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Fire Resistant Coatings Presented by: Jayson L. Helsel, P.E. KTA-Tator, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Fire Resistant Coatings Presented by: Jayson L. Helsel, P.E. KTA-Tator, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fire Resistant Coatings Presented by: Jayson L. Helsel, P.E. KTA-Tator, Inc.

2 Learning Objectives Comprehension of the Fire Resistant Webinar will enable the participant to: n Describe how intumescent coatings protect underlying steel from heat exposure n Identify the US authority that evaluates and approves intumescent coatings n List two fire rating classification tests that are used to qualify intumescent coatings for use in building construction n Identify two primary resin types that are used to formulate intumescent coatings

3 Learning Objectives (cont.) n List characteristics of the resin systems used to formulate intumescent coatings n Explain how steel size and structure design affect specified thickness and number of coats n Describe the methods used to improve the appearance of the texture of intumescent coatings n Describe a method to measure the hardness of the applied coating to assess cure n Identify the generic types of primer and finish coats commonly used in conjunction with intumescent coatings

4 Fire Resistant Coatings nSprayed Fire Resistive Materials (SFRM) are broad group of materials including: –Cementitious and gypsum based materials –Intumescent coatings (Note: There is a separate category for Fire Retardent coatings, which are not reviewed here)

5 Fire Resistant Coatings nIntumescent Coatings: –Are categorized as SFRMs –Similar to conventional coatings –Have unique fire resistant properties

6 Intumescent Coatings nHow they function: –Intumescent coatings char and swell when exposed to fire/heat –The charred layer acts to insulate the steel from fire

7 Intumescent Coatings nPerformance ratings –Coatings rated by how long steel is protected at specified thickness –Ratings from 1 to 3 hours (at 30 minute intervals –Specific to shape/size of steel, e.g. W10 x 49 column

8 Fire Resistance Classifications nUnderwriters Laboratories (UL) is recognized authority that evaluates and approves intumescent coatings for a certain classification and fire rating nCertifications can be verified online at



11 Fire Resistance Classifications nCertifications are design specific by coating manufacturer nNumbering system defines an alphanumeric design number



14 Fire Resistance Classifications nBeams –W, M or S shaped steel sections (AISC) –Minimum beam size for fire resistance is expressed as W/D ratio nW = weight of beam per lineal foot nD = perimeter of protection material –Beams of same configuration with greater W/D ratio may be used in design

15 Fire Resistance Classifications nColumns –Minimum column size and configuration specified in X and Y series designs –Same hourly rating applies when section with equal or greater W/D ratio is substituted for same configuration

16 Fire Resistance Classifications nBeams and Columns –Required coating thickness increases as weight of steel decreases nLighter steel heats up more rapidly and requires more protection

17 Fire Resistance Classifications nIntumescent (and Mastic) Coatings –Coating thickness specification in a design is minimum average thickness measured in accordance with Technical Manual 12-B nAverage thickness should not exceed maximum thickness published (if listed) in individual designs or by nNo individual measurement <80% of specified design thickness

18 Fire Resistance Classifications nTechnical Manual 12-B –Published by Association of the Wall and Ceiling Industries (AWCI International) –Individual measurement = average of 3 gauge readings (similar to SSPC-PA 2) –Testing frequency one bay per floor or one test per 10,000 square feet (further defines required shapes)



21 Fire Resistance Classifications nTechnical Manual 12-B –Scope –General Information –Substrate Conditions –Site Conditions –Inspection Procedures –Method of Tests –Conditions of Finished Application –Patching

22 Fire Resistance Classifications nANSI/UL 263 –Used for resistance to cellulosic fire (e.g. combustion of wood or building materials) –Slower rise in temperature n1000 F at 5 min.; 1550 F at 30 min.; 1700 F at 60 min.; 1925 F at 180 min.; 2000 F at 240 min. –Interior and exterior exposures

23 Fire Resistance Classifications nANSI/UL 263 Classified Coatings –Typical use for structural steel in commercial structures

