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Chapter 15:Introduction to Verilog Testbenches Objectives In this section,you will learn about designing a testbench: Creating clocks Including files Strategic.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15:Introduction to Verilog Testbenches Objectives In this section,you will learn about designing a testbench: Creating clocks Including files Strategic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15:Introduction to Verilog Testbenches Objectives In this section,you will learn about designing a testbench: Creating clocks Including files Strategic use of tasks and concurrent statements Controlling and observing the design Reporting warnings and errors

2 The Simulation Environment This is a simplified picture of the overall simulation environment. This section concentrates on testbench development strategies. design sourcemodel librariestestbench source file input: stimulus,response simulator compile simulate file output: test pats,reports

3 Creating Clocks Example 1 You can define the clock in either the design or its testbench. You can define the clock either behaviorally or structurally. Here are examples of a symmetric clock: clk reg clk; always begin #10 clk = 1; #10 clk = 0; end reg start; nand #10 (clk,clk,start); initial begin start = 0; #10 start = 1; end

4 Creating Clocks Example 2 Here are examples of a symmetric clock with delayed startup: clk reg clk; initial begin #20 clk = 1; forever begin #10 clk = 0; #10 clk = 1; end reg start; nand #10 (clk,clk,start); initial begin #10 start = 0; #10 start = 1; end

5 Creating Clocks Example 3 Here are examples of an asymmetric clock with delayed startup: clk reg clk; initial begin #20 clk = 1; forever begin #5 clk = 0; #15 clk = 1; end reg start; nand #(15,5) (clk,clk,start); initial begin #5 start = 0; #15 start = 1; end

6 Designing Your Testbench You can make your testbench as simple or as comolex as you want. A comolex testbench would perform response berifivation on-the-fly. contro l design control observ e control observ e design sophisticated testbench simple testbench

7 Using Include Files Use `include files to ensure project-wide consistency of common source. `include defines.inc module clkgen (clk); output clk; reg clk; always begin #(`PERIOD/2) clk = 0; #(`PERIOD/2) clk = 1; end initial begin #(`TIMEOUT) $display(TIMEOUT ERROR); $finish; end endmodule //defines.inc `timescale 1 ns / 10 ps `define PERIOD 20 `define TIMEOUT

8 Using Verilog Tasks Use Verilog tasks in your testbench to encapsulate repeated operations. clk data_valid data_read task cpu_read; begin #30 data_valid = 1; wait (data_read = = 1) #20 cpu_data = data_in; wait (data_read = = 0); #20 cpu_data = 8`hzz; #30 data_valid = 0; end endtask

9 Using Concurrent Statements Use fork-join blocks in your testbench to concurrently activate parallel tasks. in initialize monitor execute forkjoin module inline_tb; //declare variables //instantiate designs initial begin initialize_design; fork monitor_data; monitor_error; monitor_timeout; run_test; join end endmodule

10 Applying Stimulus Some common stimulus application techniques include: In-line stimulus,applied from an initial block Stimulus applied from a loop or always block Stimulus applied from an array of vectors or integers Stimulus that is recorded during one simulation and played back in another simulation

11 In-Line Stimulus In-line stimulus has the following characteristics: You list the variables only when their values change You can easily define complex timing relationships between signals The testbench can become very long for tests of real designs module inline_tb; wire [7:0] results; reg [7:0] data_bus,addr; DUT u1 (results,data_bus,addr); initial fork #10 addr = 8`h01; #10 data_bus = 8`h23; #20 data_bus = 8`h45; #30 addr = 8`h67; #30 data_bus = 8`h89; #40 data_bus = 8`hAB; #45 $finish; join endmodule

12 Stimulus From Loops Stimulus applied from a loop has the following characteristics: For each iteration you assign a new stimulus vector The timing relationships between signals are regular in nature The testbench is compact module loop_tb; wrie [7:0] response; reg [7:0] stimulus; reg clk; integer i; DUT u1 (response,stimulus); inititial clk = 0; always begin #10 clk = 1; #10 clk = 0; end initial begin for (i = 0;i <= 255;i=i + clk) stimulus = i; #20 $finish; end endmodule

13 Stimulus From Arrays Stimulus applied from an array has the following characteristics: You can load the stimulus from a data file directly into the array For each iteration you read a new stimulus vector from the array module array_tb; wire [7:0] response; reg [7:0] stimulus,stim_array[0:15]; integer i; DUT u1 (response,stimulus); initial begin $readmemb(datafile,stim_array); for (i = 0;i <= 15;i = i + 1); #20 stimulus = stim_array[i] #20 $finish; end endmodule

14 Vector Capture and Playback You can capture manufacturing test vectors at the boundary of a device model. parameter period = 20 wire [7:0] response; reg [7:0] stimulus; DUT u1 (response,stimulus); always apply (stimulus); always verify (response); task capture_tb; integer MCDR,MCDS; begin MCDR = $fopen(response.dat);if (!MCDR) $finish; MCDS = $fopen(stimulus.dat);if (!MCDS) $finish; clk) #(period - 1) begin $fdisplayb (MCDR, %b,response); $fdisplayb (MCDS, %b,stimulus); end endtask

15 Vector Capture and Playback You can play back the saved stimulus and response vectors. parameter MAX_VECTOR = 255; wire [7:0] response; reg [7:0] stimulus,stim_array[0:255],resp_arry[0:255]; DUT u1 (response,stimulus); task playback_tb; integer MCDR,MCDS,i; begin $readmemb(response.dat,resp_array); clk) //synchronize to inactive clock stimulus = stim_array[0]; //apply 1st stimulus for (i = 0;i <=MAX_VECTOR;i = i + clk) begin if (response != = resp_array[i]) begin //check response $display(ERROR:response is %b,should be %b, response,resp_array[i], \nTEST FALLED); $finish; end if (i = = MAX_VECTOR) begin $display(TEST PASSED);$finish; end stimulus = stim_array[i + 1]; //apply next stimulus end endtask

16 Forcing Stimulus You can make two types of procedural continuous assignments: You can assign and deassign a register assign = This overrides any procedural assignment to the register initial begin #10 assign top.dut.fsm1.state_reg = `init_state; #20 deassign top.dut.fsm1.state_reg; end You can force and release a register or net This overrides all drivers of the signal initial begin #10 force top.dut.counter.scan_reg.q = 0; #20 release top.dut.counter.scan_reg.q; end

17 Reporting Warnings and Errors Use file output system tasks to report errors and warnings. A more sophisticated testbench would: Report an error to a centralized error handler Modify the test flow,depending upon the errors encountered Maintain error statistics,and report them at the end of the test task par_err_task; par_err) err_handle_task (`NONFATAL,`PARITY); endtask task cor_err_task; cor_err) err_handle_task (`NONFATAL,`CORRECTABLE endtask

18 Summary In this section,you learned about designing a testbench: Creating clocks Including files Strategic use of tasks and concurrent statements Controlling and observing the design Reporting warnings and errors

19 Review 1.What are some characteristics of a sophisticated testbench? 2.For what purpose might you define a Verilog task in your testbench? 3.What is the difference between a begin-end block and a fork-join block? 4.How can you efficienly generate regular stimulus? 5.What data type would you use to read stimulus from a file?

20 About Lab 8 This lab is in two parts. The objective of the first part is to use behavioral constructs to model a small combinational Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). In this part,you will: Model an ALU at the behavioral level Test the ALU with the proveded testbench The objective of the second part is to create a model of a 5-bit counter using Verilog behavioral constructs. In this part,you will: Model a 5-bit counter at the behavioral level Write a testbench for your xounter design


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