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Economics Rajesh Panda Associate Professor, SIBM, Pune.

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Presentation on theme: "Economics Rajesh Panda Associate Professor, SIBM, Pune."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economics Rajesh Panda Associate Professor, SIBM, Pune.

2 Various facets Microeconomics Macroeconomics Managerial Economics

3 Key Concepts Growth Development GDP GNP Inflation and deflation Import and export Exchange value and PPP Capitalism and communism Planning vs. execution Political economy Economics for managers Changing Global Economic scenario

4 Economics definitions Adam Smith – Economics enquires into the factors that determine wealth of the country Marshall – Economics is the study of mankind in the ordinary business of life Robbins – Economics is the science of scarcity – Economics is the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternate uses – Unlimited wants, scarce means, Alternative use of means

5 Economics …… the study of how scarce resources of a society are used to produce important commodities and distribute them among different people.

6 Subject matter Economics studies the management of societys scarce resources. Management of resources is the central theme of economics because resources are scarce. Hence economics is also called the science of scarcity.

7 Why is Economics important? To ensure proper allocation of scarce resources. To ensure cost minimisation. Improving ones ability to understand business fluctuations and transactions with clarity.

8 Scarcity Scarcity is unavailability of a resource or a good in abundance. On account of limited resources society is unable to produce all the goods and services it wants to.

9 Economic study Economics Macro Economics Micro Economics

10 Micro economics deals with minute aspects of the economy. It deals with each economic unit on individual level. It deals with how individuals and firms make decisions under different situations and how do they interact.

11 Macro Economics ………….studies economy as a whole It is a study of various economic variables in general. It studies economy wide phenomena such as nations income, recession, economic growth, inflation, output etc.

12 Statements in Economics……. We get to see two types of statements in economic theory. They are: Positive statements and Normative statements

13 Positive statements…….. These statements are also referred to as Positive and Normative economics. Positive economics explains things, economic problems and variables as they are. Positive economics explains, what is…

14 Normative Economics…….. Normative economics explains how economic variables should be. Normative economics explains what should be…..

15 Subject matter of Micro Economics Micro economics deals with demand. supply and equilibrium in a market. The forces of demand and supply are at the centre of micro economic theory. These forces determine price fluctuations relating to any product.

16 Micro economic efficiency Efficiency in production Efficiency of distribution Allocative efficiency

17 Subject matter of M a cro Economics Macro economics deals with issues that are aggregate in nature. They include: National income – Employment- Inflation etc.. It also studies the relationships between different aggregates.

18 Microeconomics Product pricing – Theory of Demand – Theory of production cost Factor pricing – Wages – Rents – Interest – Profit Economic welfare

19 Macroeconomics Income and employment – Consumption function – Investment General price level and inflation Economic Growth Distribution( relative shares of wages and profits)

20 Central Problems of an Economy What to Produce How to produce For Whom to produce What provision be made for economic growth

21 Central problems are solved: Market/price Mechanism Economic Planning

22 Production Possibility Curve Represents alternate production possibities facing an economy Production Possibility Cloth (000 m)Wheat (000 Qt) A015 B114 C212 D39 E45 F50

23 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

24 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

25 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

26 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

27 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

28 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars A Efficient Resource Use Computers

29 Principles of Economics Illustrated by the Production Possibilities Frontier... Efficiency Tradeoffs Opportunity Cost Economic Growth

30 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

31 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

32 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

33 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Tradeoffs Computers

34 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

35 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Computers

36 Production Possibilities Frontier Cars Growth Computers

37 Capitalism Right to private property Freedom of entreprise Freedom of choice by customers Profit Motive Competition Price system Inequalities of income

38 Critical evaluation of capitalism Free market doesnt ensure maximum social satisfaction at minimum social cost Consumer sovereignty may not be valid Economic instability and unemployment Doesnt ensure rapid growth in developing countries Concentration of wealth and income

39 Capitalism Vs Communism

40 Microeconomics Product pricing – Theory of Demand – Theory of production cost Factor pricing – Wages – Rents – Interest – Profit Economic welfare

