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7-1 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 7 Attitudes and Persuasion CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R.

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Presentation on theme: "7-1 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 7 Attitudes and Persuasion CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R."— Presentation transcript:

1 7-1 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 7 Attitudes and Persuasion CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon

2 7-2 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: Its important for consumer researchers to understand the nature and power of attitudes. Attitudes are more complex than they first appear. We form attitudes in several ways.

3 7-3 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: A need to maintain consistency among all of our attitudinal components motivates us to alter one or more of them. We use attitude models to identify specific components and combine them to predict a consumers overall attitude toward a product or brand.

4 7-4 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: The communications model identifies several important components for marketers when they try to change consumers attitudes toward products and services. The consumer who processes such a message is not necessarily the passive receiver of information marketers once believed him to be.

5 7-5 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: Several factors influence a message sources effectiveness. The way a marketer structures his message determines how persuasive it will be. Audience characteristics help to determine whether the nature of the source or the message itself will be relatively more effective.

6 7-6 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Power of Attitudes Attitude: a lasting, general evaluation of people, objects, advertisements, or issues Attitude object (A O ): anything toward which one has an attitude

7 7-7 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Functional Theory of Attitudes UTILITARIAN FUNCTION: Relates to rewards and punishments VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Expresses consumers values or self-concept EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: Need for order, structure, or meaning

8 7-8 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Imagine that you work for the marketing department of your college or university and have segmented students into four different clusters, each representing one of the four functions identified by Katz. Develop a marketing strategy based on each of the four functions to motivate students to stay in school and complete their degrees.

9 7-9 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall ABC Model of Attitudes An attitude has three components: Affect: the way a consumer feels about an attitude object Behavior: persons intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object

10 7-10 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.1 Hierarchies of Effects

11 7-11 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Attitude Toward the Advertisement We form attitudes toward objects other than the product that can influence our product selections. We often form product attitudes from its ads Ad: attitude toward advertiser + evaluations of ad execution + ad evoked mood + ad arousal effects on consumer + viewing context

12 7-12 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Attitude Commitment COMPLIANCE Lowest level: consumer forms attitude because it gains rewards or avoids punishments IDENTIFICATION Mid-level: attitudes formed in order to conform to another person or group INTERNALIZATION Highest level: deep-seeded attitudes become part of consumers value system

13 7-13 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Consistency Principle We value/seek harmony among thoughts, feelings, and behaviors We will change components to make them consistent Relates to the theory of cognitive dissonance – we take action to resolve dissonance when our attitudes and behaviors are inconsistent

14 7-14 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Interview a student next to you about a behavior that he or she has that is inconsistent with his or her attitudes (e.g., attitudes toward healthy eating or active lifestyle, attitudes toward materialism, etc.) Ask the student to elaborate on why he or she has the behavior, then try to identify the way the person has resolved dissonant elements.

15 7-15 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Self-Perception Theory DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE Person is first asked to do something extreme (which he refuses), then asked to do something smaller. LOW-BALL TECHNIQUE Person is asked for a small favor and is informed after agreeing to it that it will be very costly. FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR TECHNIQUE Consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he has first agreed to comply with a smaller request

16 7-16 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Social Judgment Theory We assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what we already know/feel Initial attitude = frame of reference Latitudes of acceptance and rejection Assimilation effects Contrast effects Example: Choosy mothers choose Jif Peanut Butter

17 7-17 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Balance Theory Considers how a person might perceive relations among different attitude objects and how he might alter attitudes to maintain consistency Triad attitude structures: Person Perception of attitude object Perception of other person/object

18 7-18 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.2 Balance Theory

19 7-19 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Multiattribute Attitude Models Consumers attitudes toward an attitude object depend on beliefs she has about object attributes Three elements of multiattribute Attributes of Ao Beliefs about Ao Importance weights

20 7-20 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Fishbein Model Salient Beliefs Object-Attribute Linkages Evaluation

21 7-21 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Table 7.1 Saundras College Decision Attribute Beliefs (β) Import. (I)SmithPrincetonRutgersNorthland Academic reputation68963 All women79333 Cost42269 Proximity to home32269 Athletics11251 Party atmosphere21379 Library facilities57972 Attitude Score

22 7-22 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Marketing Applications of the Multiattribute Model Capitalize on Relative Advantage Strengthen Perceived Linkages Add a New Attribute Influence Competitors Ratings

23 7-23 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Extended Fishbein Model: The Theory of Reasoned Action Intentions versus behavior: measure behavioral intentions, not just intentions Social pressure: acknowledge the power of other people in purchasing decision Attitude toward buying: measure attitude toward the act of buying, not just the product

24 7-24 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.3 Theory of Trying

25 7-25 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall How Do Marketers Change Attitudes? ReciprocityScarcity AuthorityConsistency LikingConsensus

26 7-26 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Tactical Communications Options Who will be source of message? How should message be constructed? What media will transmit message? What target market characteristics will influence ads acceptance?

