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© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg 1 Project Management & Controls Douglas D. Gransberg, Ph.D., P.E., C.C.E. Work Breakdown Structure
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg2 Organizing for Project Management Internal Organization – PM controlled – Project-oriented External organization – Hierarchy above PM – Report-oriented Client Interface – Marketing – Legal
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg3 Organizational Structures Customer: by client requirement – Government – Commercial Territorial: by geographic location – Domestic – International – Southwestern
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg4 Internal Organization Positions – Estimator – Scheduler – Field Responsibilities – Budget – Schedule – Production Integrator: The Project Work Breakdown Structure
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg5 Example Organization 1 Organizational Chart by Functions ConcreteSteel Structural Design Testing Foundations Geotechnical Design HydraulicsHydrology Hydraulic Design Project Manager
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg6 Example Organization 2 Overhead Organizational Chart by Project Teams Production StructuresGeotechHydro Project Team #1 StructuresGeotechHydro Project Team #2 StructuresGeotechHydro Project Team #3 Project Manager
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg7 Project Work Breakdown Structures …. a schematic presentation of the disaggregation- integration process.. to execute the project. Shtub, et al, 1994 Disaggregation: break down to finite components of work [Work Packages] Integration: allocate resources – Assign responsibility – Schedule
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg8 Work Breakdown Structure Functional - breakdown by location/space & activity/function System - breakdown by building assemblies/systems Component - breakdown by materials Activity - breakdown by tasks (verb + noun) Cost - breakdown by cost categories
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg9 WBS for Wood Frame House Functional SiteworkMaster Bedroom EntryBedroom #1 Living RoomBedroom #2 Family RoomBedroom #3 KitchenHall Bathroom #1 Heater Space Bathroom #2Utility Room
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg10 CSI General Conditions Site Work Concrete Masonry Steel Woods & Plastics Thermal & Moist Doors Windows Finishes Specialties Equipment HVAC Electrical WBS for Wood Frame House Systems Uniformat Foundation Substructure Superstructure Exterior Closure Roofing Interior Construction Mechanical Electrical General Conditions Specialties Site Work
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg11 Clear Site Building Layout Form/Pour Footings Pier Masonry Wood Floor System Rough Framing Walls Rough Framing Roof Doors and Windows Exterior Wall Board Exterior Insulation Rough Plumbing Rough HVAC Rough Electrical Shingles WBS for Wood Frame House Component Exterior Siding Exterior Finish Carpentry Hang Drywall Finish Drywall Cabinets Exterior Paint Interior Finish Carpentry Interior Paint Finish Plumbing Finish HVAC Finish Electrical Flooring Grading & Landscaping Punch List
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg12 WBS Components Objective : THE PRODUCT Deliverables Schedules Budgets Performance measures Responsibilities
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg13 Work Package Defined element of work – Series of activities – Result is a deliverable or major component of a deliverable – Milestone on schedule Assigned responsibility Scheduled start & finish Budget
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg14 Work Package Definition Logical Contribute to: – Deliverable – Milestone Single responsibility Budget controlled by responsibility
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg 15 Work Breakdown Structure Total Project Subproject ASubproject BSubproject C Unit AUnit BUnit C Area AArea BArea C Account AAccount BAccount C Work Package A Work Package B Work Package C Activity AActivity CActivity DActivity E Activity B 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg 16 WBS Format Level 1: Project Level 2: Area Level 3: Organization Level 4: Work Level 5: Schedule
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg17 WBS Development Example Project: Design & Build Tool Shed w/bathroom Deliverables: - Real Estate - Septic Permit - Building Permit - Design - Building - Sidewalk
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg18 Work Breakdown Structure Find Land Foundation Structure Finishes Earthwork Structure Septic Building Walk Get Loan Purchase TestsApplication PermitApplication Permit Production Activities Administrative Activities Design BldgDesign WalkConstruction Design-Build Tool Shed Facility Real EstateSeptic PermitBldg Permit Organization Work Packages Activities Project
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg19 Finishes FoundationStructure Design BldgDesign WalkConstruction Production Activities Build Outhouse Facility PM Project Team #3 Geotech Struct Arch CA1 CA2 CA4 CA3 CA5 Integrating the WBS with the Organization CA Deliverables CA1: Foundation Plans CA2: Reactions @Foundation CA3: Structural Plans CA4: Arch Details to Structural Plans CA5: Finish Plans
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg20 Integrated Take-off Estimator – Quantities – Production Rates – Crew Sizes – Mark-ups – Bid Scheduler – Activities – Durations – Resources – Budget – Schedule of Values
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg21 Activity Take-off Types of Activities – Production: consume time, resource, cost Erect structural steel – Administrative: consume time,cost in overhead Review and approve shop drawings – Logistic: consume time, cost in associated production activity. Order and ship structurual steel
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg22 Activity Take-off Initial take-off should be uncontrained Estimate the duration of each activity – Duration @ level of management – Use person-hours only if you intend to influence the actions of every person every hour of the work day Establish relationships between activities
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg23 Activity Take-off Allocate resources to each activity – Duration reflects assumed level of resource – Introduce resource constraints Types of Resources – Personnel – Equipment – Space
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg24 Timing Pre-award (bid preparation) – Conceptual schedule – Detailed cost estimate Post-award – Detailed Schedule – Revised estimate for alternates, final subs, and correct errors. – Must match exactly with cost control system.
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg25 Pre-award Scheduling Concerns Can project be completed by specified contract completion date? If not, which activities are the most efficient to crash? What is the cost of accelerated work? What administrative/logistic activities are on the critical path? Cost to expedite? What are the critical resources and can they be leveled?
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg26 Post-award Scheduling Concerns What impact to alternates have on original plan? How do errors and omissions in bid impact the original project plan? Upon final sub selection, can actual subs meet as-bid schedule? At what rate should the project earn value? Does project cash flow match financing assumptions?
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg27 Matching Elements From the WBS, the following MUST match between the estimate and the schedule: – Activity code numbers – Activity budgets – Activity resource allocation – Completion dates and milestones – Estimated Cost + Profit = Schedule of Values – Pay estimate cash flow projection
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg28 Schedule Use of scheduling software to solve project network Convert to bar chart for easy manipulation and communication of schedule information Load with activity resource requirements Identify resource shortfalls
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg29 Identify resource shortfalls Integrate resource requirements with scheduled activity completions Mark maximum resource capacities Reschedule to eliminate shortfalls or obtain additional resources for limited periods of time.
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg30 Identify resource shortfalls A B C 333 22 444 Required Resources
© 2001-2008, All rights reserved, Douglas D. Gransberg31 Conclusions PM must ensure that Scheduler and Estimator communicate during bid preparation and after award. The best means to ensure estimate and schedule are coordinated is through development of a good WBS. Must do some scheduling during bid prep to identify time constraints for estimator.
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