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DISLOCATIONS Edge dislocation Screw dislocation

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**Plastic Deformation in Crystalline Materials Slip (Dislocation motion)**

Twinning Phase Transformation Creep Mechanisms Grain boundary sliding Vacancy diffusion Dislocation climb

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**Plastic deformation of a crystal by shear**

Sinusoidal relationship Realistic curve

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**As a first approximation the stress-displacement curve can be written as**

At small values of displacement Hooke’s law should apply For small values of x/b Hence the maximum shear stress at which slip should occur If b ~ a

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**The shear modulus of metals is in the range 20 – 150 GPa**

The theoretical shear stress will be in the range 3 – 30 GPa Actual shear stress is 0.5 – 10 MPa I.e. (Shear stress)theoretical > 100 * (Shear stress)experimental !!!! DISLOCATIONS Dislocations weaken the crystal

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Carpet Pull

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**DISLOCATIONS EDGE MIXED SCREW DISLOCATIONS**

Usually dislocations have a mixed character and Edge and Screw dislocations are the ideal extremes DISLOCATIONS Random Structural Geometrically necessary dislocations

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Dislocation is a boundary between the slipped and the unslipped parts of the crystal lying over a slip plane Slipped part of the crystal Unslipped part of the crystal

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**A dislocation has associated with it two vectors:**

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Burgers Vector Edge dislocation Crystal with edge dislocation Perfect crystal RHFS: Right Hand Finish to Start convention

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**Direction of t vector dislocation line vector**

Edge dislocation Direction of t vector dislocation line vector Direction of b vector

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Dislocation is a boundary between the slipped and the unslipped parts of the crystal lying over a slip plane The intersection of the extra half-plane of atoms with the slip plane defines the dislocation line (for an edge dislocation) Direction and magnitude of slip is characterized by the Burgers vector of the dislocation (A dislocation is born with a Burgers vector and expresses it even in its death!) The Burgers vector is determined by the Burgers Circuit Right hand screw (finish to start) convention is used for determining the direction of the Burgers vector As the periodic force field of a crystal requires that atoms must move from one equilibrium position to another b must connect one lattice position to another (for a full dislocation) Dislocations tend to have as small a Burgers vector as possible

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**The edge dislocation has compressive stress field above and tensile**

The edge dislocation has compressive stress field above and tensile stress field below the slip plane Dislocations are non-equilibrium defects and would leave the crystal if given an opportunity

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**Compressive stress field**

Tensile stress field

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**STRESS FIELD OF A EDGE DISLOCATION X – FEM SIMULATED CONTOURS**

FILM 28 Å SUBSTRATE b 27 Å (MPa) (x & y original grid size = b/2 = 1.92 Å)

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**Can come together and cancel one another**

Positive edge dislocation Negative edge dislocation ATTRACTION Can come together and cancel one another REPULSION

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**Motion of Edge dislocation**

Conservative (Glide) Motion of dislocations On the slip plane Motion of Edge dislocation Non-conservative (Climb) Motion of dislocation to the slip plane For edge dislocation: as b t → they define a plane → the slip plane Climb involves addition or subtraction of a row of atoms below the half plane ► +ve climb = climb up → removal of a plane of atoms ► ve climb = climb down → addition of a plane of atoms

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**Edge Dislocation Glide**

Shear stress Surface step

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**Removal of a row of atoms Negative climb Addition of a row of atoms**

Edge Climb Positive climb Removal of a row of atoms Negative climb Addition of a row of atoms

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Screw dislocation [1] [1] Bryan Baker chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/ topicreview/bp/materials/defects3.html -

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**Screw dislocation cross-slip**

Slip plane 2 b Slip plane 1 The dislocation is shown cross-slipping from the blue plane to the green plane

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**The dislocation line ends on:. The free surface of the crystal**

The dislocation line ends on: The free surface of the crystal Internal surface or interface Closes on itself to form a loop Ends in a node A node is the intersection point of more than two dislocations The vectoral sum of the Burgers vectors of dislocations meeting at a node = 0

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**Geometric properties of dislocations**

Dislocation Property Type of dislocation Edge Screw Relation between dislocation line (t) and b || Slip direction || to b Direction of dislocation line movement relative to b Process by which dislocation may leave slip plane climb Cross-slip

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Mixed dislocations t b b Pure Edge Pure screw

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**Motion of a mixed dislocation**

[1] We are looking at the plane of the cut (sort of a semicircle centered in the lower left corner). Blue circles denote atoms just below, red circles atoms just above the cut. Up on the right the dislocation is a pure edge dislocation on the lower left it is pure screw. In between it is mixed. In the link this dislocation is shown moving in an animated illustration. [1]

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**Energy of dislocations**

Dislocations have distortion energy associated with them E per unit length Edge → Compressive and tensile stress fields Screw → Shear strains Elastic E Energy of dislocation Non-elastic (Core) ~E/10 Energy of a dislocation / unit length G → () shear modulus b → |b|

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**Dislocations (in terms of lattice translation)**

Dislocations will have as small a b as possible Full b → Full lattice translation Dislocations (in terms of lattice translation) Partial b → Fraction of lattice translation

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**Dissociation of dislocations**

Consider the reaction: 2b → b + b Change in energy: G(2b)2/2 → 2[G(b)2/2] G(b)2 The reaction would be favorable

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**→ + b12 > (b22 + b32) ½ > ⅓ (111) (111) FCC (111) Slip plane**

Some of the atoms are omitted for clarity (111) → + Shockley Partials b12 > (b22 + b32) ½ > ⅓

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**FCC Pure edge dislocation**

The extra- “half plane” consists of two ‘planes’ of atoms

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**BCC Pure edge dislocation Dislocation line vector Burger’s vector**

Slip plane Extra half plane Burger’s vector Dislocation line vector

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**Dislocations in Ionic crystals**

In ionic crystals if there is an extra half-plane of atoms contained only atoms of one type then the charge neutrality condition would be violated unstable condition Burgers vector has to be a full lattice translation CsCl → b = <100> Cannot be ½<111> NaCl → b = ½ <110> Cannot be ½<100> This makes Burgers vector large in ionic crystals Cu → |b| = Å NaCl → |b| = 3.95 Å CsCl

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**Formation of dislocations (in the bulk of the crystal)**

Due to accidents in crystal growth from the melt Mechanical deformation of the crystal Annealed crystal: dislocation density () ~ 108 – 1010 /m2 Cold worked crystal: ~ 1012 – 1014 /m2

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**Burgers vectors of dislocations in cubic crystals**

Crystallography determines the Burgers vector fundamental lattice translational vector lying on the slip plane Monoatomic FCC ½<110> Monoatomic BCC ½<111> Monoatomic SC <100> NaCl type structure CsCl type structure DC type structure “Close packed volumes tend to remain close packed, close packed areas tend to remain close packed & close packed lines tend to remain close packed”

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**No clear choice Wavy slip lines**

Slip systems Crystal Slip plane(s) Slip direction FCC {111} <110> HCP (0001) <1120> BCC Not close packed {110}, {112}, {123} [111] Anisotropic No clear choice Wavy slip lines

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**Role of Dislocations Deformation Processes Diffusion (Pipe) Creep**

Fatigue Fracture Slip Structural Incoherent Twin Grain boundary (low angle) Semicoherent Interfaces Disc of vacancies ~ edge dislocation

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