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Service-Learning: Improving Learning and Our Communities

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Presentation on theme: "Service-Learning: Improving Learning and Our Communities"— Presentation transcript:

1 Service-Learning: Improving Learning and Our Communities
William Oakes EPICS Program Purdue University

2 Educational Needs What are educational challenges or issues related to students and student learning on your campuses?

3 Opportunities Equipping graduates to
address global grand challenges Students need more than disciplinary knowledge to succeed: teamwork, communication, customer-awareness, project management, leadership, ethics, societal context, professionalism Both local and global communities need access to disciplinary expertise that is normally prohibitively expensive: improved, enhanced, new capabilities Universities/colleges will be engaged in their communities and in the world

4 Calls to Action U.S. National Academy of Engineering Studies:
The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century What skills are needed in disciplines to address the challenges in today’s global economy How People Learn

5 Service-Learning Definition
We define service learning as a type of experiential education in which students participate in service in the community and reflect on their involvement in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content and of the discipline and its relationship to social needs and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. - Hatcher and Bringle, 1997

6 Context: Learning Pedagogies
Experiential education Active learning, Problem-based learning Inquiry-guided learning Design education Service learning Engagement in the community Tied to academic learning outcomes Reciprocity Reflection

7 Characteristics of Service-Learning
Service – part of the service-learning experience involves service opportunities for students for the underserved in the local, regional or global community. Academically-based - the service being performed by the students must provide reinforcement and connection with the subject material of the academic course. Students given credit for mastery of course content, not simply for the service they perform

8 EPICS Course Outcomes (Design)
i. applies material from their discipline to the design of community-based projects ii. demonstrates an understanding of design as a start-to-finish process iii. an ability to identify and acquire new knowledge as a part of the problem-solving/design process iv. demonstrates an awareness of the customer in engineering design v. demonstrates an ability to function on multidisciplinary teams and an appreciation for the contributions from individuals from other disciplines vi. demonstrates an ability to communicate effectively with audiences with widely-varying backgrounds vii. demonstrates an awareness of professional ethics and responsibility viii. demonstrates an appreciation of the role that their discipline can play in social contexts

9 Characteristics of Service-Learning
Partnerships – partnerships between those who serving and those being served. Meeting needs together Doing work WITH, not for The students and community members are partners addressing community need Adding capacity to the community The community, students and faculty benefit from the service learning

10 Characteristics of Service-Learning
Reflection (Analysis or Metacognition) Participants are intentionally guided through activities to analyze and reflect upon the work that is being performed and the larger social issues.. Metacognitive activities including reflection improve learning Metacognition can help students understand academic material covered by the course Activities for analysis and reflection can take several forms

11 Service vs Learning service learning
Service and learning goals are separate SERVICE-learning Service outcomes are primary; learning goals are secondary service- LEARNING Learning goals are primary; service outcomes are secondary SERVICE-LEARNING Service and learning goals have equal weight; each enhances the other for all participants

12 New Context A similar phenomenon occurs when students are able to marshal a body of knowledge to solve problems presented in class but fail even to see a problem, much less the relevance of what has been learned, in a different setting. The new situation does not provide the cues associated with what has been learned; the “key words” from the classroom are not present in the wider environment. A service-learning student will have more ways to access this understanding. – Eyler and Giles

13 Benefits to Learning Learners of all ages are more motivated when they can see the usefulness of what they are learning and when they can use that information to do something that has an impact on others – especially in their local community – Bransford et al., How People Learn

14 Kolb’s Learning Cycle Allows diverse students to contribute and be valued. Reflection connects learning and experiences Concrete Experience to experience Active Experimentation Reflective Observation to examine to apply to explain Abstract Conceptualization

15 Multi-Level Learning Students learn communication skills
Teamwork, leadership Project planning Resourcefulness life-long learning About themselves Their place as professionals and as citizens About others Communities

