2 To review operational requirements for commercial flights/ops AimTo review operational requirements for commercial flights/ops
3 Objectives Specify minimum radio/navaid requirements List minimum survival equipment requiredDiscuss refuelling operationsPassenger requirements & limitationsDiscuss requirements for carriage of cargoLoading & PIC responsibility
4 1. Minimum radios & nav aids Minimum instruments?CAO appendix 1Minimum VFR instrumentation is as follows:Airspeed indicatorAltimeterCompassTime keeping pieceIf AWK/CHR , additional instruments are required:Slip/skid indicatorOutside Air Temperature (OAT) gaugeInstruments required must be serviceable and,a VFR Altimeter must read +-100ft of the aerodrome elevation (ENR 1.7)
5 1. Minimum radios & nav aids Minimum radios requiredAIP GEN 1.5 para 1CLASSAIRSPACERADIOS REQRDREMARKSRPTA,C,D,E,GVHF + HF, or 2x VHFCHTRVHF or HFHF required if outside of VHF coverageIFRNIGHT VFRVHFVFRA,C,D,E
6 1. Minimum radios & nav aids Minimum radios required (cont.)AIP GEN 1.5 para 1CLASSAIRSPACERADIOS REQRDREMARKSVFRG 5000ft & aboveVHFGliders N/AG at CTAFS requiring radioG below 3000ft AMSL or below 1000 AGLIn reduced VMCQUIZ STUDENTS ON WHAT TYPES OF CTAFS NEED A RADIO? (CERT, REG, PVT, MIL?)
7 1. Minimum radios & nav aids Minimum radios required (cont.)AIP GEN 1.5 para 1.4At least one radio must be able to maintain continuous communication with ATC services at all stages of flight (ie- from start up to shutdown).Where continuous VHF can be maintained but not guaranteed the pilot may use a SATCOM rather than HF – provided CASA approvedCAR 243A pilot during flight must maintain a listening watch from start up to shutdownQUIZ STUDENTS ON WHAT TYPES OF CTAFS NEED A RADIO? (CERT, REG, PVT, MIL?)
8 1. Minimum radios & nav aids Minimum radios required (cont.)How can a pilot determine/guarantee radio coverage?The PCA planning chart depicts VHF coverage/range airborne.VHF at 5000ft (lighter shade)VHF at 10’000ft (dark shade)
9 1. Minimum radios & nav aids Minimum nav-aids requiredAIP GEN 1.5 para 2TYPE OF OPERAITONSYSTEMSCONDITIONS#TYPERPT2 andADF or VOR or TSO145/146 GPSAny combination with at least 1 being an ADF or VOR1DME or GPSCHTR/AWK >5700kgCHTR/AWK <5700kg & PVT CTA2 orADF or VOR or DME or GPSApplicable to ops in CTA, combination incl at least 1 VOR or ADFTSO145/146 GPSCHTR/AWK <5700kg & PVT OCTA1 x ADF or VOR or TSO145/146 GPSApplicable to ops in OCTA
10 2. Survival equipment Water Ops CAR 258 A pilot must not fly over water at a distance from which the aircraft could reach should the critical engine fail.THIS DOES NOT APPLY IF (AIP ENR 1.1 para 62):If CHTR, not greater than 25nmIf Cargo CHTR, PVT, AWK, then they are exemptEach occupant wears a life jacket (in accordance with CAO 20.11)A forecast is obtainedA SARTIME is submittedAircraft may opt to designate reporting schedules/points for the overwater segment of flight ANDIf not equipped with radios, than carries an ELT
11 2. Survival equipment Water Ops – Life jackets CAO 20.11 para 5 Aircraft will be supplied with 1 life jacket for each occupant if:Outside of gliding distance for a single engineGreater than 50 nm for a multi engineCHTR/RPT will supply a life jacket or floatation device (raft) if the takeoff/landing is over water and a ditching would be likely if in a mishapAbove 2000ft life jackets need not be wornBelow 2000ft and beyond gliding distance life jackets MUST be worn
12 2. Survival equipment Water Ops – Rafts CAO 20.11 para 5 An aircraft flown over water outside permitted distance must carry life rafts4 engine, 3 engine turbine, 2 engine turbine aircraft is beyond >120minutes or 400nm (which ever is less) from land must have raftsOther aircraft is greater than 30minutes or 100nm (which ever is less)
13 2. Survival equipment Designated Remote Areas (DRA) Vast areas of Australia are remote from significant populationIf VHF coverage is limited HF is requiredNo HF? Then an ELT (Emergency Location Transmitter) must be carriedCAR 252 – all aircraft in Australia departing greater than 50nm MUST carry an ELTA flight in DRA with a HF radio is permitted to fly without ELT so long as journey is no greater than 50nm
14 2. Survival equipmentDesignated Remote Areas (DRA)
