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Deadlock 2

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Safe State When a process requests an available resource, system must decide if immediate allocation leaves the system in a safe state System is in a safe state if there exists a safe sequence of all processes Sequence <P0, P1, …, Pn> is safe if for each Pi, the resources that Pi can still request can be satisfied by currently available resources + resources held by all the Pj with j < i If Pi‘s resource needs are not immediately available, then Pi can wait until all Pj have finished When Pj finishes, Pi can obtain needed resources, execute, return allocated resources, and terminate When Pi terminates, Pi+1 can obtain its needed resources, and so on

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**Basic Facts If system is in safe state no deadlock**

If system is in unsafe state possibility of deadlock Avoidance ensure that system will never enter an unsafe state

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**Safe, Unsafe, Deadlock State**

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**Example Allocation Max**

Assume the system has 12 instances of the particular resource Is the system currently in a safe or in an unsafe state?

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Example Suppose that P2 requests and is allocated one more instance of the resource, still assume the system has 12 instances of the resource Allocation Max P P P Is the system currently in a safe or in an unsafe state?

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Deadlock Avoidance Requires that the system has some additional a priori information available: Simplest and most useful model requires that each process declare the maximum number of resources of each type that it may need The deadlock-avoidance algorithm dynamically examines the resource-allocation state to ensure that there can never be a circular-wait condition Resource-allocation state is defined by the number of available and allocated resources, and the maximum demands of the processes

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**Avoidance algorithms Single instance of a resource type**

Use a resource-allocation graph Multiple instances of a resource type Use the banker’s algorithm

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**Resource-Allocation Graph Algorithm**

Can be used if we have a resource-allocation system with only one instance of each resource type. We just need ensure that no cycle exists Claim edge Pi Rj indicates that process Pi may request resource Rj; represented by a dashed line Claim edge converts to request edge when a process requests a resource Resources must be claimed a priori in the system

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**Resource-Allocation Graph For Deadlock Avoidance**

Suppose P2 requests R2, can this request be granted?

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**Resource-Allocation Graph For Deadlock Avoidance**

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**Resource-Allocation Graph Algorithm**

Suppose that process Pi requests a resource Rj The request can be granted only if converting the request edge to an assignment edge does not result in the formation of a cycle in the resource allocation graph

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Banker’s Algorithm Multiple instances Each process must a priori claim maximum use When a process requests a resource it may have to wait When a process gets all its resources it must return them in a finite amount of time

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**Banker’s Algorithm Toward right idea:**

State maximum resource needs in advance Allow particular process to proceed if: (available resources - #requested) max remaining that might be needed by any process Banker’s algorithm (less conservative): Allocate resources dynamically Evaluate each request and grant if some ordering of processes is still deadlock free afterward Technique: pretend request is granted, and check to see if resulting state would be a SAFE state. Grant request if result is deadlock free (conservative!) Keeps system in a SAFE state (i.e., there is always a safe sequence) Algorithm allows the sum of maximum resource needs of all current processes to be greater than total resources

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**Banker’s Algorithm: Example**

5 processes P0 through P4; 3 resource types R0 (10 instances), R1 (5 instances), and R2 (7 instances) Snapshot at initial time: Allocation Max Available R0 R1 R2 R0 R1 R R0 R1 R2 P P P P P Is the system in a safe state? The system is in a safe state since the sequence <P1, P3, P4, P2, P0> satisfies safety criteria Need R0 R1 R2

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**Banker’s Algorithm: Example**

Suppose that P1 requests (1, 0, 2). Is it safe to honor this request? Allocation Max Available R0 R1 R2 R0 R1 R2 R0 R1 R2 P P P P P Find the new state that the system would be in if this request is granted. If the new state is safe, then it is safe to grant this request. Otherwise, it is not safe to honor this request (safety algorithm)

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**Banker’s Algorithm: Example**

This is the new state that the system would be in if P1’s request is honored Allocation Max Available R0 R1 R2 R0 R1 R2 R0 R1 R2 P P P P P The sequence <P1, P3, P4, P0, P2> satisfies safety requirement, so it is safe to honor P1’s request Can request for (3,3,0) by P4 be granted? Can request for (0,2,0) by P0 be granted?

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**Data Structures for the Banker’s Algorithm**

Let n be the number of processes, and m be the number of resource types Available: Vector of length m. If Available[j]= k, there are k instances of resource type Rj available Max: n x m matrix. If Max[i,j]= k, then process Pi may request at most k instances of resource type Rj Allocation: n x m matrix. If Allocation[i,j]= k then Pi is currently allocated k instances of Rj Need: n x m matrix. If Need[i,j]= k, then Pi may need k more instances of Rj to complete its task Need[i, j] = Max[i, j] – Allocation[i, j]

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**Resource-Request Algorithm for Process Pi**

Let Request be the request vector for process Pi. If Requesti[j] = k then process Pi wants k instances of resource type Rj 1. If Requesti Needi go to step 2. Otherwise, raise error condition, since process has exceeded its maximum claim 2. If Requesti Available, go to step 3. Otherwise Pi must wait, since resources are not available Pretend to allocate requested resources to Pi by modifying the state as follows: Available = Available - Requesti Allocationi = Allocationi + Requesti Needi = Needi – Requesti If safe the resources are allocated to Pi If unsafe Pi must wait, and the old resource-allocation state is restored

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Safety Algorithm 1. Let Work and Finish be vectors of length m and n, respectively. Initialize: Work = Available Finish[i] = false for i = 0, 1, …, n 2. Find an i such that Finish[i] = false AND Needi Work If no such i exists, go to step 4 3. Work = Work + Allocationi Finish[i] = true go to step 2 4. If Finish[i] == true for all i, then the system is in a safe state

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Example Consider a computer system having 4 serially-reusable resource classes R0 (4 instances), R1 (3 instances), R2 (11 instances), and R3 (2 instances). There are 4 processes in the system P0 through P3. Assume that the maximum claim approach to deadlock avoidance is used. The current state is given by: Allocation Max R0 R1 R2 R R0 R1 R2 R3 P P P P Which of the following outstanding requests can be safely satisfied? Request R0 R1 R2 R3 P P P P

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