1. Minimum radios & nav aids CAO appendix 1 Minimum VFR instrumentation is as follows: Airspeed indicator Altimeter Compass Time keeping piece If AWK/CHR, additional instruments are required: Slip/skid indicator Outside Air Temperature (OAT) gauge Instruments required must be serviceable and, a VFR Altimeter must read +-100ft of the aerodrome elevation (ENR 1.7) Minimum instruments?
1. Minimum radios & nav aids AIP GEN 1.5 para 1 Minimum radios required CLASSAIRSPACERADIOS REQRDREMARKS RPTA,C,D,E,G VHF + HF, or 2x VHF CHTRA,C,D,E,GVHF or HF HF required if outside of VHF coverage IFRA,C,D,E,GVHF or HF HF required if outside of VHF coverage NIGHT VFRA,C,D,E,GVHF VFRA,C,D,EVHF
1. Minimum radios & nav aids AIP GEN 1.5 para 1 Minimum radios required (cont.) CLASSAIRSPACERADIOS REQRDREMARKS VFRG 5000ft & aboveVHFGliders N/A VFR G at CTAFS requiring radio VHF VFR G below 3000ft AMSL or below 1000 AGL VHFIn reduced VMC
1. Minimum radios & nav aids AIP GEN 1.5 para 1.4 At least one radio must be able to maintain continuous communication with ATC services at all stages of flight (ie- from start up to shutdown). Where continuous VHF can be maintained but not guaranteed the pilot may use a SATCOM rather than HF – provided CASA approved CAR 243 A pilot during flight must maintain a listening watch from start up to shutdown Minimum radios required (cont.)
1. Minimum radios & nav aids How can a pilot determine/guarantee radio coverage? The PCA planning chart depicts VHF coverage/range airborne. Minimum radios required (cont.) VHF at 10000ft (dark shade) VHF at 5000ft (lighter shade)
1. Minimum radios & nav aids AIP GEN 1.5 para 2 Minimum nav-aids required TYPE OF OPERAITON SYSTEMS CONDITIONS #TYPE RPT 2 and ADF or VOR or TSO145/146 GPS Any combination with at least 1 being an ADF or VOR 1DME or GPS CHTR/AWK >5700kg 2 and ADF or VOR or TSO145/146 GPS Any combination with at least 1 being an ADF or VOR 1DME or GPS CHTR/AWK <5700kg & PVT CTA 2 orADF or VOR or DME or GPS Applicable to ops in CTA, combination incl at least 1 VOR or ADF 1TSO145/146 GPS CHTR/AWK <5700kg & PVT OCTA 1 x ADF or VOR or TSO145/146 GPS Applicable to ops in OCTA
2. Survival equipment CAR 258 A pilot must not fly over water at a distance from which the aircraft could reach should the critical engine fail. THIS DOES NOT APPLY IF (AIP ENR 1.1 para 62): If CHTR, not greater than 25nm If Cargo CHTR, PVT, AWK, then they are exempt Each occupant wears a life jacket (in accordance with CAO 20.11) A forecast is obtained A SARTIME is submitted Aircraft may opt to designate reporting schedules/points for the overwater segment of flight AND If not equipped with radios, than carries an ELT Water Ops
2. Survival equipment Water Ops – Life jackets CAO para 5 Aircraft will be supplied with 1 life jacket for each occupant if: Outside of gliding distance for a single engine Greater than 50 nm for a multi engine CHTR/RPT will supply a life jacket or floatation device (raft) if the takeoff/landing is over water and a ditching would be likely if in a mishap Above 2000ft life jackets need not be worn Below 2000ft and beyond gliding distance life jackets MUST be worn
2. Survival equipment Water Ops – Rafts CAO para 5 An aircraft flown over water outside permitted distance must carry life rafts 4 engine, 3 engine turbine, 2 engine turbine aircraft is beyond >120minutes or 400nm (which ever is less) from land must have rafts Other aircraft is greater than 30minutes or 100nm (which ever is less)
2. Survival equipment Designated Remote Areas (DRA) Vast areas of Australia are remote from significant population If VHF coverage is limited HF is required No HF? Then an ELT (Emergency Location Transmitter) must be carried CAR 252 – all aircraft in Australia departing greater than 50nm MUST carry an ELT A flight in DRA with a HF radio is permitted to fly without ELT so long as journey is no greater than 50nm
2. Survival equipment Designated Remote Areas (DRA)