16 Service-Learning and Diversity
Research on science education suggests that “context” is important to students. “Image” is increasingly being cited as a deterrent to attracting women in the U.S. What are the diversity issues facing your institutions? Gender Ethnicity Cultural Socio-economically

17 Accreditation and S-L Service Learning projects provide opportunities for students to demonstrate that they have achieved outcomes (e.g. ABET Criterion 3 ) apply knowledge design/analyze/interpret design system/component/process techniques/skills/tools problem solving professional/ethical responsibility multidisciplinary teams communication societal context contemporary issues life-long learning

18 Industry: Boeing List A good understanding of engineering science fundamentals. Mathematics (including statistics)  Physical and life sciences  Information technology (far more than "computer literacy") A good understanding of design and manufacturing processes.  (i.e., understands engineering) A multi-disciplinary, systems perspective.  A basic understanding of the context in which engineering is practiced. Economics (including business practices)  History  The environment  Customer and societal needs Good communication skills. Written, oral, graphic and listening  High ethical standards. An ability to think both critically and creatively - independently and cooperatively. Flexibility. The ability and self-confidence to adapt to rapid or major change.  Curiosity and a desire to learn for life.  A profound understanding of the importance of teamwork. 

19 Teaching Design The Design Process As a Full Cycle
Traditional courses use a piece of the design cycle Problem Definition phase is often skipped S-L provides an opportunity for start-to-finish design Problem definition Working designs for fielded projects Support for fielded projects redesign opportunities Design for x-ability Design Process Traditional Course

20 Real Contexts Compelling Context for Classroom Material
Kinematics course – analyze playground safety Active exercises to engage students Diversity of learning styles Answers “When would I ever have to use this”

21 Educating Citizens Engineering’s responsibility to educate the “whole person” Educating future professionals Educating future community members Engaged/educated citizens Future neighbors Lifelong impact Career choices Outside interests or activities

22 Why Community Projects?
Real projects: start-to-finish design – problem definition, specifications, version control, sustainability, design/coding standards, rigorous testing, reliability, maintainability, safety, satisfying a customer, accountability, pride A different view of engineering and computing The university as citizen

23 EPICS has the potential to
Integrating the Curriculum innovation design resourcefulness ethics teamwork communication T I M E C O N T E X problem solving analysis engineering fundamentals science mathematics EPICS has the potential to realize new efficiencies in the engineering curriculum

24 Service Learning works in engineering
Examples Four models Co-curricular ProCEED – U. of Michigan U. de Sherbrooke International Integrated within a course U. Massachusetts-Lowell U. of Utah Separate courses Freshman courses – U. of South Alabama, CWRU Senior design Programs or series of courses EPICS Service Learning works in engineering

25 Co-Curricular Service-Learning
Programs incorporate co-curricular activities with engineering-based projects in the community ProCEED – U. of Michigan ME Honorary Society + Senior design course Ohio State ECOS – Student organization doing international work Universite’ de Sherbrooke Contest to design toys for autistic children Follow-on to freshman ECE design course

26 Integrated in Specific Courses
ME Kinematics – analyze playground safety and write report to responsible entity Measurements Laboratory – data acquired in community (e.g. environmental data) What to do with the data? CE – Hydrology – hydrological analysis of local wet lands or lakes Biology in Engineering – play ground design for local schools First-Year Projects Projects for the community Present projects to schools or hospital

27 Service-Learning Courses
Institutions have created separate courses for Service Learning Capstone courses UML – Assistive Technology Capstone for electrical engineers First-Year –Design or Introduction to Major Courses (Improves retention) Case Western Reserve Univ. University of Colorado Columbia General Elective University of Pretoria – course partnering with area townships

28 EPICS develops long-term partnerships in the local community
Engineering Projects in Community Service Purdue undergraduates are learning real-world skills by defining, designing, building, testing, deploying, and supporting engineering solutions in a unique academic program that assists local community service and education organizations. EPICS successes: : Purdue students to date Over 250 projects deployed : 500+ students from 30 Purdue departments on 30 teams A growing Purdue-community-industry partnership: 11 industry advisors $13+M total from grants, industry, Purdue, and alumni Support for national expansion from NSF, Corporation for National & Community Service, Microsoft, HP; 19 EPICS universities, ~35 High Schools EPICS develops long-term partnerships in the local community

