# Project Time Management

## Presentation on theme: "Project Time Management"— Presentation transcript:

Project Time Management
Part 2

Critical Path Method (CPM)
CPM is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration A critical path for a project is the series of activities that determines the earliest time by which the project can be completed The critical path is the longest path through the network diagram and has the least amount of slack or float Slack or float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed without delaying a succeeding activity or the project finish date

Critical Path Method (CPM)
There are normally several tasks done in parallel on a project Most projects have multiple paths on the network diagram The longest path or the path containing the critical tasks is deriving the completion dates for a project You are not finished with the project until you have completed all the tasks

Calculating the Critical Path
First develop a good network diagram, which in turn requires a good activity list based on the WBS. Estimate the duration of each activity Add the duration estimates for all activities on each path through the network diagram The longest path is the critical path

Calculating the Critical Path (Cont’d)
What does critical path really mean? The critical path shows the shortest time in which a project can be completed. If one or more of the activities on the critical path takes longer than planned, the whole project schedule will slip unless the project manager takes corrective action

Determining the Critical Path for Project X

More on the Critical Path
A project team at Apple computer put a stuffed gorilla on the top of the cubicle of the person currently managing critical task This would let others know that the person under the pressure don’t need to be disturbed or distracted. The critical path is not the one with all the critical activities; it only accounts for time There can be more than one critical path if the lengths of two or more paths are the same In case of more than one critical path the project managers should keep track of all those critical paths The critical path can change as the project progresses.

How Critical Paths Change
, Suppose activities A,B,C,D,E,F and G all start and finish as planned Assume that activity I runs into problems and takes more than 4 days to complete This would make path C,G,I,J be longer than other paths Hence C,G,I,J would now be the Critical Path.

Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule Trade-offs
It is important to know what the critical path is throughout the life of a project. So the project manager can make tradeoffs Behind schedule tasks on the critical path need to be addressed by answering these questions Should the schedule be renegotiated? Should more resources be allocated on other items on the critical path to make up for lost time? Is it ok if the project finishes behind schedule? Project team can proactively manage schedule using the critical path analysis.

Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule Trade-offs
Project Manager can use a technique to make tradeoffs. This technique involves determining the following Free slack or free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately following activities Total slack or total float is the amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date Early Start Date is the earliest possible time an activity can start based on the project network logic.

Using Critical Path Analysis to Make Schedule Trade-offs
Project Managers calculate free or total slack by conducting a forward pass or backward pass on the network diagram A forward pass through the network diagram determines the early start and finish dates A backward pass determines the late start and finish dates

Example of Forward Pass
Tasks D and E precedes task H Early start date for task H would be early finish date of task E. As it’s greater than early finish date of task D

Calculating Early and Late Start and Finish Dates
B,C is critical path with no float or slack Task A has 5 days of free and total float or slack

Free and Total Float or Slack for Project X

How to Find the Critical Path
General Foundry’s network with expected activity times A 2 C 2 H 2 E 4 B 3 D 4 G 5 F 3 Start Finish

How to Find the Critical Path
To find the critical path, need to determine the following quantities for each activity in the network Earliest start time (ES): the earliest time an activity can begin without violation of immediate predecessor requirements Earliest finish time (EF): the earliest time at which an activity can end Latest start time (LS): the latest time an activity can begin without delaying the entire project Latest finish time (LF): the latest time an activity can end without delaying the entire project

How to Find the Critical Path
In the nodes, the activity time and the early and late start and finish times are represented in the following manner ACTIVITY t ES EF LS LF Earliest times are computed as Earliest finish time = Earliest start time + Expected activity time EF = ES + t Earliest start = Largest of the earliest finish times of immediate predecessors ES = Largest EF of immediate predecessors

How to Find the Critical Path
At the start of the project we set the time to zero Thus ES = 0 for both A and B Start A t = 2 ES = 0 EF = = 2 B t = 3 ES = 0 EF = = 3

How to Find the Critical Path
General Foundry’s ES and EF times A 2 0 2 C 2 2 4 H 2 13 15 E 4 4 8 B 3 0 3 D 4 3 7 G 5 8 13 F 3 4 7 Start Finish Figure 13.4

How to Find the Critical Path
Latest times are computed as Latest start time = Latest finish time – Expected activity time LS = LF – t Latest finish time = Smallest of latest start times for following activities LF = Smallest LS of following activities For activity H LS = LF – t = 15 – 2 = 13 weeks

How to Find the Critical Path
General Foundry’s LS and LF times A 2 0 2 C 2 2 4 H 2 13 15 E 4 4 8 B 3 0 3 1 4 D 4 3 7 G 5 8 13 F 3 4 7 10 13 Start Finish Figure 13.5

