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EQUIPMENT & PROCESS SANITATION Inneke Hantoro. Materials for constructions and repair All materials used in the construction of utensils and food-contact.

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Presentation on theme: "EQUIPMENT & PROCESS SANITATION Inneke Hantoro. Materials for constructions and repair All materials used in the construction of utensils and food-contact."— Presentation transcript:


2 Materials for constructions and repair All materials used in the construction of utensils and food-contact surfaces of equipment should be: – Safe – Durable, corrosion resistant, nonabsorbent – Sufficient in weight and thickness to withstand repeated warewashing – Finished to have a smooth, easily cleanable surface – Resistant to pitting, chipping, crazing, scratching, scoring, distortion and decomposition

3 Materials for constructions and repair Wood/ Hardwood Use for vats & tanks for fermented foods Highly acidic & high NaCl As the floors of the packing area Solid hardwood could be used as removable cutting boards (smooth and free from cracks)

4 Materials for constructions and repair Cast Iron & Black Iron Cast iron is an alloy of iron and heavy metals which may leach into food (esp. in case of acidic foods) They are not recommended for foods They used to be use for meat mincer, cooking pan it is not allowed

5 Materials for constructions and repair Plastics It can be molded & no corrosion Precaution: it tends to deform heat or long immersion in water migration of potentially toxic plasticizer occurs to a significant degree

6 Materials for constructions and repair Teflon ® Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that has numerous applications. PTFE is used as a non-stick coating for pans & other cookware. It is very non-reactive, partly because of the strength of carbon-fluorine bonds it is often used in containers & pipework for reactive and corrosive chemicals. Probably the safest & most frequently used plastics It has high degree resistance to corrosion

7 Materials for constructions and repair Stainless steel The series 300 (18-8) stainless steel is acceptable for general use. It is desirable to be used in food processing equipment It combine strength, attractive appearance, easily cleaned, resistant to corrosion

8 Materials for constructions and repair Composition & Properties of Stainless Steel A family of steel alloys containing ferrous metals + varying concentration of Cr, Ni, Mo, Ti, S & Se. 18-8 grade stainless steel most frequently use Mo-containing steels required for highly corrosive liquid e.g. fruit juice & strong brines

9 Finish NoDescriptionNotes 0Hot rolled & softenedNot corrosion resistant 1Hot rolled; softened; descaledRough surface 2DCold rolled; softened; descaledMat finish 2BCold rolled; softened; descaled; lightly rolled on polish rolls Smooth finish 2ABright annealedReflective finish retained 3AGroundCoarse ground finish 3BDull buffedUniform; straight-grained finish applied to a 2A & 2B finish 4Polished with fine gritFine abrasive: not highly reflective 7Bright buffedBright finish; polished 8Mirror finishBright, reflective, buffed finished Table 1. Stainless steel surface finishes


11 Materials for constructions and repair Corrosion of Stainless Steel Stainless steel which resistant to corrosion min. addition of 10% Cr & often Ni. 18-8 stainless steel specified for food application = 18% Cr and 8% Ni. Attraction to magnet is a direct trade off with corrosion resistance Some examples of corroding agents in Food Plant Sterilizing agents : Na-hypochlorite, Iodophors, Bromines Food products : whey, salted butter, fruit juice, salad dressing, pickling brines Cleaning agents : Na-hypochlorite, mineral acids, sulfamic acid

12 Materials for constructions and repair Brass, copper & aluminum not recommended Brass & copper produce off-colors; accelerate deterioration of vitamin C of foodstuff; accelerate autoxidation of food containing high fat content Aluminum little strength & easily corroded with alkaline; formation of black oxide with meat discoloration Enamelware and porcelain are not acceptable Cadmium, antimony, and lead are toxic unacceptable, unless for lead may be used in alloys in an amount not exceeding 5%.