29 EPICS Curriculum Provides
EPICS Programs EPICS Curriculum Provides Service-Learning Design Education Project Management Community Partnerships Disciplinary Knowledge from Departments EPICS Programs Projects and Problems from Local Community Institutional Curriculum and Culture

30 EPICS Characteristics
Long term projects: Long-term partnerships with community organizations Vertically-integrated teams: firstyear+sophomores+juniors+seniors Extended design experience: academic credit throughout the student’s undergraduate career, 1-2 credits/semester Large-team experience: teams of 8-18 students Broadly multidisciplinary teams: EE, CmpE, CS, ME, CE, IE, Sociology, Education, Biology, Audiology, Child Development, Visual Design, Technical Writing, Natural Resources, … Open-ended design: define-design-build-test-deploy-support EPICS teams can tackle projects of significant size, scope, and impact

31 EPICS Decouples Timescales
Student Learning Student Learning Semester/Quarter Semester/Quarter Semester/Quarter Project Project Community Receives Long-Term Support They Need

32 Entrepreneurship and EPICS
The Community Needs, Ideas Ideas, Products Goals of the Initiative Spread benefits of Products Learn about entrepreneurship Protect IP developed by teams and partners I2P Competition 2007, Princeton University 2008, Georgia Tech

33 Examples of Scope International Projects Local Projects
All four models are used Advantage is that students can see need and results Integrates them into the local community Regional or national projects Example: EPICS and Habitat for Humanity

34 International Students from “here” go “there”
John Duffy - U. Mass.-Lowell Students work on projects for remote villages in Peru and deliver/install on trips. Water purification, solar and hydro-electrical power systems Engineers without Borders students chapters and professionals Projects in India Water and electrification

35 Local EPICS Projects Access & Abilities Education & Outreach
Human Services Environment

36 EPICS Projects: Human Services
Design chemical sensing equipment to help and protect local law enforcement in their work to inhibit drug making laboratories. Develop database system to assist the Tippecanoe and Jasper County Probation Departments to track and supervise offenders. Develop scheduling software to assist local crisis center to schedule volunteers 24/7. Complete analysis of sustainability and energy efficiency techniques for HFH homes.       

37 EPICS Projects: Environment
Waiheke Island, New Zealand Processing waste glass into construction materials bio-diesel fuel processing Purdue Constructed Wetlands and Water quality Sustainability on campus Project Area: Environment EPICS Site: The University of Auckland, New Zealand Community Partner: Waiheke Island Waste Resource Trust The dissemination of the EPICS program to other universities made a great leap forward with the addition this past year of the first international EPICS site at the University of Auckland. Two teams from the Auckland EPICS program are working with the Waiheke Island Waste Resource Trust to improve the environment on and the economy of the island. One team is developing a portable glass crushing plant to process waste glass collected on the island into clean sand for use in construction materials. This project is thus turning a waste product that would otherwise have to be shipped off the island into an economic resource. A second team is developing a pilot facility to process waste cooking oils, primarily from restaurants on the island, into bio-diesel. A potential pollutant is thus being turned into an alternative fuel for municipal vehicles.