27 7-27 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.4 The Traditional Communications Model

28 7-28 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.5 An Updated Communications Model

29 7-29 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall New Message Formats M-commerce - marketers promote goods and services via wireless devices New social media platforms Blogging Video blogging (vlogging) Podcasting Tweeting Virtual worlds Widgets

30 7-30 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Source Source effects mean the same words by different people can have very different meanings A source may be chosen due to expertise, fame, attractiveness, or similarity What makes a good source? Source credibility: a sources perceived expertise, objectivity, or trustworthiness Source attractiveness: social value

31 7-31 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Star Power

32 7-32 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Nonhuman Endorsers

33 7-33 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Decisions to Make About the Message Should we use pictures or words? How often should message be repeated? Should it draw an explicit conclusion? Should it show both sides of argument? Should it explicitly compare product to competitors? Should it arouse emotions? Should it be concrete or based on imagery?

34 7-34 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall The Message Positive EffectsNegative Effects Showing convenience of useExtensive information on components, ingredients, nutrition Showing new product/improved features Outdoor setting (message gets lost) Casting background (i.e., people are incidental to message) Large number of onscreen characters Indirect comparison to other products Graphic displays Table 7.2 Characteristics of Good and Bad Messages

35 7-35 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.6 Two-Factor Theory

36 7-36 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall How Do We Structure Arguments? One-sided: supportive arguments Two-sided: both positive and negative information Refutational argument: negative issue is raised, then dismissed Positive attributes should refute presented negative attributes Effective with well-educated and not-yet- loyal audiences

37 7-37 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Comparative Advertising Comparative advertising: message compares two+ recognizable brands on specific attributes Unlike McDonalds, all of Arby's chicken sandwiches are made with 100% all-natural chicken Negative outcomes include source derogation

38 7-38 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Types of Message Appeals Emotional versus Rational Appeals Sex Appeals Humorous Appeals Fear Appeals

39 7-39 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Name ads that rely on sex appeal to sell products. What benefits are communicated in the ad? Is the message implicit or explicit? How?

40 7-40 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Message As Art Form Advertisers use literary elements to communicate benefits and meaning Allegory: story about an abstract concept personified in a fictional character Metaphor: two dissimilar objects in a close relationship (A is B) Simile: compares two objects (A is like B) Resonance: play on words with pictures

41 7-41 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Table 7.3 Examples of Advertising Resonance ProductHeadlineVisual Embassy SuitesThis Year, Were Unwrapping Suites by the Dozen Chocolate kisses with hotel names underneath each Toyota auto partsOut Lifetime Guarantee May Come as a Shock Man holding a shock absorber Bucks filter cigarettes Herd of These?Cigarette pack with a picture of a stag Bounce fabric softener Is There Something Creeping Up Behind You? Womans dress bunched up on her back due to static PepsiThis Year, Hit the Beach Topless Pepsi bottle cap lying on the sand ASICS athletic shoes We Believe Women Should Be Running the Country Woman jogging in a rural setting

42 7-42 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Forms of Story Presentation Lecture: speech in which the source speaks directly to the audience Attempts to persuade Cognitive responses may occur Drama: story that draws viewers into the action Characters indirectly address the audience Interact with each other in an imaginary setting

43 7-43 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Sell the steak or the sizzle? Whats more important in an advertisement: What is said? or Who says it? Give examples of ads that use one strategy versus the other. What types of ads are more effective for each strategy?

44 7-44 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Figure 7.7 Elaboration Likelihood Model

45 7-45 6/13/2014 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary Attitudes are very powerful, and they are formed in several ways. People try to maintain consistency among their attitudinal components and their attitudes and behaviors. The communications model includes several important components which can be influenced by marketers to enhance the persuasiveness of the message.


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