3CrusadesIn 1095, Muslim Turks invaded lands held by Christians of the Byzantine Empire: Jerusalem & all of Asia MinorPope Urban II asked all Christians to join a Crusade (military expedition) & fight the Muslims to take back these holy lands
5Motivations for the Crusades Pope’s Goals—wanted to unite Roman Catholic (western Europe) & Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine Empire); show the supremacy of the Pope; & regain holy lands from MuslimsCrusaders’ Goals—pope offered forgiveness for sins & access to Heaven; gain riches; support ChurchMerchants’ Goals—gain control of trade routes & dominate trade
7Motivations for Crusades Crusades became a religious, economic, & political conflictReligious—defeat Muslims & retake holy lands, spread ChristianityEconomic—gain trade routesPolitical—unite Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Christianity, prove Pope’s power
9Fighting the CrusadesBetween 50,000-60,000 knights became Crusaders to defeat Muslims; came from present-day France, Italy, Germany, England, Scotland, SpainFirst Crusade—was only successful Crusade; claimed 400 miles of land from Edessa to Jerusalem in 1099; created 4 feudal states (Edessa, Acre, Triploi, Jerusalem), each ruled by a French noble
11Fighting the CrusadesAfter the First Crusade, Muslims took back Jerusalem & Edessa, which led to more Crusades that the Muslims wonFourth Crusade—crusaders never fought Muslims but fought Byzantines; looted & burned Constantinople; these actions forever divided Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Christianity
13Effects of the Crusades Before the Crusades:Everyone lived on a manorEverything that was needed was made on the manorNothing was purchased from the outside except resources like salt & iron through fairsSo, now that the Crusaders have seen new places, how is this going to change Europe?
14Effects of the Crusades Cultural Diffusion—new products & ideas spread to Europe:Foods—sugar, spices, herbsLuxury Goods—ivory, pearls, silk, linen, cotton, glass mirrorsNavigation—shipbuilding ideas, accurate maps, astrolabe, compassMath—Arabic numbers, algebraScience—ideas in physics, astronomy; telescope