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Growth and Development Dr. Randy Harp. Growth: Growth is an increase in mass –Tissues Bone Internal organs Muscle Fat True Growth??

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Presentation on theme: "Growth and Development Dr. Randy Harp. Growth: Growth is an increase in mass –Tissues Bone Internal organs Muscle Fat True Growth??"— Presentation transcript:

1 Growth and Development Dr. Randy Harp

2 Growth: Growth is an increase in mass –Tissues Bone Internal organs Muscle Fat True Growth??

3 Growth: Growth is an increase in mass –Tissues Bone Internal organs Muscle Fat True Growth? Everything except Fat

4 Normal Postnatal Growth Curves of Bone, Muscle, and Fat a Growth Units Time Units a Adapted from Boggs, et al, 1998 Bone Fat Muscle Birth Maturity

5 Normal Growth Curve of Cattle a Growth Units Time Units a Adapted from Berg & Butterfield, 1976 Birth Maturity 900 lbs 1100 lbs 1400 lbs

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7 Age: 1)Physiological Age 1)Chronological Age

8 Age: 1)Physiological Age Development of the animal relative to maturity 1)Chronological Age Actual Age in days

9 Fat Tissue Depots: 1)Subcutaneous Fat 2)Internal Fat 3)Intermuscular Fat 4)Intramuscular Fat

10 Fat Tissue Depots: (order) 1)Subcutaneous Fat ~ Backfat (3 rd ) 2)Internal Fat ~ KPH (1 st ) 3)Intermuscular Fat ~ Seam fat (2 nd ) 4)Intramuscular Fat ~ Marbling (4 th )

11 Normal Postnatal Growth Curves of Bone, Muscle, and Fat a Growth Units Time Units a Adapted from Boggs, et al, 1998 Bone Fat Muscle Birth Maturity Marbling

12 Visual Indicators of Finish

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14 BF.70 REA13.5 YG3.3 BF1.50 REA10.6 YG6.0

15 Visual Indicators of Finish

16 Types of Growth: 1)Hyperplasia Increase in cell number Occurs during Prenatal growth Research indicates that cell number is set 2)Hypertrophy Increase in cell size after birth

17 Benefits to altering growth: 1)Increase in the amount of product to sell 2)Change composition of saleable product

18 Methods to alter growth: 1)Natural A) Genetics British vs European/Continental Breeds British ~ Maternal Earlier rate of maturity Less muscle more fat Continental ~Growth and Carcass Terminal Later rate of maturity More muscle less fat F1 Progeny Heterosis

19 Factors Affecting Growth: 1)Natural B) Nutrition: 1. Types of growing/finishing cattle a. Grass Cattle - growing b. Finishing- growing/fattening

20 Methods to alter growth: 1) 2)Adminstered ~ Growth Promoting Agents A) Implants - Made of naturally occurring hormones - Estrogen, Progesterone Ralgro, Synovex, etc. - Synthetics Trenbolone Acetate (TBA)

21 What Implants do: 1)Improved Feed Efficiency 2)Increased Average Daily Gain 3)Increased Dry Matter Intake 4)Increase in Body Mass

22 What Implants do: 1)Improved Feed Efficiency15% 2)Increased Average Daily Gain10% 3)Increased Dry Matter Intake5-10% 4)Increase in Body Mass15-20% Efficiencies and increase in wt gain can result in dollars advantage over non-implanted

23 Methods to alter growth: 1) 2)Administered ~ Growth Promoting Agents A) Implants B) Beta Agonists

24 Beta Agonists: Ractopamine HCl - Cattle ~ Optaflex Fed last days 100 – 300 mg / day Improvement: 1) Performance F/G, ADG same DMI 2) Dressing Percent 3) Carcass wt 4) No adverse affect on Marbling 5) Tenderness affected at 300 mg Zilpaterol HCl – 6.8 g/ton to provide mg/hd/day Fed as Showmaxx via layman OR Fed in feedlots in concentrate form supervised by a DVM


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