38 EPICS Projects: Access & Abilities
Reducing barriers on campus Students with disabilities Classroom learning Campus barriers Interactive play environments for young children with disabilities Walking swing Remote controlled bowling ramp Develop devices to increase safety and efficiency of employees with disabilities

39 EPICS Projects: Education
Outreach projects for research centers Nano-technology Partnerships with local K-12 schools Hands-on science projects Technology-assisted job training Projects with local museums and zoos

40 (Inter)National-Scale Project
Habitat for Humanity - EPICS Teams from multiple universities Projects Multimedia volunteer tutorials Data collection of homeowner assessment Global disaster relief home designs Community Partner is the HFHI staff in Americus, GA Students coordinate work between campuses and with partners at HFHI

41 Impact: Meeting Students’ Needs
84% OVERALL EVALUATION 68% awareness of ethical issues 71% technical skills 73% awareness of the community 77% organizational skills 79% resourcefulness 80% understanding of design process 81% awareness of the customer 83% communication skills 88% ability to work on a team %A+B Topic 15 semesters of data, 2385 responses Impact of EPICS on your Topic % of students giving “A” or “B” rating

42 Impact: Meeting Students’ Needs
“What are the 3 most valuable things you have learned from being a part of the EPICS program”: Responses from 9 semesters, 2044 respondents Objectives # responses Teamwork 1751 Communication Skills 1008 Organizational Skills 793 Technical Skills 754 Leadership Skills 534

43 Student Quotes “(S-L) completely changed my opinion of engineering.”
“Working on this project has helped me guide the rest of my course work and ideas for a future profession.” “Other engineering courses only directly benefit me. (S-L) benefits everyone involved.” “I have learned that engineering includes more than theory, it includes teamwork, communication, organization and leadership.” “It made me understand how every aspect of engineering (design, implementation, team work, documentation) come together.” “No longer is engineering just a bunch of equations, now I see it as a means to help mankind.” “Opened my heart.”

44 Service-Learning Definition
We define service learning as a type of experiential education in which students participate in service in the community and reflect on their involvement in such a way as to gain further understanding of course content and of the discipline and its relationship to social needs and an enhanced sense of civic responsibility. - Hatcher and Bringle, 1997

45 Reflection in Service-Learning
Reflection (and Analysis) Participants are intentionally guided through activities to analyze and reflect upon the work that is being performed and the larger social issues.. Metacognitive activities including reflection improve learning Metacognition can help students understand academic material covered by the course Activities for analysis and reflection can take several forms

46 Why do we need reflection?
Connect service to academic learning Metacognitive activity Students compartimentalize experiences and learning Draw out learning Students may miss learning opportunities if not pointed out Address student reaction and/or experience from service Were stereotypes challenged or reinforced? Was there unintended learning?

47 Methods for Reflection
Written questions Notebooks (journals) Essays – collect in Blackboard Small group discussions Class discussions Readings Combinations

48 Reflection Model Technical Level or Discipline Specific
Personal Values Social Systems and Issues Developed by Edward Zlotkowski

49 How much is enough? Janet Eyler (Vanderbilt) studied reflection
Amount of reflection was not a significant factor in effectiveness Key elements were intentional (targeted at learning objectives) and frequent

50 Reflection (Analysis)
What strategies will you use to have students process (reflect on) the many aspects of the service experience and connect these aspects to the rest of the course? Academic context and learning objectives Personal experience Connection to and implications for the profession/discipline Social/community issues

51 Partnerships Communities Universities High Schools

52 Benefits and Learning Participants How will they benefit?
What will they learn? Students Community Participants Faculty/ Staff

53 EPICS Programs

54 Adapted to Local Institutional Culture and Constraints
Core Values The core values of EPICS Programs are those elements required of all EPICS programs. Following a model of service-learning: EPICS students earn academic credit for participation in team-based design projects that solve engineering, computing, and technology-based needs in the local community;  EPICS teams provide service to the local community by partnering with not-for-profit community organizations, educational institutions, and governmental agencies; and   EPICS programs support these reciprocal local partnerships over multiple years without obligation for remuneration to EPICS. Adapted to Local Institutional Culture and Constraints

55 Goals for EPICS Programs
In addition to the core values, there are attributes of EPICS Programs that provide a richer learning experience and add value to community partnerships. Long-term Participation by Students Large Team Structure and Continuity Multidisciplinary Teams Advisors for teams Reflection on the Broader Social Context and Impact Learning Design Meeting the Needs of the Underserved Vertically Integrated Integration into Core Curricula Innovation and Entrepreneurship Collaboration with Other EPICS Programs