15 2. Survival equipment Signalling equipment CAO 20.11 para 6 6.1 – Aircraft required to carry life rafts shall carry an ELT for each life raft.6.2 – An single engine aircraft must be fitted or carry with an ELT if:Flying over waterDoes not have a life raft on boardNot equipped with radio comm equipmentNot capable of continuous 2 way communication6.3 – If the ELT is portable then is must beCarried by a crew member, orIn a life raft, orAdjacent to an emergency exit
16 3. Fuel operations Refuelling operations CAO 20.9 – no refuelling equipment within:5m sealed building15m exposed public area6m aircraft9m unsealed building <5.7tonne, otherwise 15m
17 3. Fuel operations Refuelling operations (cont.) CAO 20.9 para 220.127.116.11 Sealed building: A building with a part lying within 15m of refuelling equipment and is non-flammable with no openings or all openings closed (eg: closed windows/doors).Para – Limited fuelling ops may be conducted in certain hangers provided:Re/de-fuelling of widecut turbine fuel is not permittedOverwing fuelling not permittedThe hanger occupied by no more than 2 peopleThe operator has CASA approvalPara – Where fuelling equipment is not mobile, the aircraft shall be placed so it can be moved in the event of a fire hazardHow do we ensure this with our Cessna’s?
18 3. Fuel operations Refuelling operations with pax CAO 20.9 para 4.2 Aircraft with less than 20 pax must not refuel with pax on board, or whilst in the process of leaving the aircraft.An operator with an aircraft less than 20 pax may allow pax to remain on board IF:Fuel is not avgas or,Fuel is turbine fuel containing anti-static additive AND,The passengers’ medical condition is such that he/she cannot be movedShould these be satisfied but vapour, leak, or any other breach of safety occurs fuelling must stop immediately!
19 3. Fuel operations Aircraft safety CAO 20.9 para 4.3 4.3.1 – All engines, and auxiliary power supplies shall be turned off with ignition in ‘OFF’ position, unless CASA has approved otherwise.4.3.2 – Where external power is used, it shall be secured to and not removed from the aircraft until refuelling has ceased.4.3.3 – no maintenance shall be carried out on aircraft radar or electrical equipment, nor shall they be operated during refuelling procedures.- This however does not apply to kerosene based fuels.4.3.4 – The aircraft shall be connected to fuelling equipment to provide equal potential across all equipment involved4.3.5 – footwear worn by refueller’s and pilots shall not be of sparking type, with matches or cigarette lighters kept not to present a fire hazard
20 3. Fuel operations Aircraft safety CAO 20.9 para 4.4 4.4.1 – no smoking is permitted within 15m and a placard shall show this4.4.4 – at least 2 fire extinguishers shall be within 6m -15m and carried on the refuelling equipment4.4.6 – permitted fire extinguishers are:2x 60B dry1x 80B dry + 1x 20B foam4.5.1 – in the event of a fire hazard is spilled within 15m refuelling shall cease.All passengers and occupants shall remain beyond 15m andAny equipment within 15m shall be shutdown
21 3. Fuel operations Starting of Aircraft CAO 20.9 para 5 5.1.4 – an aircraft will not be started within:5m sealed building15m exposed public area8m aircraft8m unsealed building <5.7tonne, otherwise 15m
22 3. Fuel operations Precautions after refuelling CAO 20.2 para 5 5.1 a(i) – aircraft fuel shall be checked for contaminants/drained at the start of each day, after each refuel, or any other time specified by CASA or flight manual5.2 – should water be found the pilot/operator shall ensure all traces be drained & removed from the fuel system prior to commencing flightQUIZ STUDENT ON FUEL PLANNING REQUIREMENTS OF UNISA/CAAP 234
23 4. Carriage of passengers Authority of the pilotCAR 2241 – The operator shall designate one pilot to act as pilot in command2 – The PIC is responsible for start, stop, cruise, and safe operation of aircraft and well being of crew members3 – The PIC shall have final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft and to maintain discipline by all persons on boardCAR 3091 – The PIC may with assistance remove of restrain under custody any passengers/crew on board2 – A person found in breach of civil aviation regulations may be arrested by the by PIC without warrant in the same manner as a person found committing a felony in common law.