2. Survival equipment Signalling equipment CAO para – Aircraft required to carry life rafts shall carry an ELT for each life raft. 6.2 – An single engine aircraft must be fitted or carry with an ELT if: Flying over water Does not have a life raft on board Not equipped with radio comm equipment Not capable of continuous 2 way communication 6.3 – If the ELT is portable then is must be Carried by a crew member, or In a life raft, or Adjacent to an emergency exit
3. Fuel operations Refuelling operations CAO 20.9 – no refuelling equipment within: 5m sealed building 6m aircraft 15m exposed public area 9m unsealed building <5.7tonne, otherwise 15m
3. Fuel operations Refuelling operations (cont.) CAO 20.9 para Sealed building: A building with a part lying within 15m of refuelling equipment and is non-flammable with no openings or all openings closed (eg: closed windows/doors). Para – Limited fuelling ops may be conducted in certain hangers provided: Re/de-fuelling of widecut turbine fuel is not permitted Overwing fuelling not permitted The hanger occupied by no more than 2 people The operator has CASA approval Para – Where fuelling equipment is not mobile, the aircraft shall be placed so it can be moved in the event of a fire hazard How do we ensure this with our Cessnas?
3. Fuel operations Refuelling operations with pax CAO 20.9 para 4.2 Aircraft with less than 20 pax must not refuel with pax on board, or whilst in the process of leaving the aircraft. An operator with an aircraft less than 20 pax may allow pax to remain on board IF: Fuel is not avgas or, Fuel is turbine fuel containing anti-static additive AND, The passengers medical condition is such that he/she cannot be moved Should these be satisfied but vapour, leak, or any other breach of safety occurs fuelling must stop immediately!
3. Fuel operations Aircraft safety CAO 20.9 para – All engines, and auxiliary power supplies shall be turned off with ignition in OFF position, unless CASA has approved otherwise – Where external power is used, it shall be secured to and not removed from the aircraft until refuelling has ceased – no maintenance shall be carried out on aircraft radar or electrical equipment, nor shall they be operated during refuelling procedures. - This however does not apply to kerosene based fuels – The aircraft shall be connected to fuelling equipment to provide equal potential across all equipment involved – footwear worn by refuellers and pilots shall not be of sparking type, with matches or cigarette lighters kept not to present a fire hazard
3. Fuel operations Aircraft safety CAO 20.9 para – no smoking is permitted within 15m and a placard shall show this – at least 2 fire extinguishers shall be within 6m -15m and carried on the refuelling equipment – permitted fire extinguishers are: 2x 60B dry 1x 80B dry + 1x 20B foam – in the event of a fire hazard is spilled within 15m refuelling shall cease. All passengers and occupants shall remain beyond 15m and Any equipment within 15m shall be shutdown
3. Fuel operations Starting of Aircraft CAO 20.9 para – an aircraft will not be started within: 5m sealed building 8m aircraft 15m exposed public area 8m unsealed building <5.7tonne, otherwise 15m
3. Fuel operations Precautions after refuelling CAO 20.2 para a(i) – aircraft fuel shall be checked for contaminants/drained at the start of each day, after each refuel, or any other time specified by CASA or flight manual 5.2 – should water be found the pilot/operator shall ensure all traces be drained & removed from the fuel system prior to commencing flight
4. Carriage of passengers Authority of the pilot CAR – The operator shall designate one pilot to act as pilot in command 2 – The PIC is responsible for start, stop, cruise, and safe operation of aircraft and well being of crew members 3 – The PIC shall have final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft and to maintain discipline by all persons on board CAR – The PIC may with assistance remove of restrain under custody any passengers/crew on board 2 – A person found in breach of civil aviation regulations may be arrested by the by PIC without warrant in the same manner as a person found committing a felony in common law.
