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The American Revolution, 1763–1783 Norton Media Library Chapter 5

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1 The American Revolution, 1763–1783 Norton Media Library Chapter 5
Eric Foner

2 I. Thomas Hutchinson

3 II. The Crisis Begins Consolidating the Empire
Prior to the Seven Years’ War, London had loosely tried to regulate some of the colony’s economy After the Seven Years’ War, London insisted that the colonists play a subordinate role to the mother country and help pay for the protection the British provided Members of the British Parliament had virtual representation Colonists argued London could not tax them because they were underrepresented in Parliament

4 II. The Crisis Begins (con’t)
The Stamp Act Crisis The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax on all sorts of printed materials The Act was wide reaching and offended virtually every free colonist Opposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the Revolutionary era and the first major split between colonists and Great Britain over the meaning of freedom American leaders viewed the empire as an association of equals in which free settlers overseas enjoyed the same rights as Britons at home Stamp Act Congress met in 1765 to endorse Virginia’s House of Burgesses’ resolutions Patrick Henry

5 II. The Crisis Begins (con’t)
Liberty and Resistance No word was more frequently invoked by critics of the Stamp Act than liberty Liberty Tree Liberty Hall Liberty Pole A Committee of Correspondence was created in Boston and other colonies to exchange ideas about resistance The Sons of Liberty were organized to resist the Stamp Act and enforce a boycott of British goods London repealed the Stamp Act, but issued the Declaratory Act

6 II. The Crisis Begins (con’t)
Land and Liberty Settlers also cried “liberty” in regard to land disputes The “Regulators” in the Carolinas used liberty to promote their cause Land disputes were behind the creation of Vermont Ethan Allen

7 III. The Road to Revolution
The Townshend Crisis The 1767 Townshend Act imposed taxes on imported goods By 1768 colonies were again boycotting British goods Use of American goods came to be seen as a symbol of American resistance Urban artisans strongly supported the boycott

8 III. The Road to Revolution (con’t)
The Boston Massacre The March 1770 conflict between Bostonians and British troops left five Bostonians dead Crispus Attucks The boycott ended after the Townshend duties were repealed, except for a tax on tea The treatment of John Wilkes and the rumors of Anglican bishops being sent to America convinced many settlers that England was succumbing to the same pattern of political corruption and decline of liberty that afflicted other countries

9 III. The Road to Revolution (con’t)
The Tea and Intolerable Acts The Tea Act was intended to bail out the East India Company and help to defray the costs of colonial government On December 16, 1773, colonists threw over 300 chests of tea into the Boston Harbor London’s response was swift and harsh with the Intolerable Acts The Quebec Act granted religious toleration for Catholics in Canada

10 IV. The Coming of Independence
The Continental Association To resist the Intolerable Acts, a Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in 1774 The Congress adopted the Continental Association, which called for an almost complete halt to trade with Great Britain and the West Indies Committees of Safety were established to enforce the boycotts The Committees of Safety enlarged the “political nation”

11 IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t)
The Sweets of Liberty By 1775 talk of liberty pervaded the colonies As the crisis deepened, Americans increasingly based their claims not simply on the historical rights of Englishmen but on the more abstract language of natural rights and universal freedom John Locke Thomas Jefferson

12 IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t)
The Outbreak of War In April 1775, war broke out at Lexington and Concord The Battle of Bunker Hill was a British victory, but the colonists forced General Howe from Boston by March 1776 The Second Continental Congress raised an army and appointed George Washington its commander Independence? That the goal of this war was independence was not clear by the end of 1775 Opinions varied in the colonies as to the question of independence

13 IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t)
Common Sense Thomas Paine penned Common Sense in January 1776 Called for a democratic system based on frequent elections and a written constitution Paine tied the economic hopes of the new nation to the idea of commercial freedom Paine dramatically expanded the public sphere where political discussion took place

