Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Development of the Cold War Section 2:Section 2:The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:Development of the Cold War Section 2:Section 2:The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Section 3:Section 3:Western Europe and North America Visual Summary
Chapter Intro How can a nation defend itself in the nuclear age? Cold War tensions due to the arms race and the Cuban missile crisis made Americans feel vulnerable to nuclear attack. Families built bomb shelters and children practiced duck-and-cover at school, as shown in the photo. In this chapter you will learn how political tensions between countries can pose a real threat of disaster. Why was the Cuban missile crisis such a threat to the United States? How does terrorism pose a threat today?
Section 1-Main Idea The BIG Idea Competition Among Countries A period of conflict known as the Cold War developed between the United States and the Soviet Union after 1945, dividing Europe.
Section 1-Key Terms Content Vocabulary satellite states policy of containment arms race deterrence domino theory Academic Vocabulary liberated nuclear
Section 1-Key Terms People, Places, and Events Truman Doctrine Dean Acheson Marshall Plan Berlin Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic NATO Warsaw Pact SEATO CENTO Nikita Khrushchev
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Should strong countries use their power to influence the politics of other nations? A.Yes B.No
Section 1 Confrontation of the Superpowers After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union became fierce rivals.
Section 1 In 1949, the United States and its European allies formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The United States wanted the newly freed countries of Eastern Europe to hold free elections, hoping they would establish democratic governments. In 1955, the Soviet Union and its European allies formed the Warsaw Pact. Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
Section 1 The Soviet Union opposed the Wests plans, fearing they would become anti-Communist, and kept forces in the newly liberated countries.liberated U.S. President Harry S. Truman issued the Truman Doctrine to persuade Greece, Turkey, and other nations threatened by Communist expansion to choose democratic forms of government. Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.) Balance of Power After World War II
Section 1 U.S. secretary of state Dean Acheson explained that the corruption of Greece would likely spread to the nearby countries. The Marshall Plan was created to prevent the spread of communism by providing $13 billion to rebuild war-torn Europe. The Eastern European satellite states refused to participate.satellite states Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
Section 1 The U.S. adopted a policy of containment to prevent further Soviet aggressive moves.policy of containment Berlin and the rest of Germany were divided into four zones, each occupied by one of the Allies the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France. In 1949, the Federal Republic of Germany was formally created in West Germany. The German Democratic Republic was set up in East Germany by the Soviets. Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 How did the Western powers get food and supplies to West Berlin despite the Soviet blockade? A.They airlifted the supplies. B.They used a water route. C.They created the Berlin Trail. D.They used tunnels left over from the war.
Section 1 The Cold War Spreads As Cold War tensions increased, nations were forced to choose to support the Soviet Union or the United States.
Section 1 Cold War tensions increased when China fell to communism and the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. Both sides began stockpiling weapons and building up their armies, resulting in an arms race.arms race The Cold War Spreads (cont.) Divided Germany and the Berlin Airlift
Section 1 The belief was that nuclear weapons were a form of deterrence because neither side would launch a nuclear attack knowing the other side would be able to strike back.nucleardeterrence In another attempt to prevent war and provide mutual support, military alliances were formed throughout the world. The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
Section 1 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) The Cold War Spreads (cont.) –Formed in April 1949 –Included the United States, Canada, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Iceland, West Germany, Greece, and Turkey Major Developments In The Cold War, 1947–1973
Section 1 Warsaw Pact –Formed in 1955 –Included the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
Section 1 Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) –Formed in 1954 to prevent Soviet aggression in the East –Included the United States, Great Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
Section 1 The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) –Formed in 1959 to prevent Soviet expansion in the South –Included Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain, and the United States The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
Section 1 In order to prevent East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin, Nikita Khrushchev ordered a wall to be built to divide the city. Fidel Castro set up a Soviet-supported socialist regime in Cuba. U.S. President John F. Kennedy authorized the unsuccessful CIA plan to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs. The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
Section 1 During the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, the United States blockaded a fleet of Soviet ships carrying nuclear missiles to Cuba. The threat of nuclear war was averted when the Soviets turned back their fleet and the United States agreed not to invade Cuba. The United States became involved in the Vietnam War to prevent the Communist regime of North Vietnam from invading and gaining control of South Vietnam. The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
Section 1 U.S. policy makers believed that if one country fell to communism, the surrounding countries would also fall. This became known as the domino theory.domino theory Vietnam helped show the limitations of the United States and resulted in a new era of American-Soviet relations. The Cold War Spreads (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Which U.S. president finally withdrew American forces from the Vietnam War? A.John F. Kennedy B.Richard Nixon C.Harry S. Truman D.Lyndon B. Johnson
Section 2-Main Idea The BIG Idea Self-Determination The Soviet Union faced revolts and protests in its attempt to gain and maintain control over Eastern Europe.