How to Find the Critical Path
Once ES, LS, EF, and LF have been determined, it is a simple matter to find the amount of slack time that each activity has Slack = LS – ES, or Slack = LF – EF From Table 13.3 we see activities A, C, E, G, and H have no slack time These are called critical activities and they are said to be on the critical path The total project completion time is 15 weeks Industrial managers call this a boundary timetable

How to Find the Critical Path
General Foundry’s schedule and slack times ACTIVITY EARLIEST START, ES EARLIEST FINISH, EF LATEST START, LS LATEST FINISH, LF SLACK, LS – ES ON CRITICAL PATH? A 2 Yes B 3 1 4 No C D 7 8 E F 10 13 6 G H 15 Table 13.3

How to Find the Critical Path
General Foundry’s critical path A 2 0 2 C 2 2 4 H 2 13 15 E 4 4 8 B 3 0 3 1 4 D 4 3 7 G 5 8 13 F 3 4 7 10 13 Start Finish Figure 13.6

Using the Critical Path to Shorten a Project Schedule
Three main techniques for shortening schedules for activities on the critical path. Shortening durations of critical activities/tasks by adding more resources or changing their scope Crashing is a technique used to decrease the duration of the project by assigning additional resources to tasks and decreasing the duration required for those tasks. Main disadvantage? Fast tracking activities by doing them in parallel or overlapping them. Main disadvantage?

Importance of Updating Critical Path Data
It is important to update project schedule information to meet time goals for a project The critical path may change as you enter actual start and finish dates If you know the project completion date will slip, negotiate with the project sponsor

Critical Chain Scheduling
A method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date Uses the Theory of Constraints (TOC) This theory says that at any given time the project has an aspect or constraint which limits its ability to achieve more of its goals. For the system to attain any significant improvements the constraint might be identified and the whole system must be managed with it in mind

Critical Chain Scheduling
The important thing is availability of scarce resources like people, software or hardware. Attempts to minimize multitasking When a resource works on more than one task at a time Multitasking can delay task completion It can some times increase total duration like wasted setup time

Buffers and Critical Chain

Example of Critical Chain Scheduling

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
PERT is a network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high degree of uncertainty about the individual activity duration estimates PERT uses probabilistic time estimates Duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations, or a three-point estimate The main disadvantage is more work required than CPM

PERT Formula and Example
PERT weighted average = optimistic time + 4X most likely time + pessimistic time 6 Example: 8 workdays + 4 X 10 workdays + 24 workdays = 12 days 6 where optimistic time = 8 days most likely time = 10 days, and pessimistic time = 24 days Therefore, you’d use 12 days on the network diagram instead of 10 when using PERT for the above example

Schedule Control The final process in project time management is schedule control Like scope control the schedule control is a portion of integrated change control process under the project integration management The goal of schedule control is to know the status of the schedule, influence the factors causing schedule changes, determine schedule changes and manage changes when they occur

Schedule Control Suggestions
Perform reality checks on schedules Allow for contingencies Don’t plan for everyone to work at 100% capacity all the time Hold progress meetings with stakeholders and be clear and honest in communicating schedule issues

Controlling the Schedule
It is important to address conflicts and allow management insight if any thing gets out of hand Project managers must use discipline to control schedule like setting firm dates for key milestones and emphasizing the need to follow them Tools and techniques include: Progress reports A schedule change control system Project management software, including schedule comparison charts like the tracking Gantt chart Variance analysis, such as analyzing float or slack Performance management, such as earned value (Chapter 7)

Reality Checks on Scheduling
First review the draft schedule or estimated completion date in the project charter Prepare a more detailed schedule with the project team Make sure the schedule is realistic and followed Alert top management well in advance if there are schedule problems

Working with People Issues
Strong leadership helps projects succeed more than good PERT charts Project managers should use: Empowerment Incentives Discipline Negotiation

Using Software to Assist in Time Management
Software for facilitating communications helps people exchange schedule-related information in the form of Network diagrams with critical paths information, Gantt charts etc Decision support systems help analyze trade-offs that can be made Project management software can help in various time management areas

Words of Caution on Using Project Management Software
Many people misuse project management software because they don’t understand important concepts behind creating a network diagram, evaluating critical path or setting a schedule baseline You must enter dependencies to have dates adjust automatically and to determine the critical path You must enter actual schedule information to compare planned and actual progress

Assignment # 1 Make a team of up to 3 people
Select a Software Project of your own choice Develop Project Charter of the selected project Deadline of this deliverable is