14 IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t)
The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence declared that Britain’s aim was to establish “absolute tyranny” over the colonies and, as such, Congress declared the United States an independent nation Jefferson’s preamble gave the Declaration its enduring impact The Declaration of Independence completed the shift from the rights of Englishmen to the rights of mankind as the object of American independence The “pursuit of happiness” was unique

15 IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t)
An Asylum for Mankind The idea of “American exceptionalism” was prevalent in the Revolution

16 V. Securing Independence
The Balance of Power Britain had the advantage of a large, professional army and navy Patriots had the advantage of fighting on their own soil and a passionate desire for freedom British soldiers alienated Americans, while citizen-soldiers displayed great valor

17 V. Securing Independence (con’t)
The First Years of the War The war went badly for George Washington The Battle of Saratoga in October 1777 gave the patriots a victory and boost to morale The victory convinced the French to aid the Americans in 1778 The War in the South The focus of the war shifted to the South in 1778 British commanders were unable to consolidate their hold on the South

18 V. Securing Independence (con’t)
Victory at Last Washington and French troops surrounded General Cornwallis at Yorktown, where he surrendered in October 1781 The Treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783 The American delegation consisted of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay

19 The Revolutionary War in the North, 1775–1781 • pg. 193

20 The Revolutionary War in the South, 1775–1781 • pg. 195

21 North America, 1783 • pg. 197 North America, 1783

22 fig05_03.jpg Page 170: An engraving from a Massachusetts almanac published in 1774 depicts the lieutenant governor Thomas Hutchinson, whose house had been destroyed by a mob 9 years earlier. The devil carries a list of Hutchinson’s “crimes.” Credit: By permission of the Houghton Library, Harvard University.

23 fig05_05.jpg Page 173: A woodcut depicting a crowd attempting to intimidate a New Hampshire official charged with carrying out the Stamp Act. They throw stones at his effigy, while, to the left, a mock funeral begins. Credit: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Charles Alen Munn, ( a) Photograph, all rights reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

24 fig05_06.jpg Page 174: A warning by the Sons of Liberty against using the stamps required by the Stamp Act, which are shown on the left. Credit: Sons of Liberty.

25 fig05_07.jpg Page 177: The Boston Massacre, a 1770 engraving by Paul Revere produced less than a month after the event in which five colonists died. Although quite inaccurate in depicting what was actually a disorganized brawl between residents of Boston and British soldiers, this image became one of the most influential pieces of propaganda in the revolutionary era, helping to stir up resentment against Great Britain. Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress, LC-USZC

26 fig05_09.jpg Page 182: An Attempt to land a Bishop in America, an engraving from a London magazine, published in A crowd of New Englanders prevents a ship carrying an Anglican bishop from landing. The crowd carries the works of political philosopher John Locke and a banner proclaiming "Liberty and Freedom of Conscience," and hurls the writings of Protestant theologian John Calvin at the bishop. Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ61-78.

27 fig05_13.jpg Page 184: Thomas Paine, advocate of American independence. Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress.

28 fig05_15.jpg Page 188: An early draft, with corrections, of the Declaration of Independence, in Thomas Jefferson's handwriting. Note how the elimination of unnecessary words added to the document's power—"all men are created equal and independent" became "all men are crated equal," and "inherent and inalienable" rights became "inalienable" (in the final version, this would be changed to "unalienable"). Credit: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division.

29 fig05_20.jpg Page 192: Triumphal Entry of the Royal Troops into New York, an engraving showing the army of Sir William Howe occupying the city in New York City would remain in British hands for the duration of the War of Independence. Credit: Morristown National Historic Park.

30 fig05_21.jpg Page 196: A 1781 French engraving showing the surrender of Lord Charles Cornwallis’s army at Yorktown, ending the War of Independence. The French fleet sits just offshore. Credit: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

31 Go to website

32 Give Me Liberty! An American History
End chap. 5 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 5 Give Me Liberty! An American History by Eric Foner

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