24 Fire Resistance Classifications nANSI/UL 1709 –Used for resistance to a hydrocarbon fire –Rapid rise in temperature n2000 F at 5 minutes –Interior and exterior exposures nEnvironmental tests include, accelerated aging, high humidity, salt spray, thermal cycling for exterior exposure

25 Fire Resistance Classifications nANSI/UL 1709 Classified Coatings –Typical use for steel structures at petrochemcial facilities, e.g. nChemical plant nRefineries nOffshore oil platforms







32 Other Approvals nIntumescent coatings may also need approval by city building codes nCoating manufacturers should provide approvals as applicable


34 Generic Coating Types nIntumescent coatings are generally the following generic resin types: –Acrylic/vinyl –Epoxy nIntumescents are also generally categorized as thin-film or thick-film coatings

35 Generic Coating Types nAcrylic/vinyl nThin-film coating nSolvent or water-based nSingle component nTypically rated under UL 263

36 Generic Coating Types nAcrylic/vinyl nApplied in several coats nTime-frame for a complete application may span several days nAdditional time may be needed before application of any required exterior finish coat.

37 Generic Coating Types nEpoxy nThick-film coating nApplied by plural component spray equipment in one or two coats nRapid cure nTypically rated under UL 1709

38 Generic Coating Types nEpoxy nMay require mesh reinforcement (e.g. metal, fiberglass, carbon) nTypically requires the use of applicators licensed or approved by the coating manufacturer

39 Generic Coating Comparison Coating TypeRequired Thickness (mils) Number of Coats Recoat Time (between coats) @50ºF Time to Finish Coat @50ºF Solvent-based acrylic130524 hours25 days Solvent-based vinyl37544 hours20+ days Water-based acrylic18068 hours10+ days Epoxy1801n/a24 hours Epoxy w/mesh3401-2n/a48 hours

40 Testing for Coating Cure nIntumescents may require testing for proper cure nTypical test is Durometer Hardness (Shore D) –Resistance of coating film to indentation by Durometer instrument –ASTM D2240, Standard Test Method for Rubber Property-Durometer Hardness

41 Testing for Coating Cure

42 Coating Appearance nIntumescents generally have a rough or orange peel appearance nMethods to improve include: nBack rolling following spray application nSanding (not recommended) nFinish coat application (may be required)




46 Coating Systems nIntumescent design approvals typically include a primer and/or finish coat –When included in design primer/finish must be applied to meet fire rating nPrimer/finish must be endorsed by intumescent coating manufacturer –Preference always for same manufacturer

47 Use of Primers nIntumescent coating manufacturer may have approved list of primers –Types include alkyd, acrylic, epoxy and zinc-rich –Application thickness important

48 PrimersPrimers nFunction of primer –Provides adhesion to substrate –Provides suitable surface for intumescent –Provides additional barrier protection nCan also provide inhibitive or sacrificial protection

49 Use of Finish Coat nMay be required in design approval for exterior exposure nIntumescent coating manufacturer must endorse finish material –Types include 100% acrylic and aliphatic urethane coatings nMay affect/improve appearance

50 Finish Coats nFunction of topcoat –Color and gloss –Abrasion resistance –Chemical resistance –Washability –Resistance to the environment

51 Finish Coats nAcrylics –Advantages nSingle component nEase of application nColor & gloss retention nFlexibility nLow VOC content for waterbased

52 Finish Coats nAcrylics –Limitations nLimited alkali and solvent resistance nModerate abrasion resistance nApplication temperature >50ºF for waterbased

53 Finish Coats nUrethanes –Advantages nColor & gloss retention (aliphatic) nAdhesion nAcid, alkali resistant nChemical resistant nImpact/abrasion resistant

54 Finish Coats nUrethanes –Limitations nMulti-component nShort recoat intervals nLimited pot life nMoisture sensitive during cure nDifficult to recoat

55 Summary of Key Points nWhen specifying intumescents consider: –Required UL approval –City building code approval –Include required primer and finish coats –Applicator certification if needed (e.g. plural component materials) –Include test sections to evaluate appearance

56 Fire Resistive Coatings nQuestions?

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