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McGinnis, J. M., and Foege, W. H. (1993). "Actual Causes of Death in the United States." Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2207–2212. Steptoe,

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Presentation on theme: "McGinnis, J. M., and Foege, W. H. (1993). "Actual Causes of Death in the United States." Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2207–2212. Steptoe,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 McGinnis, J. M., and Foege, W. H. (1993). "Actual Causes of Death in the United States." Journal of the American Medical Association 270:2207–2212. Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Cui, W., Bellisle, F., Zotti, A., Baranyai, R., & Sanderman, R. (2002). Trends in smoking, diet, physical exercise and atittudes toward health in European university students from 13 Countries, 1990-2000. Preventive Medicine, 35, 97-104. Webb, E., Ashton, C. H., Kelly, P. & Kamali, F. (1998). Na update on British medical students lifestyles. Medical education, 32, 325-331 Lifestyle Pattern of personal behavioral choices Health behaviours are established early in life setting the pattern for latter years (Steptoe et al., 2002) It is of interest to examine lifestyles of todays medical students – tomorrows doctors (Webb et al., 1998) Induces higher or reduced health risks (McGinnis et al,1993)

3 (1)Describe health related habits of Portuguese medical students (2)Study the influence of medical schools and its knowledge on health behaviour of medical students (3) Analyse the impact of some academic and social characteristics in students lifestyle.

4 Study Design Cross-sectional study on the health habits of Portuguese medical students Sample includes first and fourth year medical students from Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto Information about health habits was obtained by applying a self-report questionnaire

5 Data collection instrument Health and Behaviour Survey (HBS) Created for the European Health and Behaviour Study (Steptoe & Wardle, 1991). It was used the Portuguese version (Geada, Justo, Santos, Steptoe & Wardle, 1994) Only parts of section A was of interest for this study It was added some independent variables like sex, residence status and grades Other marginal changes were made Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1991). The European health and behaviour survey: rationale, methods and initial results form the United Kingdom. Social Sciences Medicine, 33, 925-936. Geada, M., Justo, J., Santos, S., Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1994). Hábitos de saúde, comportamentos de risco e níveis de saúde física e psicológica em estudantes universitários. Psicologia da Saúde: áreas de intervenção e perspectivas futuras, 157-175.

6 Sample description: Number of questionnaires: 328 Blank questionnaires: 3 Non-respondents per variable: 3.28 Firts year students: 247Fourth year students: 81 Females: 223Males: 102

7 For the treatment of data it was used: SPSS software Unpaired T-test, for continuous variables Chi-square test, for categorical variables Statistical significance defined as p<0.05

8 Pattern of health behaviour of Portuguese medical students Normal Body Mass Index 86% 0% 25% 50%75%100% Less than 3 times per fortnight Never or almost 95% 62% Weig ht Exercise Smoking Alcohol Would like to do more exercise 72% Are not trying to loose weight 64% Never or rarely drink 58% Would not like to reduce what is consumed 89%

9 Avoid eating aliments rich in saturated fats Rarely or never add salt to prepared dishes At least one time per each two/three days 67% 83% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Eating fruit Brush their teeth two times per day or more Between six and eight hours 76% Live with relatives 49% 86% Residence Fats Oral hygiene Sleeping Adding salt 64% Pattern of health behaviour of Portuguese medical students - Continuation

10 68% 55% 32% 45% 0%25% 50%75% 100% 1.º year 4.º year Do not or rarely drink Often drink Comparison between first and fourth year students – alcoholic drinks P=0,038

11 47% 27% 51% 73% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Live with relatives Do not live with relatives Good/ reasonable Excellent/ very good 2% 0% Weak Difference between residency status - Perception of personal health condition P=0,0025

12 68% 55% 32% 45% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Live with relatives Do not live with relatives Less than three times More than three times Difference between residency status - Physical exercise per fortnight P=0,019

13 8% 2% 92% 98% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Live with relatives Do not live with relatives More than one cigarrett less than one cigarrett Difference between residency - Smoking per day P=0,029

14 10% 3% 90% 97% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Live with relatives Do not live with relatives One or two meals Three or more meals Difference between residency status - Number of meals per day P=0,015

15 21% 12% 79% 88% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Live with relatives Do not live with relatives Frequently or sometimes Never or rarely P=0,036 Difference between residency status - Adding salt to food

16 17% 3% 83% 97% 0%25% 50%75% 100% Live with relatives Do not live with relatives Yes No P=0,008 Difference between residency status - Reducing the quantity of alcoholic drinks consumed

17 New data entry Further general comparison Analysis of relation between variables The third objective has not yet been fulfiled

18 Geada, M., Justo, J., Santos, S., Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1994). Hábitos de saúde, comportamentos de risco e níveis de saúde física e psicológica em estudantes universitários. Psicologia da Saúde: áreas de intervenção e perspectivas futuras, 157-175. Piko BF. Does knowledge count? Attitudes toward smoking among medical, nursing, and pharmacy students in Hungary. J Community Health. 2002 Aug;27(4):269 Skemiene L, Ustinaviciene R, Piesine L, Radisauskas R. Peculiarities of medical students' nutrition. Medicina (Kaunas). 2007; 43(2):145-52. Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (1991). The European health and behaviour survey: rationale, methods and initial results form the United Kingdom. Social Sciences Medicine, 33, 925-936. Steptoe, A., Wardle, J., Cui, W., Bellisle, F., Zotti, A., Baranyai, R., & Sanderman, R. (2002). Trends in smoking, diet, physical exercise and atittudes toward health in European university students from 13 Countries, 1990-2000. Preventive Medicine, 35, 97-104. Webb, E., Ashton, C. H., Kelly, P. & Kamali, F. (1998). Na update on British medical students lifestyles. Medical education, 32, 325-331


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