Section 2-Key Terms Content Vocabulary heavy industry de-Stalinization Academic Vocabulary enhanced sole
Section 2-Key Terms People and Places Soviet Union Alexander Solzhenitsyn Albania Yugoslavia Tito Poland Hungary Czechoslovakia Imre Nagy Aleksandr Dubček
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Peoples lives are affected when there is a shift in government leadership. A.Agree B.Disagree
Section 2 Postwar Soviet Leaders The Soviet Union recovered rapidly after World War II, but it could not maintain high levels of industrial production.
Section 2 After World War II, the Soviet Union experienced a rapid recovery by focusing on heavy industry rather than consumer goods.heavy industry Stalins harsh rule, political terror, and anti- intellectual campaign came to an end with his death on March 5, 1953. Postwar Soviet Leaders (cont.) Comparison Of Market And Command Economies
Section 2 In order to undo some of Stalins worst policies, Nikita Khrushchev implemented de-Stalinization. de-Stalinization Khrushchev loosened control over literary and artistic works. Aleksander Solzhenitsyn published a grim novel based on life in a Siberian labor camp. Postwar Soviet Leaders (cont.)
Section 2 Khrushchevs policy of increasing consumer goods, military spending, and agricultural output were unsuccessful and hurt the Soviet economy. Khrushchevs foreign policy failures damaged his reputation and resulted in his dismissal from office. Postwar Soviet Leaders (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 What was the final straw that led to the removal of Khrushchev from office? A.His plan to place missiles in Cuba failed. B.He repressed all literary works. C.His plan for agriculture failed. D.His military spending hurt the economy.
Section 2 Eastern Europe After World War II, Soviet control of Eastern Europe became firmly entrenched.
Section 2 Soviet-controlled Communist governments were implemented in East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. Albania and Yugoslavia both had Communist parties that resisted Soviet control. Josip Broz, known as Tito, instituted a collectivized plan in Yugoslavia that mirrored Stalins example. Eastern Europe (cont.)
Section 2 Even after Stalins death, the Soviet Union made it clear to satellite nations such as Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia, that it would not allow them to become independent. Protests began to erupt throughout Eastern Europe. The Soviet Army attacked Budapest when Imre Nagy, the Hungarian leader, declared Hungary a free nation. Eastern Europe (cont.)
Section 2 Eastern Europe (cont.) The Soviet army crushed a short-lived reform in Czechoslovakia when Aleksandr Dubček proposed reforms such as free speech and relaxed censorship.
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Which of the following nations was able to avoid becoming a Soviet satellite state? A.Poland B.Romania C.Yugoslavia D.Bulgaria
Section 3-Main Idea The BIG Idea Ideas, Beliefs, and Values Post-World War II societies rebuilt their economies and communities, but not without upheaval and change.
Section 3-Key Terms Content Vocabulary welfare state bloc real wages civil rights movement consumer society womens liberation movement Academic Vocabulary recovery minimal
Section 3-Key Terms People and Places France Charles de Gaulle Christian Democratic Union West Germany European Economic Community (EEC) John F. Kennedy Martin Luther King, Jr. Simone de Beauvoir
A.A B.B Section 3-Polling Question Do you think demonstrations and protest marches are effective in changing public opinion? A.Yes B.No
Section 3 Western Europe: New Unity After the end of World War II, most of Western Europe recovered economically and the region became more unified.
Section 3 The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe experience dramatic economic growth and prosperity. France Western Europe: New Unity (cont.) –Charles de Gaulle formed a new government in France under the Fifth Republic.
Section 3 –France became a major industrial producer and exporter. France invested in nuclear arms to try to become a world power once again. –In April 1969 de Gaulle resigned following large government deficits, and cost-of- living increases leading to widespread public unrest including student protests and a general labor strike. Western Europe: New Unity (cont.) European Economic Community, 1957
Section 3 West Germany –The leader of the Christian Democratic Union, Konrad Adenauer, sought respect for West Germany. –West Germany experienced an economic miracle that lasted until an economic downturn in the mid-1960s. Western Europe: New Unity (cont.)
Section 3 Great Britain –After World War II, Great Britain was left with massive economic burdens and created a modern welfare state.welfare state –Great Britain gave up its colonial strongholds and status as a world power. Western Europe: New Unity (cont.)