24 4. Carriage of passengers Authority of the pilotCAR 226A person may only occupy a seat with dual controls if:The person holds an appropriate license (SPL, PPL, CPL, ATPL)CAR 228A person shall not manipulate controls unless:A qualified pilotA student undertaking flight instructionHowever, a passenger MAY occupy a seat in accordance with CAOWhere the passenger has been briefed appropriately to not manipulate the controls at any time.
25 4. Carriage of passengers Restrictions for carriage of paxCAR 249A pilot must not conduct the following with passengers on boardFlight training with a pax who does not hold a GFPT or equivalentEmergency proceduresLow level flyingTest of aircraft componentsThe above regulation does not apply who the carriage of maintenance personnel
26 4. Carriage of passengers Passenger briefingsCAO para 14 – Passenger are to be briefed on the following:SmokingAdjustment of seatbeltsLocation of emergency exitsUse of oxygen masksUse of floatation devicesStowage of luggageUse of on board survival equipment– The operator shall ensure handicapped are given separate briefing appropriate to their needs in the event of an emergency– The operator of an CHTR/RPT aircraft with more than 6 seats (incl crew) shall supplement oral briefing with printed cards detailingEmergency exits & operationUse of emergency equipmentBrace position
27 4. Carriage of passengers Passenger briefings (cont.)CAO para 14.2– In addition to the previous, if required to carry life jackets/rafts passengers shall be briefed on their operation , and if RPT/CHTR a demonstration shall be provided– If CHTR/RPT the above operation of jackets/rafts shall be detailed in the ops manual/aircraft manual– Where an aircraft departs directly overwater after take-off the briefing above shall be done before take-off. Eg: Merimbula– Should the aircraft not depart directly over water the briefing may be completed at a later time but before reaching the water segment
28 4. Carriage of passengers Passenger seatingCAO para 7A CHTR/RPT operator shall provide a passenger list and leave it at departure aerodrome. The list shall contain rego, names of pax, date, time of departure, and places of embarkation & destinationCAR 251Seatbelts shall be worn by all crew members/pax duringTakeoff &landingsDuring an instrument approachFlying below 1000ft AGLTurbulent conditions or as directed by PICThe above does not apply for authorized CASA examinersA seatbelt will be worn by at least 1 crew member
29 4. Carriage of passengers Carriage of infants & childrenCAO para 13Where the combined weight of 2 children does not exceed 77kg both may be seated side by side, with a lap strapAn infant may:an infant may be carried in the arms/lap of an adult passenger, in a bassinet, providing the infant is restrained to prevent movement under maximum accelerationsAn infant carried by an adult shall have the seatbelt fastened around the adult, but not the infant.Infants carried shall have their named bracketed on the manifest with the adult passengerInfants may not be carried in emergency seating
30 4. Carriage of passengers Carriage of sick, injured, disabledCAO para 14The operator must identify any passengers with disabilitiesSick, injured, disabled shall not be seated at emergency exitsPassengers requiring assistance shall not pose a hazard to passengers, and measures shall be put in place to provide assistance in the event of emergencyPassengers in stretchers shall have the stretcher restrained and be secured to the stretcher
31 4. Carriage of passengers Carriage of parachutistsCAO para 15Parachutists who cannot be seated shall be provided with a position where they can be safely seatedPrior to jumping & during phases of flight a parachutist shall:Occupy a seat or seating positionWear a seat belt, orA safety harness, orA parachute connected to an approved single point restraint
32 5. Carriage of cargo Stowage of loose articles CAO 20.16.3 para 9 Loose articles of pax & crew shall be stowed to avoid injury during turbulence/accelerations of aircraftPassageways & exits shall be clear of cargo if passenger are on board and below 1000ft AGL, except when embarking/disembarking on ground.When seat belts are required to be warn cargo shall be stowedApproved stowage includes:Under a seatOverhead lockerAny other locker/compartment/rack (other than overhead racks)designed to contain solid articles.
