Presentation on theme: "Climate Change and its effects on the integrity of the coastal system"— Presentation transcript:
1Climate Change and its effects on the integrity of the coastal system ML San Diego-McGlone, Ph.D.Faith Varona, TAO-PilipinasClimate Change Vulnerability and Adaptability Assessment ToolsMike AtrigenioAdopted from L. David’s and P. Alino’s PresentationsUP Marine Science InstituteLaura David, Roselle Borja, UPMSI
2Is the interface between land, sea and atmosphere. The COASTAL ZONEIs the interface between land, sea and atmosphere.It contains natural systems that provide more than half of the global ecosystem goods (e.g., fish, oil, minerals) and services (e.g., natural protection from storms and tidal waves, recreation).In addition, 14 of the world’s 17 largest megacities are located along coasts and most of them (11) are located in Asia’s fastest growing economies.Definition of the Coastal Area and its Functions – LOICZ Chemical/ Biological/ Human Population----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----Temporal changes across timescales
3Dynamic Environment – Changing Space through Time : Daily changes with TIDESeasonal changeswith STORMSThe point here is to show that the coast is constantly reacting to changeDynamic Environment – Changing Space through time : Daily; Seasonal; and longer term----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----Changes in the coast is exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise.Long-term changes- sediment transportF. Siringan
4So when we talk about Climate Change effects to the coasts we are talking aboutchanges that affect the the frequency and intensity of these natural cycles orchanges beyond these natural cyclesDefining Climate Change Effects – beyond cycles or tamper with cycles----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----The typical scenario as a consquence of sea level rise is this:More intense storms due to increased SSTSea Level Rise
5When we talk about Climate Change effects to the coasts we are also talking about Impacts to system function that have consequence to human activities:Impacts to system function that have consequence to human activities:----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----Overall climate change afffecting several sectors which threatens economic stability and human well-being.
6The problem of climate change is the increase in frequency of bleaching events which do not allow for RECOVERY TIMEBleaching does happen but cycles are getting affected – with just a 0.3C increase per decade the number of bleaching incidents are expected to almost double----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----As coral dies, gone are the places, the bottom complexity, that provides home to various species of fish.with just a 0.3C increase per decade the number of bleaching incidents are expected to almost double
7Reef/ healthy cover/ more fish Eroded reef/ low diversity/ less fish Examples on impact to coastal resources: increase in ocean temperature leads to coral bleachingReef/ healthy cover/ more fishEroded reef/ low diversity/ less fishExamples on impact to coastal resources: Reef/ healthy cover more fish/ impact of inc in temp to coral bleaching----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----Can corals survive coral bleaching?
8Photos: Mike Atrigenio ----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----Another direct consequence of climate change is ocean acidification.Photos: Mike Atrigenio
9Heliopora Sutherst 2000 ----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) ----- This is what we observed so far. However, its linked to climate change needs futher elucidation.Sutherst 2000
10Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007 ----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) ----- Corals have calcium carbonate skeleton which are very sensitive to lowering of the pH or water acidity.Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007
11Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007 ----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) ----- As coral's ability to acrete calcium carbonate, their growth is also affected, hence, their potential to keep up with sea level rise is greatly compromised.Hoegh-Guldberg et al. 2007
12Response of reefs to sea level rise ----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:25) -----As we lose coral cover, coastal protection provided by the corals are also gone.Source: Lecture 8 of MS 230 course, Dr. F.P. Siringan
13Loss of Reef Spells more coastal erosion Aside from providing habitat for fish a Healthy Reef also acts as barrierLoss of Reef Spells more coastal erosionHealthy Reef also acts as barrier
14Coastal Erosion leads to these familiar faces of climate related disasters damaged by a strong typhoon leaving behind half concrete walls, floor slabs and a septic vault----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:04) -----Coastal protection will also compromised by the loss of mangroves that fringe coastal areas to sea level rise.Other barriers such as a seawall can be put up to replace damaged reefs however, the current cost estimate of building a seawall is about M PhP/km
15With seedlings being more susceptible THUS ALSO AFFECTING BIODIVERSITYBiodiversity ZonationLaura T. David and Maricar SamsonBlue is current high tide; with sea level rise the new high tide will be the red line----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:04) -----To associated organisms that reside on mangrove ecosystems as well.With seedlings being more susceptibleMiddleSeawardLandward
17www.openclimate.org ----- Meeting Notes (10/27/11 08:27) ----- MPA establishment as the core CC change adaptation strategy.
18(MEMES) Motivating Ecosystem Management Enhancement Strategy Adaptive Management through(MEMES) Motivating Ecosystem Management Enhancement StrategySome of the monitoring information shows that the variability of the conditions of the coral reefs are profoundly affected by climate variability such as the PDO and ENSO events.Melbourne-Thomas et al. 2010
19Maintaining Coastal Integrity And Equitable AccessRestoring coastal protectionEffective erosion buffersSustaining coastal integrityThresholds maintained within acceptable limits vis-a-vis coastal erosion, sedimentation and thermal anomaliesOrganizing coastwatchReducing threats and sharing costsEnhancing equitable accessDisaster risk reductionCoastal integrity is one of the most impending risks that climate change adaptation would need to deal with especially by reducing the exacerbating effects of human activity such as water extraction leading to subsidence.
20Knowledge-Based Communities Sustaining ResilientKnowledge-Based CommunitiesLUZONSouth ChinaSea (B)North Philippine Sea(A-1)Sulu Sea (C)VisayanSeas (D)Celebes Sea (E)SouthPhilippineSea(A-2)SST and coral bleaching needs MPA network resiliency systemMaintaining coastal integrity amidst extreme weather eventsManaging fisheries in ENSO & La Nina regimesReducing siltation from high precipitationThe STEWARDS CAN Partnership: Seeing a Sea ChangeUnderstanding and adapting wiselyPressures, State and ResponsesBaseline profiling & vulnerability assessmentSLR zoning adjustments
21Protecting 10% of the coral reefs in the Philippines would take 100 years: accelerate the area covered and improve its effectiveness
22MPA Management Effectiveness Assessment Tool (MPA MEAT) Based on Philippine experience on MPAsEvidence-basedUse of thresholds, scores, and management focusScores = amount of effortLevels = important factors towards effective management
23Why Form MPA Networks?Existing connectivity among ecosystems at various scales: benefits from natural networks need to be sustainedSingle MPAs may not be enough for protection at larger scales.
25Sample Benefits Derived from Inter-LGU Collaboration (Cost for CLE operations per square kilometer of municipal waters)Fish BiomassLGU 1PhPLGU 2PhP 2,217.68LGU 3PhPLGU 4PhP12,780.53LGU 5PhPIndividual LGUs enforcing their respective municipal waters(effective enforcement up to 5 kilometers)LGU 1PhP467.64LGU 21,095.14LGU 3418.84LGU 46,744.44LGU 5242.21Inter-LGU Coastal Resource Management with joint enforcement(effective enforcement up to 10 kilometers)The Philippine Environmental Governance 2 Project