4. Carriage of passengers Authority of the pilot CAR 226 A person may only occupy a seat with dual controls if: -The person holds an appropriate license (SPL, PPL, CPL, ATPL) CAR 228 A person shall not manipulate controls unless: -A qualified pilot -A student undertaking flight instruction However, a passenger MAY occupy a seat in accordance with CAO Where the passenger has been briefed appropriately to not manipulate the controls at any time.
4. Carriage of passengers Restrictions for carriage of pax CAR A pilot must not conduct the following with passengers on board a)Flight training with a pax who does not hold a GFPT or equivalent b)Emergency procedures c)Low level flying d)Test of aircraft components 3.The above regulation does not apply who the carriage of maintenance personnel
4. Carriage of passengers Passenger briefings CAO para 14 – Passenger are to be briefed on the following: Smoking Adjustment of seatbelts Location of emergency exits Use of oxygen masks Use of floatation devices Stowage of luggage Use of on board survival equipment – The operator shall ensure handicapped are given separate briefing appropriate to their needs in the event of an emergency – The operator of an CHTR/RPT aircraft with more than 6 seats (incl crew) shall supplement oral briefing with printed cards detailing a)Emergency exits & operation b)Use of emergency equipment c)Brace position
4. Carriage of passengers Passenger briefings (cont.) CAO para – In addition to the previous, if required to carry life jackets/rafts passengers shall be briefed on their operation, and if RPT/CHTR a demonstration shall be provided – If CHTR/RPT the above operation of jackets/rafts shall be detailed in the ops manual/aircraft manual – Where an aircraft departs directly overwater after take-off the briefing above shall be done before take-off. Eg: Merimbula – Should the aircraft not depart directly over water the briefing may be completed at a later time but before reaching the water segment
4. Carriage of passengers Passenger seating CAO para 7 A CHTR/RPT operator shall provide a passenger list and leave it at departure aerodrome. The list shall contain rego, names of pax, date, time of departure, and places of embarkation & destination CAR Seatbelts shall be worn by all crew members/pax during Takeoff &landings During an instrument approach Flying below 1000ft AGL Turbulent conditions or as directed by PIC 2.The above does not apply for authorized CASA examiners 4.A seatbelt will be worn by at least 1 crew member
4. Carriage of passengers Carriage of infants & children CAO para 13 1.Where the combined weight of 2 children does not exceed 77kg both may be seated side by side, with a lap strap 2.An infant may: 1.an infant may be carried in the arms/lap of an adult passenger, in a bassinet, providing the infant is restrained to prevent movement under maximum accelerations 2.An infant carried by an adult shall have the seatbelt fastened around the adult, but not the infant. 3.Infants carried shall have their named bracketed on the manifest with the adult passenger 4.Infants may not be carried in emergency seating
4. Carriage of passengers Carriage of sick, injured, disabled CAO para 14 1.The operator must identify any passengers with disabilities 2.Sick, injured, disabled shall not be seated at emergency exits 3.Passengers requiring assistance shall not pose a hazard to passengers, and measures shall be put in place to provide assistance in the event of emergency 4.Passengers in stretchers shall have the stretcher restrained and be secured to the stretcher
4. Carriage of passengers Carriage of parachutists CAO para 15 1.Parachutists who cannot be seated shall be provided with a position where they can be safely seated 2.Prior to jumping & during phases of flight a parachutist shall: Occupy a seat or seating position Wear a seat belt, or A safety harness, or A parachute connected to an approved single point restraint
5. Carriage of cargo Stowage of loose articles CAO para 9 1.Loose articles of pax & crew shall be stowed to avoid injury during turbulence/accelerations of aircraft 2.Passageways & exits shall be clear of cargo if passenger are on board and below 1000ft AGL, except when embarking/disembarking on ground. 3.When seat belts are required to be warn cargo shall be stowed 4.Approved stowage includes: Under a seat Overhead locker Any other locker/compartment/rack (other than overhead racks)designed to contain solid articles.
