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OPMA 5364 Project Management Part 5 Project Scheduling

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Presentation on theme: "OPMA 5364 Project Management Part 5 Project Scheduling"— Presentation transcript:

1 OPMA 5364 Project Management Part 5 Project Scheduling

2 Topic Outline: Project Scheduling
Identifying relationships among activities Project network diagrams Identifying critical paths and critical activities Determining activity slack times Gantt charts Project scheduling exercise Microsoft Project example Other precedence relationships Management of project schedules Part 5 - Project Scheduling

3 Identifying Activity Relationships
In addition to estimating activity time duration and cost, relationships among activities must also be identified Relationships: What task immediately precedes this task? What task immediately follows this task? What tasks can be done concurrently? These are referred to as precedence relationships The main relationship for scheduling is ‘what task immediately precedes the current task,’ which is referred to as the immediate predecessor task Part 5 - Project Scheduling

4 Project Network Diagrams
Network diagrams show the precedence relationships among activities It’s easier to understand these relationships graphically Network diagrams help to understand the flow of work in a project Network diagrams are a useful tool for project planning and control, as well as for scheduling One (perhaps exaggerated) claim is that the network represents ¾ of the planning process Part 5 - Project Scheduling

5 2 Versions of Network Diagrams
Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) networks also called Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) simpler for projects with many dependencies emphasizes events; milestones can be easily flagged sometimes requires dummy activities Activity-on-Node (AON) networks also called Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) easier to draw for simple projects emphasizes activities no dummy activities Part 5 - Project Scheduling

6 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Activities vs. Events Activity – a chunk of work that is part of the project; an activity may be broken down into multiple subactivities Event – a significant point in time during the project, such as a milestone event; an event could be the time at which an activity is completed or the time at which related concurrent activities have all completed Dummy Activity – an artificial activity with zero time duration that only shows a precedence relationship among activities Part 5 - Project Scheduling

7 Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Networks
b c d e f g k j or Dashed lines are called dummy activities k j Activity Predecessor m n r s _ m, n Part 5 - Project Scheduling

8 Project Network for House Construction
1 2 Excavate & pour footings Pour foundation Install drains Project Network for House Construction (AOA network) 3 6 7 4 8 9 5 10 11 12 16 18 13 17 15 14 Install rough electrical & plumbing Pour basement floor Install cooling & heating Erect frame & roof Lay brickwork storm drains drywall flooring finished plumbing kitchen equipment Paint Finish roof drainage grading floors walks; Landscape electrical work carpeting Part 5 - Project Scheduling

9 Project Network Example
Task Pred. Dur. Task Pred. Dur. a g c,d b h e c a i f d a j e,g e b k h,i f b Draw AOA and AON networks Part 5 - Project Scheduling

10 Activity-on-Arrow (AOA or ADM) Network
(Initial Network) Part 5 - Project Scheduling

11 Activity-on-Arrow (AOA or ADM) Network
(Final Network) c d a g j b e h k f i Part 5 - Project Scheduling

12 Activity-on-Node (AON or PDM) Network
Part 5 - Project Scheduling

13 Project Network Example
A project has the following activities and precedence relationships: Predecessor Predecessor Activity Activities Activity Activities a f c,e b a g b c a h b,d d a i b,d e b j f,g,h Draw AOA and AON networks Part 5 - Project Scheduling

14 Activity on Arrow (Initial Network)
Part 5 - Project Scheduling

15 Activity on Arrow (Final Network)
b c d e f g h i j Part 5 - Project Scheduling

16 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Activity on Node Part 5 - Project Scheduling

17 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Critical Path path – any route along the network from start to finish Critical Path – path with the longest total duration This is the shortest time in which the project can be completed. Critical Activity – an activity on the critical path *If a critical activity is delayed, the entire project will be delayed. Close attention must be given to critical activities to prevent project delay. There may be more than one critical path. Part 5 - Project Scheduling

18 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Critical Path Brute force approach to finding critical path: identify all possible paths from start to finish sum up durations for each path largest total indicates critical path (This approach is inefficient, but is instructive) Part 5 - Project Scheduling

19 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
1 2 6 4 7 5 3 b = 2 d = 4 g = 9 h = 9 f = 8 c = 5 a = 6 k = 6 j = 7 i = 4 e = 3 Part 5 - Project Scheduling

20 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Slack Times EST—Earliest Start Time Largest EFT of all predecessors EFT—Earliest Finish Time EST + duration for this task LFT—Latest Finish Time Smallest LST of following tasks LST—Latest Start Time LFT – duration for this task Slack—LFT – EFT or LST – EST Part 5 - Project Scheduling

21 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Computing Slack Times Task = duration slack = xxxx EST EFT LST LFT Part 5 - Project Scheduling

22 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Slack Times Example Task Pred. Dur. Task Pred. Dur. a g c,d b h e c a i f d a j e,g e b k h,i f b For each task, compute ES, EF, LF, LS, Slack Part 5 - Project Scheduling

23 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Start Finish a=4 slack= b=3 c=3 d=2 e=6 f=4 g=1 h=4 i=5 j=6 k=1 Task=dur slack=xxx EST EFT LFT LST Part 5 - Project Scheduling

24 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Gantt Charts The main purpose of a Gantt chart is to display the schedule of activities They are easy to understand They are flexible in that you can also show other information on the chart, such as resources required, who is responsible, critical activities, percent complete, etc. All project management software packages will create Gantt charts Part 5 - Project Scheduling

25 Part 5 - Project Scheduling
Gantt Chart Activity a b c d e f g h i Time (weeks) Part 5 - Project Scheduling

26 Project Scheduling Exercise
DynaTech Equipment Corp. case Divide into small groups Read case (5 minutes) Assignment: (40 minutes) List the immediate predecessors and WBS number for each activity Draw project network diagram (lowest level) Draw Gantt chart Determine project completion time Part 5 - Project Scheduling

27 Microsoft Project Example
Part 5 - Project Scheduling

28 Microsoft Project Example
Part 5 - Project Scheduling

29 Microsoft Project Example
Part 5 - Project Scheduling

30 Other Precedence Relationships
The typical precedence relationship between two activities is that when the first activity has finished, then the second activity can start. In this case the first activity is called the immediate predecessor of the second activity. This is referred to as a Finish-to-Start linkage. Other precedence relationships, or linkages, are also possible. Lead and lag times are also possible. Part 5 - Project Scheduling

31 Other Precedence Relationships
Finish-to-Start Linkage (FS) Start-to-Start Linkage (SS) Finish-to-Finish Linkage (FF) Start-to-Finish Linkage (SF) Activity 1 Activity 2 Lead and Lag Times Lead (-) and Lag (+) times are expressed as part of the immediate predecessor notation. So 1FS+3 listed for the immediate predecessor of Activity 2 means that Activity 1 is the predecessor with a Finish-to-Start linkage and a 3-day lag time after Activity 1 finishes before Activity 2 can start. 1FS-3 means that Activity 2 can start 3 days before Activity 1 finishes. 1FF+3; 1SF-5; 1SS+4 Part 5 - Project Scheduling

32 Management of Project Schedules
Meeting project deadlines is often the most important goal in project management Careful scheduling of project activities is critical to meeting the project due date Effective project managers should have a good understanding of the issues involved in activity scheduling Part 5 - Project Scheduling

33 Ineffective Scheduling
Notice: As of tomorrow, employees will only be able to access the building using individual security cards. Pictures will be taken next Wednesday, and employees will receive their cards in two weeks. Part 5 - Project Scheduling

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