Section 3 –In order to form a European unity amid the bitter divisions of the Cold War, six European countries came together to form the European Economic Community, or EEC. –The EEC was a free-trading bloc that encouraged cooperation, and all nations benefited economically.bloc Western Europe: New Unity (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which of the following countries experienced an economic miracle after World War II? A.France B.East Germany C.Great Britain D.West Germany
Section 3 The U.S. after the War In the years following World War II, the United States faced a range of difficult social and political issues.
Section 3 After World War II, social issues such as equality for all minorities, especially African Americans, became a priority in America. The rise of labor unions brought higher wages to many Americans; the real wages grew an average of 3% per year.real wages A fear of communism, know as the Red Scare, spread throughout the United States. The U.S. after the War (cont.)
Section 3 After the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson became president and began the growth of a welfare state. Johnsons programs included health care for the elderly, federal assistance for education, assistance for the poor, and equal rights for African Americans. The U.S. after the War (cont.)
Section 3 The civil rights movement began in 1954 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal schools were illegal.civil rights movement Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., led the movement for racial equality. Under Johnson, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act were passed, but racial tensions still existed. The U.S. after the War (cont.)
Section 3 Race riots after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., and antiwar demonstrations against the Vietnam War divided the American people. Fearful of being lost in the shadow of the United States, Canada established its own identity in politics. Canada was a founding member of the United Nations and joined NATO. The U.S. after the War (cont.)
Section 3 Canada created a welfare state with a national social security system and a national health insurance program. The U.S. after the War (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which U.S. president passed the Voting Rights Act to make it easier for African Americans to vote in Southern states? A.John F. Kennedy B.Richard Nixon C.Harry S. Truman D.Lyndon B. Johnson
Section 3 Changing Values After World War II, advances in technology and the struggle for rights led to rapid change in Western society.
Section 3 Computers, televisions, and jet planes are just some of the new inventions that changed the postwar society. Changes in the social structure of America also occurred, such as the growth of the middle class. A consumer society was born when the working class became preoccupied with buying goods.consumer society Changing Values (cont.)
Section 3 Buying on credit and owning an automobile were signs of the new consumerism. During World War II, women entered the workforce in vast numbers. Once the soldiers returned home, many women fell back into traditional roles. By the 1960s, women began to rebel against the inequalities facing them and started the womens liberation movement. womens liberation movement Changing Values (cont.)
Section 3 Simone de Beauvoirs writings influenced both the American and European womens movements. After the war, enrollments in Europes universities grew dramatically by lower and middle class students. Many universities were overcrowded and outbursts of student revolts occurred. Changing Values (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 What did Simone de Beauvoir write about? A.Equality for women B.Student revolts C.Consumer society D.Civil rights
VS 1 POLITICAL DIVISION AND CONFLICT During the Cold War The United States and Soviet Union became fierce political rivals. The United States provided aid to countries threatened by Communist expansion. Each side formed alliances: NATO (the U.S. and its allies) and the Warsaw Pact (the Soviet Union and its allies). Political division led to a growing arms race, the Berlin Wall, and the Cuban missile crisis.
VS 2 THE SOVIET UNION AND EASTERN EUROPE During the Cold War In its economy, the Soviet Union emphasized heavy industry, benefiting the military over average citizens. Stalin ruled by repression and political terror. Khrushchev tried to increase farm and consumer products, but his policies failed. The Soviet Union gained control over much of Eastern Europe.
VS 3 WESTERN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA During the Cold War Economic aid from the Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover from the devastation of war. Six nations formed the European Economic Community (EEC). In the United States, Cold War tensions led to war in Korea and the Red Scare. New technology and civil rights struggles changed society.
Vocab1 satellite state a country that is economically and politically dependent on another country
Vocab2 policy of containment a plan to keep something, such as communism, within its existing geographical boundaries and prevent further aggressive moves
Vocab3 arms race building up armies and stores of weapons to keep up with an enemy
Vocab4 deterrence during the Cold War, the U.S. and Soviet policies of holding huge arsenals of nuclear weapons to prevent war; each nation believed that neither would launch a nuclear attack since both knew that the other side could strike back with devastating power
Vocab5 domino theory idea that if one country falls to communism, neighboring countries will also fall
Vocab12 welfare state a state in which the government takes responsibility for providing citizens with services such as health care
Vocab13 bloc a group of nations with a common purpose
Vocab14 real wages the actual purchasing power of income
Vocab15 civil rights movement a movement that began in 1954 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the practice of racial segregation (separation) was illegal; led to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act, which created the means to end segregation and discrimination in the workplace and all public places and made it easier for African Americans to vote in Southern states, respectively
Vocab16 consumer society a society preoccupied with buying goods
Vocab17 womens liberation movement the renewed feminist movement of the late 1960s, which demanded political and economic equality with men
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