3II. The Crisis Begins Consolidating the Empire Prior to the Seven Years’ War, London had loosely tried to regulate some of the colony’s economyAfter the Seven Years’ War, London insisted that the colonists play a subordinate role to the mother country and help pay for the protection the British providedMembers of the British Parliament had virtual representationColonists argued London could not tax them because they were underrepresented in Parliament
4II. The Crisis Begins (con’t) The Stamp Act CrisisThe Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax on all sorts of printed materialsThe Act was wide reaching and offended virtually every free colonistOpposition to the Stamp Act was the first great drama of the Revolutionary era and the first major split between colonists and Great Britain over the meaning of freedomAmerican leaders viewed the empire as an association of equals in which free settlers overseas enjoyed the same rights as Britons at homeStamp Act Congress met in 1765 to endorse Virginia’s House of Burgesses’ resolutionsPatrick Henry
5II. The Crisis Begins (con’t) Liberty and ResistanceNo word was more frequently invoked by critics of the Stamp Act than libertyLiberty TreeLiberty HallLiberty PoleA Committee of Correspondence was created in Boston and other colonies to exchange ideas about resistanceThe Sons of Liberty were organized to resist the Stamp Act and enforce a boycott of British goodsLondon repealed the Stamp Act, but issued the Declaratory Act
6II. The Crisis Begins (con’t) Land and LibertySettlers also cried “liberty” in regard to land disputesThe “Regulators” in the Carolinas used liberty to promote their causeLand disputes were behind the creation of VermontEthan Allen
7III. The Road to Revolution The Townshend CrisisThe 1767 Townshend Act imposed taxes on imported goodsBy 1768 colonies were again boycotting British goodsUse of American goods came to be seen as a symbol of American resistanceUrban artisans strongly supported the boycott
8III. The Road to Revolution (con’t) The Boston MassacreThe March 1770 conflict between Bostonians and British troops left five Bostonians deadCrispus AttucksThe boycott ended after the Townshend duties were repealed, except for a tax on teaThe treatment of John Wilkes and the rumors of Anglican bishops being sent to America convinced many settlers that England was succumbing to the same pattern of political corruption and decline of liberty that afflicted other countries
9III. The Road to Revolution (con’t) The Tea and Intolerable ActsThe Tea Act was intended to bail out the East India Company and help to defray the costs of colonial governmentOn December 16, 1773, colonists threw over 300 chests of tea into the Boston HarborLondon’s response was swift and harsh with the Intolerable ActsThe Quebec Act granted religious toleration for Catholics in Canada
10IV. The Coming of Independence The Continental AssociationTo resist the Intolerable Acts, a Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in 1774The Congress adopted the Continental Association, which called for an almost complete halt to trade with Great Britain and the West IndiesCommittees of Safety were established to enforce the boycottsThe Committees of Safety enlarged the “political nation”
11IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) The Sweets of LibertyBy 1775 talk of liberty pervaded the coloniesAs the crisis deepened, Americans increasingly based their claims not simply on the historical rights of Englishmen but on the more abstract language of natural rights and universal freedomJohn LockeThomas Jefferson
12IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) The Outbreak of WarIn April 1775, war broke out at Lexington and ConcordThe Battle of Bunker Hill was a British victory, but the colonists forced General Howe from Boston by March 1776The Second Continental Congress raised an army and appointed George Washington its commanderIndependence?That the goal of this war was independence was not clear by the end of 1775Opinions varied in the colonies as to the question of independence
13IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) Common SenseThomas Paine penned Common Sense in January 1776Called for a democratic system based on frequent elections and a written constitutionPaine tied the economic hopes of the new nation to the idea of commercial freedomPaine dramatically expanded the public sphere where political discussion took place
14IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) The Declaration of IndependenceThe Declaration of Independence declared that Britain’s aim was to establish “absolute tyranny” over the colonies and, as such, Congress declared the United States an independent nationJefferson’s preamble gave the Declaration its enduring impactThe Declaration of Independence completed the shift from the rights of Englishmen to the rights of mankind as the object of American independenceThe “pursuit of happiness” was unique
15IV. The Coming of Independence (con’t) An Asylum for MankindThe idea of “American exceptionalism” was prevalent in the Revolution
16V. Securing Independence The Balance of PowerBritain had the advantage of a large, professional army and navyPatriots had the advantage of fighting on their own soil and a passionate desire for freedomBritish soldiers alienated Americans, while citizen-soldiers displayed great valor
17V. Securing Independence (con’t) The First Years of the WarThe war went badly for George WashingtonThe Battle of Saratoga in October 1777 gave the patriots a victory and boost to moraleThe victory convinced the French to aid the Americans in 1778The War in the SouthThe focus of the war shifted to the South in 1778British commanders were unable to consolidate their hold on the South
18V. Securing Independence (con’t) Victory at LastWashington and French troops surrounded General Cornwallis at Yorktown, where he surrendered in October 1781The Treaty of Paris was signed in September 1783The American delegation consisted of John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay
19The Revolutionary War in the North, 1775–1781 • pg. 193
20The Revolutionary War in the South, 1775–1781 • pg. 195
22fig05_03.jpgPage 170: An engraving from a Massachusetts almanac published in 1774 depicts the lieutenant governor Thomas Hutchinson, whose house had been destroyed by a mob 9 years earlier. The devil carries a list of Hutchinson’s “crimes.”Credit: By permission of the Houghton Library, Harvard University.
23fig05_05.jpgPage 173: A woodcut depicting a crowd attempting to intimidate a New Hampshire official charged with carrying out the Stamp Act. They throw stones at his effigy, while, to the left, a mock funeral begins.Credit: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Charles Alen Munn, ( a) Photograph, all rights reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
24fig05_06.jpgPage 174: A warning by the Sons of Liberty against using the stamps required by the Stamp Act, which are shown on the left.Credit: Sons of Liberty.
25fig05_07.jpgPage 177: The Boston Massacre, a 1770 engraving by Paul Revere produced less than a month after the event in which five colonists died. Although quite inaccurate in depicting what was actually a disorganized brawl between residents of Boston and British soldiers, this image became one of the most influential pieces of propaganda in the revolutionary era, helping to stir up resentment against Great Britain.Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress, LC-USZC
26fig05_09.jpgPage 182: An Attempt to land a Bishop in America, an engraving from a London magazine, published in A crowd of New Englanders prevents a ship carrying an Anglican bishop from landing. The crowd carries the works of political philosopher John Locke and a banner proclaiming "Liberty and Freedom of Conscience," and hurls the writings of Protestant theologian John Calvin at the bishop.Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress, LC-USZ61-78.
27fig05_13.jpgPage 184: Thomas Paine, advocate of American independence.Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress.
28fig05_15.jpgPage 188: An early draft, with corrections, of the Declaration of Independence, in Thomas Jefferson's handwriting. Note how the elimination of unnecessary words added to the document's power—"all men are created equal and independent" became "all men are crated equal," and "inherent and inalienable" rights became "inalienable" (in the final version, this would be changed to "unalienable").Credit: Library of Congress, Manuscript Division.
29fig05_20.jpgPage 192: Triumphal Entry of the Royal Troops into New York, an engraving showing the army of Sir William Howe occupying the city in New York City would remain in British hands for the duration of the War of Independence.Credit: Morristown National Historic Park.
30fig05_21.jpgPage 196: A 1781 French engraving showing the surrender of Lord Charles Cornwallis’s army at Yorktown, ending the War of Independence. The French fleet sits just offshore.Credit: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.
32Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 5W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 5Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner