2 Literary Terms Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. An internal conflict takes place in the mind of a character.An external conflict is one in which a character struggles with an outside force or another person.Plot is the sequence of events in a short story.
3 Literary TermsParts of the plot are exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.Setting is the time and place of the action of a story.Characters are the people or animals that take part in the action.Character traits are the qualities, attitudes, and values a character possesses.Motives are the reasons for a character’s actions.
4 Literary Terms Theme is the central message expressed in a story. Point of view is the perspective from which a story is told.First person, third person limited, and omniscient are the most commonly used points of view.Foreshadowing is the use of clues in a story to hint at events to come.
5 Literary TermsFlashback is the use of scenes in a story that interrupt the sequence of events to reveal past occurrences.Irony is the contrast between what happens and what the reader or the characters expect.When you compare, you tell how things are alike. When you contrast, you tell how they are different.
6 Literary TermsRound characters are complex, showing many different traits.Flat characters are one-sided, showing just one trait.A summary is a statement of the main ideas and major details of a written or dramatic work.A dynamic character grows and changes because of events in the story.A static character does not change.
7 “An Hour with Abuelo”Arturo’s mother asks him to go to visit his grandfather in the nursing home, but Arturo thinks he has better things to do.Arturo is reluctant to go because he thinks it will be boring, but he says he will go for just one hour.Arturo’s grandfather is writing the story of his life, and he has led a very interesting one.Arturo realizes he has a lot in common with his grandfather.When the hour is up, it is ironic that Abuelo has been watching the time because he has other things to do, too.Although this is not a memoir, the story is based on the author’s memories of her grandfather and childhood visits to Puerto Rico.
8 “Charles”A boy brings home startling stories about a classmate named Charles from his first few weeks in kindergarten.Laurie’s behavior changes after he starts kindergarten.When Laurie’s mother goes to PTA, she finds that there is no one named Charles in the kindergarten.The ending is a surprise.
9 “The Adventure of the Speckled Band A young woman comes to Sherlock Holmes and his assistant Dr. Watson to ask for their help.She believes that her stepfather is trying to murder her just as he did her sister.Dr. Roylott will lose her income if she marries.Sherlock Holmes sets a trap for him.The speckled band is a deadly snake. When Holmes frightens it, it returns to Roylott’s room and bites him instead.
10 “A Retrieved Reformation The main character, Jimmy Valentine, has just been released from prison where he has been serving time for robbing safes.He plans to resume his old way of life and does for a while after he gets out of prison.Then he meets Annabelle, falls in love, goes straight, and opens a successful business.Annabelle’s father is the president of a bank, and a child is accidentally locked in his new safe.Jimmy has to use his old safecracking skills to free the child.Ben Price, the policeman who has been following Jimmy, sees this happen and decides to let Jimmy go free. He pretends not to know who Jimmy is.O. Henry, the author of the story, is known for his surprise endings like the one in this story.
11 “Raymond’s Run”A girl who is a fast runner is planning to compete in a race. She faces competition from a new girl.She is responsible for taking care of her mentally handicapped brother.She is smart and sassy and doesn’t take any lip from anyone about her brother.The race is almost too close to call, but she wins.She discovers a new respect for her opponent, and she finds out that her brother is a good runner, too.
12 “Fox Hunt”A boy meets a mysterious girl who helps him study for the SAT.His mother tells him a story about a fox disguised as a girl who helped one of his ancestors.He learns that the girl who has been helping him is also a fox.
13 “Thank You, M’am”The story is by Langston Hughes, who was an important part of the Harlem Renaissance.A boy tries to steal a woman’s purse as she is going home from her job one night.Instead of taking him to the police, Mrs. Jones takes Roger home, feeds him, and then give him money to buy the shoes he wanted.The story is about forgiveness.The title is ironic-Roger never actually says thank you.
14 “The Storyteller”A bachelor is traveling in a train car with an aunt and three children.The children are noisy and are bored by the moralistic story the aunt tells them to try to keep them quiet.They like the story the bachelor tells because it is entertaining.
15 “Tears of Autumn”This story is about a picture bride who journeys from Japan to the United States for an arranged marriage to a man she hasn’t met.Hana wants to go to America to escape the restriction of her family and her small village.She is sick and miserable on the voyage, and remembers the beauty of her home in Japan.When she finally meets Taro, though, she is glad that she has come to America.This story illustrated how the customs of a particular culture can be an important part of the setting of a story.
16 “The Tell-Tale Heart”Edgar Allan Poe wrote this story which gives a look inside a madman’s mind.A man kills his elderly neighbor because he is offended by the old man’s eye.He boasts that he has executed and covered up the crime very carefully.When the police come, he thinks he hears the old man’s heart beating and confesses.The story establishes a mood of madness and horror.The author has a formal style with long sentences and advanced vocabulary.
17 “The Finish of Patsy Barnes” A young African-American boy struggles with poverty, racism, and his mother’s serious illness.He doesn’t like to go to school; he likes to spend his time hanging around the stables.Patsy’s father is dead.Patsy volunteers to ride a difficult horse to earn money for a doctor and medicine for his mother.The horse is the same one which had killed his father years before.Patsy wins the race and gets a doctor for his mother, but he never tells his mother the horse’s name.Patsy is affected by the historical time in which he lives. There is racism, and medicine wasn’t as advanced as it is today. Rich and poor people received very different medical care.
18 “The Drummer Boy of Shiloh” A young drummer boy is nervous and tearful the night before the Battle of Shiloh.Joby is only fourteen, and he has run away form home to enlist in the army as a drummer boy.Joby is scared because unlike the other soldiers, he has no weapon with which to defend himself.The general stops to talk to Joby and encourage him by telling him how important his job as a drummer is.Joby can influence the men by beating a brisk, steady rhythm.The general tells Joby that he is the heartbeat of the army. Why is this an appropriate metaphor?We only know Joby’s first name. We don’t know his last name, the general’s name, or even which side they’re fighting for. Why did the author make this choice?