56 Phases of an EPICS Team Establishing project partnerships
Creating a curriculum structure & basic infrastructure Assembling a project team Implementing the projects Supporting the partnerships Ending the partnership

57 Academic Credit / Plans of Study
EE: 3 credits senior design + 6 ECE elective credits; 2 lab credits if not used as senior design CmpE: 3 credits senior design + 6 CmpE elective credits ME: 6 credits tech elective + 3 credits free elective CE: 6 credits tech elective IDE: 6 credits engineering/design + 3 senior design CS: CS elective + 3 senior design AAE: 3 credits as tech elective; additional AAE elective with permission LA: 3 credits count as core in Social Ethics CFS: fulfills specialization requirement in selected areas; elective for all areas Others: free elective credit Entrepreneurship Certificate: Option + Capstone

58 Purdue Course Structure
1 or 2 credits / semester - emphasis on long-term participation ~5 hours/week outside of lab for 2 credits ~2.5 hours/week outside of lab for 1 credit 2-hour team lab each week Each team meets separately to do administration, planning, and project work Common lecture time for all teams Supplemental learning experiences to lectures TA-run “Skills Sessions” and workshops Final Presentation (Exam)

59 Lectures Common Lecture hour Topics
Required common and Introductory lectures 1 credit students attend 5 lectures units 2 credit students attend 10 lecture units Lectures are on video server Topics Administrative: orientation, resources, and assessment Design process Communication topics Project planning Team building / leadership Community context Entrepreneurship Best practices

60 Skills Sessions and Workshops
Alternative/supplementary ways of earning lecture credit Facilitators (TA’s, students, faculty, EPICS Admin, Corporate partners…) run sessions on specific skills Target students after their first semester Also give credit for relevant seminars etc. Topics: ME shop Specific programming skills & tools Webmaster training Disability awareness Ethical issues Social context

61 Textbook Readings and Reflections
Lima and Oakes “Service-Learning: Engineering in Your Community” Readings to supplement lectures Reflections on reading and lab work Targeted readings for team roles Leaders Partner liaisons

62 Labs Student run: team leader Administration and milestones
Project status and planning Team building Breakout for project work

63 Team Roles: Students Team Leader/Co-Leaders
Project leaders - lead individual projects Liaison - primary contact for the community partner Financial officer - manages team’s budget Manager of Intellectual Property - leads entrepreneurship activities, patent searches ESAC – Student Advisory Council –recruiting and placement Webmaster

64 Team Roles: Advisors Advising teams in areas of expertise
Faculty play key role Advising teams in areas of expertise Academic credibility Industry advisors Non-faculty advisors with expertise Co-advisors from other disciplines Add multidisciplinary components Meet with team weekly Responsible for progress of team and individuals Grading

65 Team Roles: TAs Technical guidance to supplement background of advisors Administrative assistance for operation of program: 1 “administrative TA” assigned to each team Talent pool for all teams to tap Office hours Skills sessions Lab oversight Grading design notebooks, reflections, etc.

66 Roles: Administration
Program planning, development, management, and oversight Course management Community partner identification and selection; community relations Resource management (funds, labs, staff) Assessment and data collection Reporting

67 Milestone Highlights Slow Fast Delivery Deadline
Week 1 Transition and Integrating New Students Planning and setting expectations 2 3 4 5 Execute Semester Plans Deliver if Appropriate Document As You Go 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Complete semester commitments Transition to next semester Coordinate with Project Partner Focus on Project Partner and Transition 14 15 Finals Slow Fast Delivery Deadline

68 Milestones Schedule(s)

69 Administering EPICS: Outline
Ten elements Students Community partners & projects Academic staff: Advisors & TAs Administrative staff Funds for project expenses Labs & infrastructure Space Curricular structures Risk management Institutional support Budgets Challenges

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