13 Equipment Service Electrical Electrical motor should be mounted on the equipment, not on the floor surface; should not be located over the product stream Electrical connection waterproof & eliminate insect harborages; easy cleaning vinyl

14 Equipment Service Gases N 2 & air via hoses or piping It should be easy to be cleaned; not over the product stream Gases should be filtered; filtered must be inspected regularly

15 Equipment Service Water and Stream It should be supplied in pipes & tubes; insulated if their surface temperature is very high or sufficiently cool to condense water vapor from the atmosphere Pipe insulation : smooth, hard PP Pipe line carrying sewage should not be located above product lines Vents for sanitary sewer lines should be located well away from plant air intakes & process air sources

16 Equipment Service Soldering Use in food contact application: Soft solder - non toxic at least 50% tin, free of Cd, Bi, An, contain no more Pb than is absolutely necessary. Hard or silver solder – subject to similar restriction

17 Equipment Service Pipes Adequately separated from other pipes Interior surface smooth, free of rough seams & dead ends Minimal view ports & opening for sampling Bends smooth & rounded, right angled Pipe junction should be sanitary no threads on the interior surface & minimize on the outside

18 Design and Construction All parts of the equipment shall be accessible for inspection, maintenance, cleaning, and/or sanitation. Equipment and utensils should be designed and constructed to be durable and to retain their characteristic qualities under normal use conditions. Equipment should be designed so that all product contact surfaces can be readily and thoroughly cleaned. Electric components, etc., which cannot be cleaned in this manner should be completely enclosed and sealed Durability and Strength

19 Design and Construction Equipment should be self-draining or designed to be evacuated of water. Equipment should be designed, constructed, and installed in a manner to protect personnel from safety hazards such as sharp edges, moving parts, electric shocks, excessive noise, and any other hazards. All welds, in both product- and non–product-contact areas, should be smooth, continuous, even, and relatively flush with the adjacent surfaces Durability and Strength

20 Design and Construction Food temperature measuring devices may not have sensors or stems constructed of glass, except that thermometers with glass sensors or stems that are encased in a shatterproof coating may be used. Food temperature measuring devices that have glass sensors or stems present a likelihood that glass will end up in food as a foreign object and create an injury hazard to the consumer. Durability and Strength

21 Design and Construction Multi-use food-contact surfaces should be capable of being easily cleaned and accessible for cleaning. Food-contact surfaces that do not meet these requirements provide a potential harbor for foodborne pathogenic organisms. Surfaces which have imperfections such as cracks, chips, or pits allow microorganisms to attach and form biofilms. Cleanability

22 Design and Construction Cleaning In Place (CIP) means cleaned in place by the circulation or flowing by mechanical means through a piping system of a detergent solution, water rinse, and sanitizing solution onto or over equipment surfaces that require cleaning. CIP does not include the cleaning of equipment such as band saws, slicers, or mixers that are subjected to in- place manual cleaning without the use of a CIP system. Cleanability

23 Design and Construction All internal surfaces should be either designed for self-draining (of cleaning and sanitizing solutions) or physically disassembled for draining after rinsing. CIP equipment that is not designed to be disassembled for cleaning should be designed with inspection access points to assure that all interior food-contact surfaces throughout the fixed system are being effectively cleaned. Cleanability

24 Design and Construction Other methods of cleaning are: Clean-Out-of Place (COP) Manual Cleaning Dry Cleaning Cleanability

25 Equipment Installation It does little good to have which is designed to be cleanable, but which is installed in such a manner or location as to preclude its cleanability Adequate space must be provided within and around equipment must be accessible for cleaning, sanitizing, maintenance, and inspection

26 Equipment Calibration and Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Monitoring equipment maintenance procedures, such as: – A program specifies necessary servicing interval – Replacement parts – etc

27 Equipment Calibration and Maintenance Equipment Calibration Protocols and calibration methods must be established for all equipment that could impact on food safety, which include: – Thermometers – pH meters – Water activity meters – Refrigeration controls – Scales – Recording thermometers – Hygrometers – etc

28 Thank You…

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