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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. PowerPoint to accompany Krar Gill Smid Technology of Machine.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. PowerPoint to accompany Krar Gill Smid Technology of Machine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. PowerPoint to accompany Krar Gill Smid Technology of Machine Tools 6 th Edition Surface Finish Measurement Unit 18

2 18-2 Objectives Interpret the surface finish symbols that appear on a drawing Use a surface finish indicator to measure the surface finish of a part

3 18-3 Surface Finish Measurement Modern technology demanding improved surface finishes –Often require additional operations: lapping or honing System of symbols devised by ASA –Provide standard system of determining and indicating surface finish –Inch unit is microinch (µin) –Metric unit is micrometer (µm)

4 18-4 Surface Indicator Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Tracer head and amplifier Tracer head has diamond stylus, point radius.0005 µin that bears against work surface Movement caused by surface irregularities converted into electrical fluctuations Signals magnified by amplifier and registered on meter Reading indicates average height of surface

5 18-5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Readings Either arithmetic average roughness height (Ra) or root mean square (Rq)

6 18-6 Symbols Used to Identify Surface Finishes and Characteristics Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

7 18-7 Surface Finish Definitions Surface deviations: departures from nominal surface in form of waviness, roughness, flaws, lay, and profile Waviness: surface irregularities that deviate from mean surface in form of waves Waviness height: peak-to-valley distance in inches or millimeters Waviness width: distance between successive waviness peaks or valleys in inches or millimeters

8 18-8 Surface Finish Definitions Roughness: relatively finely spaced irregularities superimposed on waviness pattern –Caused by cutting tool or abrasive grain action –Irregularities narrower than waviness pattern Roughness height: Ra deviation measured normal to centerline in microinches or µm Roughness width: distance between successive roughness peaks parallel to nominal surface in inches or millimeters Profile: contour of specified section through a surface

9 18-9 Surface Finish Definitions Roughness width cutoff: greatest spacing of repetitive surface irregularities included in measurement of roughness height –Must be greater than roughness width Flaws: irregularities such as scratches, holes, cracks, ridges, or hollows that do not follow regular pattern Lay: direction of predominant surface pattern caused by machining process

10 18-10 Symbols that Indicate Direction of Lay ||Parallel to boundary line of surface indicated by symbol _|_Perpendicular to boundary line of surface indicated by symbol XAngular in both directions on surface indicated by symbol MMultidirectional CApproximately circular to center of the surface indicated by symbol RApproximately radial in relation to the center of surface indicated by symbol

11 18-11 Average surface roughness produced by standard machining processes Microinches Micrometers Turning100– –6.3 Drilling100– –5.1 Reaming50– –3.8 Grinding20– –2.5 Honing5– –0.5 Lapping1– –0.254

12 18-12 To Measure Surface Finish with a Surface Indicator 1.Turn on, allow instrument to warm up 2.Check machine calibration by moving stylus over test block 3.Adjust calibration control if necessary 4.Use.030-in cutoff range for surface roughness of 30 µin or more. For less, use the.010 in. cutoff range Unless specified otherwise

13 18-13 To Measure Surface Finish with a Surface Indicator 5.Thoroughly clean surface to be measured Ensures accurate readings Reduces wear on rider cap protecting stylus 6.Using smooth, steady movement of stylus, trace work surface at approximately.125 in./s 7.Note reading from meter scale

14 18-14 Other Methods Surface analyzer –Uses recording device to reproduce surface irregularities on graduated chart, providing ink- line record Comparison blocks –Used for comparing finish on workpiece with calibrated finish on test block using fingernail test Commercial sets of standard finished specimens –Up to 25 different surface finish samples


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