Crusades In 1095, Muslim Turks invaded lands held by Christians of the Byzantine Empire: Jerusalem & all of Asia Minor Crusade Pope Urban II asked all Christians to join a Crusade (military expedition) & fight the Muslims to take back these holy lands
Motivations for the Crusades Popes Goals Popes Goalswanted to unite Roman Catholic (western Europe) & Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine Empire); show the supremacy of the Pope; & regain holy lands from Muslims Crusaders Goals Crusaders Goalspope offered forgiveness for sins & access to Heaven; gain riches; support Church Merchants Goals Merchants Goalsgain control of trade routes & dominate trade
Fighting the Crusades Between 50,000-60,000 knights became Crusaders to defeat Muslims; came from present-day France, Italy, Germany, England, Scotland, Spain First Crusade First Crusadewas only successful Crusade; claimed 400 miles of land from Edessa to Jerusalem in 1099; created 4 feudal states (Edessa, Acre, Triploi, Jerusalem), each ruled by a French noble
Fighting the Crusades After the First Crusade, Muslims took back Jerusalem & Edessa, which led to more Crusades that the Muslims won Fourth Crusadecrusaders never fought Muslims but fought Byzantines; looted & burned Constantinople; these actions forever divided Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Effects of the Crusades Before the Crusades: Before the Crusades: –Everyone lived on a manor –Everything that was needed was made on the manor –Nothing was purchased from the outside except resources like salt & iron through fairs So, now that the Crusaders have seen new places, how is this going to change Europe? So, now that the Crusaders have seen new places, how is this going to change Europe?
Effects of the Crusades Cultural Diffusion Cultural Diffusionnew products & ideas spread to Europe: –Foods –Foodssugar, spices, herbs –Luxury Goods –Luxury Goodsivory, pearls, silk, linen, cotton, glass mirrors –Navigation –Navigationshipbuilding ideas, accurate maps, astrolabe, compass –Math –MathArabic numbers, algebra –Science –Scienceideas in physics, astronomy; telescope