of projects Project = set of related tasks
4 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Used to create the task (job) list Tree-decomposition of project tasks WBS identifies terminal elements The key starting point for project planning Required by contracts as part of the SOW Can be activity-oriented or deliverable- oriented Use sticky-notes method early on Carl L. Pritchard. Nuts and Bolts Series 1: How to Build a Work Breakdown Structure. ISBN 1890367125ISBN 1890367125 Job A Job X Job G Job B
Example Work Breakdown Structure 5 HumLog DC Project 1 Planning 2 Contracting 3 Staffing 4 Construction 5 Commissioning 1.1 Location Analysis 1.2 Capacity Modeling 1.3 Transportation Analysis 2.1 Government Approval 2.2 Request for Proposal 2.3 Evaluate Proposals 2.4 Select Main Contractor 2.5 Finalize Contract 4.1 Site Preparation 4.2 Dig and Pour Foundation 4.3 Erect Main Structure 4.4 Install Building Systems 4.5 Install Security Systems … 3.1 Staffing for Operations 3.2 Staff Training And Instruction 5.1 Stock Up Initial Inventory 5.2 Commissioning And Test 5.3 Final Acceptance IOC
6 Discussion Point Why is it difficult to come up with a good WBS (task list, task structure) in a complex project? Not all tasks known ahead of time if completely new product/system Others…?
7 WBS Guidelines No more than 100-200 terminal elements, if more use subprojects Can be up to 3-4 Levels deep Not more than 5-9 jobs at one level Human cognitive bandwidth only 3 bits=2 3 =8 Short term memory for most people 5-9 items Poorer planning if too-fine grained – dilution of attention The more tasks there are, the more intricate dependencies there will be to keep track of Jobs should be of similar size/complexity Manageable chunks sense of progress Level of graininess very difficult to answer
8 Task List List all tasks in a table with Identifying symbol (tag, ID number) Task description Immediate prerequisite jobs (predecessors) Expected task duration Arrange jobs in technological order No job appears in the list until all its predecessors have been listed Iterations are NOT allowed cycle error Job a precedes b precedes c precedes a
Task List – HumLog DC Project 9 IDWBSTask DescriptionPredecessorDuration (wks) 1Start – Project Kickoff0 21.1Location Decision14 31.2Capacity Modeling22 41.3Transportation Analysis22 52.1Obtain Government Approval38 62.2Request for Proposal4,54 72.3Evaluate Proposals62 82.4Select Main Contractor71 92.5Finalize Main Construction Contract/Negotiations82 104.1Site Preparation92 114.2Dig and Pour Foundation103 124.3Erect Main Structure114 133.1Staffing for Operations96 144.4Install Building Systems (Electrical)122 154.5Install Safety and Security Systems142 164.6Install Inventory Management System (RFID)142 174.7Install Communications System141 185.1Stock Up on Initial Inventory15, 163 193.2Staff Training and Instruction131 205.2Commissioning and Test19, 18, 174 215.3Final Acceptance and IOC201 22End – Project Finish210
10 Gantt Charts Attributed to Henry Gantt – most popular PM tool (80%) Used to plan big shipbuilding projects (cargo ships WWI) Graphical way of showing task durations, project schedule Does not explicitly show relationships between tasks Limited use for project tracking Easy to understand milestone calendar tasks Gantt Chart Builder System (Excel) 1.6 completion actual today planned
11 CPM Assumptions Project consists of a collection of well defined tasks (jobs) Project ends when all jobs completed Jobs may be started and stopped independently of each other within a given sequence (no continuous-flow processes) Jobs are ordered technological sequence
12 Critical Path CP is the bottleneck route Shortening or lengthening tasks on the critical path directly affects project finish Duration of non-critical tasks is irrelevant Crashing all jobs is ineffective, focus on the few % of jobs that are on the CP Crashing tasks can shift the CP to a different task Shortening tasks – technical and economical challenge How can it be done? Previously non-critical tasks can become critical Lengthening of non-critical tasks can also shift the critical path
13 Discussion Point What is the usefulness of knowing the Critical Path in a project? Tells which task to shorten to finish project earlier. Others …?
14 Latest Start and Finish Times Set target finish time for project: T >= F Usually target is a specific calendar date, e.g. October 1, 2010 When is the latest date the project can be started? Late Finish (LF) - latest time a job can be finished, without delaying the project beyond its target time (T) Late Start: LS = LF-t
15 Slack Some tasks have ES=LS --> no slack Total Slack of a task TS=LS-ES Maximum amount of time a task may be delayed beyond its early start without delaying project completion Slack time is precious … managerial freedom, dont squander it unnecessarily e.g. resource, work load smoothing When T=F then all critical tasks have TS=0 At least one path from Start->Finish with critical jobs only When T>F, then all critical jobs have TS=T-F
Example Gantt Chart Goal: Complete big project by deadline! Build part A (3 days) Build part A (3 days) Build part B (2 days) Build part B (2 days) Build part C (6 days) Build part C (6 days) time Assemble part AB (5 days) Assemble part AB (5 days) now Finish (2 days) Finish (2 days) 16 Deadline 15 days away
Example Gantt Chart Goal: Complete big project by deadline! Build part A (3 days) Build part A (3 days) Build part B (2 days) Build part B (2 days) Build part C (6 days) Build part C (6 days) time Assemble part AB (5 days) Assemble part AB (5 days) Critical Path = 10 Float time = 5 now Finish (2 days) Finish (2 days) 17 Deadline 15 days away
7 days later… Deadline Now 8 days away Critical Path = 8 days Float time = 0 days Build part A (3 days) Build part A (3 days) Build part B (2 days) Build part B (2 days) Build part C (6 days) Build part C (6 days) time Assemble part AB (5 days) Assemble part AB (5 days) now Finish (2 days) Finish (2 days) Finished Critical Path No more float time! 18 Example Gantt Chart
19 Main CPM Errors that people make Estimated job times are wrong Predecessor relationships may contain cycles cycle error List of prerequisites contains more than the immediate predecessors, e.g. 1 2, 2 3 and 1,2 3 Overlooked some predecessor relationships Some predecessor relationships may be listed that are spurious and …. Some tasks/jobs may be missing !!!
20 Summary Work breakdown structure Task List Scheduling and Gantt Charts: Critical Path Method