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Crusades—Christians vs. Muslims for Control of Holy Lands

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Presentation on theme: "Crusades—Christians vs. Muslims for Control of Holy Lands"— Presentation transcript:

1 Crusades—Christians vs. Muslims for Control of Holy Lands
Middle Ages Crusades—Christians vs. Muslims for Control of Holy Lands

2 Crusades Map

3 Crusades In 1095, Muslim Turks invaded lands held by Christians of the Byzantine Empire: Jerusalem & all of Asia Minor Pope Urban II asked all Christians to join a Crusade (military expedition) & fight the Muslims to take back these holy lands

4 The Christian Crusades

5 Motivations for the Crusades
Pope’s Goals—wanted to unite Roman Catholic (western Europe) & Eastern Orthodox (Byzantine Empire); show the supremacy of the Pope; & regain holy lands from Muslims Crusaders’ Goals—pope offered forgiveness for sins & access to Heaven; gain riches; support Church Merchants’ Goals—gain control of trade routes & dominate trade


7 Motivations for Crusades
Crusades became a religious, economic, & political conflict Religious—defeat Muslims & retake holy lands, spread Christianity Economic—gain trade routes Political—unite Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Christianity, prove Pope’s power


9 Fighting the Crusades Between 50,000-60,000 knights became Crusaders to defeat Muslims; came from present-day France, Italy, Germany, England, Scotland, Spain First Crusade—was only successful Crusade; claimed 400 miles of land from Edessa to Jerusalem in 1099; created 4 feudal states (Edessa, Acre, Triploi, Jerusalem), each ruled by a French noble

10 Path of the Crusades

11 Fighting the Crusades After the First Crusade, Muslims took back Jerusalem & Edessa, which led to more Crusades that the Muslims won Fourth Crusade—crusaders never fought Muslims but fought Byzantines; looted & burned Constantinople; these actions forever divided Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox Christianity


13 Effects of the Crusades
Before the Crusades: Everyone lived on a manor Everything that was needed was made on the manor Nothing was purchased from the outside except resources like salt & iron through fairs So, now that the Crusaders have seen new places, how is this going to change Europe?

14 Effects of the Crusades
Cultural Diffusion—new products & ideas spread to Europe: Foods—sugar, spices, herbs Luxury Goods—ivory, pearls, silk, linen, cotton, glass mirrors Navigation—shipbuilding ideas, accurate maps, astrolabe, compass Math—Arabic numbers, algebra Science—ideas in physics, astronomy; telescope



17 Mapping Activity Locate on map: Constantinople, Edessa, Tripoli, Acre, Jerusalem, Venice, Rome, Islamic Empire, Byzantine Empire, Paris, Holy Roman Empire, Trace the First Crusade

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