5. Carriage of cargo Restraint & stowage of cargo CAO para 3 1.Cargo stowed on/above the floor with pax shall be restrained to prevent movement. 2.If stored in other areas/compartments articles must be restrained to prevent movement in the event of excessive accelerations 4.Cargo restraints shall be flame proof CAO para 4 1.Cargo shall not be stowed in a place where damage to controls, wiring, structure, equipment can be damaged 2.Cargo may obstruct an emergency exit if there are sufficient alternative exits 3.Cargo will not obstruct an aisle
5. Carriage of cargo Special cases of stowage CAO para 5 1.Cargo may be carried on an unoccupied pax seat if less than 77kg. The weight of 77kg may be increase with CASA approval 2.Cargo carried on a pax seat shall be restrained in accordance with para 3. CAO para 6 1.Cargo in pilot compartments is only permitted in aircraft <5700kg MTOW 2.Cargo on control seats shall not exceed 77kg unless CASA approved 3.Cargo on a control seat shall not obstruct movement of controls If so, the controls may be removed
5. Carriage of cargo Dangerous Goods CAO para 6 Where dangerous goods are carried the PIC shall be informed of the nature and stowage location of such cargo, and any precautions/instructors to be followed in handling the cargo should it leak/fire. CAA 23 An aircraft must not carry & a person must not consign carriage of dangerous good, unless in accordance with regulations or written permission of CASA Explosives Gases Flammable materials Oxidising materials Poisonous substances Radioactive material Corrosives Carbon dioxide
5. Carriage of cargo Animals CAR 256A 1.Animals may only be carried if in a container or with permission of CASA 2.The above does not apply for the blind/hearing impaired and, May be carried in the pax compartment, and Be placed on a moisture absorbent mat near to the person, and Be restrained to prevent the dog from moving 3.More than one animal must not be in the same compartment is there is a safety risk 4.Containers must be able to contain the animal (no escaping), its excrements, and any damage that may occur 5.An animal container shall not be carried in the pax cabin 6.If movement of the animal in the container will affect the loading the animal shall be restrained 9.The word animal refers to a member of the animal kingdom another than man
6. Loading & Responsibility Loading CAO para 3 Where an aircraft has an approved loading system the operator & pilot shall use that system CAO para 5 1.The following applies to RPT operations 2.The operator and pilot shall ensure a loading sheet is completed prior to takeoff & for each stage of the flight 3.Where a flight contains a number of stages the supplementary load sheet may be used so long as it accounts for all changes in that 1 day 4.Where a standard load is carried on numerous stages in that 1 day, a supplementary load sheet may be used (eg: cargo ops)
6. Loading & Responsibility Loading CAO para 5.3 A load sheet shall include: a)Name of PIC b)Date c)Aircraft rego d)Departure/destination e)Empty weight f)Weights of occupants g)Weights of cargo h)Removable equipment i)Fuel, oil, and consumables j)Evidence that the CoG is within limits the pilot & operator shall ensure the load sheet is carried in the aircraft and if RPT a copy remains at the departure aerodrome If RPT the operator shall retain a copy for 3 months
6. Loading & Responsibility PIC responsibility CAR The PIC must not depart of gross weight exceed MTOW 5.The PIC must not depart if the flight fuel will not allow the aircraft gross weight to be below the MLW 6.The PIC must not land unless the gross weight is less than MLW 9.The PIC shall ensure the aircraft CoG is within safe operating limits determined by the cert of airworthiness or flight manual