33 5. Carriage of cargo Restraint & stowage of cargo CAO 20.16.3 para 3 Cargo stowed on/above the floor with pax shall be restrained to prevent movement.If stored in other areas/compartments articles must be restrained to prevent movement in the event of excessive accelerationsCargo restraints shall be flame proofCAO para 4Cargo shall not be stowed in a place where damage to controls, wiring, structure, equipment can be damagedCargo may obstruct an emergency exit if there are sufficient alternative exitsCargo will not obstruct an aisle
34 5. Carriage of cargo Special cases of stowage CAO 20.16.3 para 5 Cargo may be carried on an unoccupied pax seat if less than 77kg.The weight of 77kg may be increase with CASA approvalCargo carried on a pax seat shall be restrained in accordance with para 3.CAO para 6Cargo in pilot compartments is only permitted in aircraft <5700kg MTOWCargo on control seats shall not exceed 77kg unless CASA approvedCargo on a control seat shall not obstruct movement of controlsIf so, the controls may be removed
35 5. Carriage of cargo Dangerous Goods CAO 20.16.1 para 6 Where dangerous goods are carried the PIC shall be informed of the nature and stowage location of such cargo, and any precautions/instructors to be followed in handling the cargo should it leak/fire.CAA 23An aircraft must not carry & a person must not consign carriage of dangerous good, unless in accordance with regulations or written permission of CASAExplosivesGasesFlammable materialsOxidising materialsPoisonous substancesRadioactive materialCorrosivesCarbon dioxide
36 5. Carriage of cargo Animals CAR 256A Animals may only be carried if in a container or with permission of CASAThe above does not apply for the blind/hearing impaired and,May be carried in the pax compartment, andBe placed on a moisture absorbent mat near to the person, andBe restrained to prevent the dog from movingMore than one animal must not be in the same compartment is there is a safety riskContainers must be able to contain the animal (no escaping), its excrements, and any damage that may occurAn animal container shall not be carried in the pax cabinIf movement of the animal in the container will affect the loading the animal shall be restrainedThe word ‘animal’ refers to a member of the animal kingdom another than man
37 6. Loading & Responsibility CAO para 3Where an aircraft has an approved loading system the operator & pilot shall use that systemCAO para 5The following applies to RPT operationsThe operator and pilot shall ensure a loading sheet is completed prior to takeoff & for each stage of the flightWhere a flight contains a number of stages the supplementary load sheet may be used so long as it accounts for all changes in that 1 dayWhere a standard load is carried on numerous stages in that 1 day, a supplementary load sheet may be used (eg: cargo ops)
38 6. Loading & Responsibility CAO para 5.3A load sheet shall include:Name of PICDateAircraft regoDeparture/destinationEmpty weightWeights of occupantsWeights of cargoRemovable equipmentFuel, oil, and consumablesEvidence that the CoG is within limitsthe pilot & operator shall ensure the load sheet is carried in the aircraft and if RPT a copy remains at the departure aerodromeIf RPT the operator shall retain a copy for 3 months
39 6. Loading & Responsibility PIC responsibilityCAR 235The PIC must not depart of gross weight exceed MTOWThe PIC must not depart if the flight fuel will not allow the aircraft gross weight to be below the MLWThe PIC must not land unless the gross weight is less than MLWThe PIC shall ensure the aircraft CoG is within safe operating limits determined by the cert of airworthiness or flight manual