41 Theory of Demand Law of Demand: states the functional relationship between price and quantity demanded Why does the curve slope downward? – Income effect – Substitution effect Exceptions – Veblin Effect – Giffin goods

42 Determinants of Demand Taste and preference of consumers Income of people Changes in prices of the related Goods – Complementary goods – Substitutes The number of consumers in the market Changes in propensity to consume – Consumption led growth – Savings led growth Consumer expectation with regard to future price Income distribution – Marginal propensity to consume for the rich is much lesser than the poor

43 Contraction and extraction in demand Increase and decrease in demand

44 Demand function Supply function Equilibrium

45 Demand function Qd= f ( P, I, p, T, A) Considering price as the only independent variable – Qd= f ( P ) Detremine Market demand function – Qa= 40- 2P – Qb= 34-.5p – Qc= P Demand function and supply function

46 A market consists of three consumers whose individual demand functions are as follows. 1. P= Qa 2.P= Qb 3.P= Qc Find out the market demand function. If the supply function is given by Qs= P, determine the equilibrium quantity and price

47 So what should managers do? Market share to wallet share

48 Demand : Marshalls cardinal utility – Utilities are measurable and quantifiable Law of DMU – The additional benefit a person derives from a given increase of his stock of a thing diminishes with every increase in the stock that he already has

49 Draw the graphs for Total utility and Marginal Utility Cups of coffee consumed/day Total utilityMarginal utility

50 Principles of equi-marginal utility – Consumer will distribute his money income between the goods in such a way that the utility derived from the last rupee spent on each good is equal – Marginal utility of money expenditure= marginal utility of the product/price

51 Marginal utility of product X and Y UnitsMux (marginal utility of product X) Muy (marginal utility of product Y) Price of Good X2 Price of Good Y3

52 Marginal utility of money expenditure UnitsMUx/PxMUy/Py Consumer equilibrium is established when the consumer buys 6 units of Ggod X and 4 units of Good Y.

53 Find out the optimal combination of goods for a customer: – Price of X= 5 – Price of Y=2 – Total income= 22 Units consumedMUxMUy

54 Indifference curve analysis of demand Utility cant be measured, but can be compared Ordinal analysis of demand is the indifference curve which represents all those combinations of goods which give the same satisfaction to the consumer

55 Indifference curve Income-1Income-2 Good XGood YGood XGood Y

56 Budget line – Shows all those combinations of two goods which the consumer can buy by spending his money income on the two goods at their given prices – Change in budget line vs. shift in budget line – Consumers equilibrium – Income consumption curve ICC is the locus of equilibrium points at various levels of consumers income ICC for luxury goods and inferior goods

57 Elasticity of Demand e=(%change in quantity demanded)/ (% change in price ) – Elastic demand – Inelastic demand – Unitary elastic demand Difference in elasticity may be because of possibility of substitution

58 Problems 1.If the price of a commodity falls from $10 to $9 per unit, the quantity demanded increases from100 units to 120 units. Find out the price elasticity of demand 2.A consumer purchases 80 units of a commodity when its price is $1 and purchases only 48 units when its price is $2. What is the price elasticity of demand for this commodity? (Arc elasticity of demand)

59 Total expenditure method Total revenue method/total outlay method Elasticity is computed from the total change in expenditure. This method can only say whether elasticity is more than one, less than one or equal to one. Price per unitQuantity demanded Total expenditure Price elasticity > > > > > = < <1

60 Determinants of elasticity Availability of substitutes Proportion of consumers income spent on the commodity Number of uses of the commodity Complementarity between goods Time of elasticity

61 Importance of price elasticity of demand Pricing decisions by business Firms Uses in economic policies regarding price regulation Explanation of paradox of plenty Use in international trade Importance in fiscal policy

62 Cross elasticity of demand Degree of responsiveness of demand for one good to the change in price of another good (%change in the quantity demanded of X)/(%change in price of Y) Positive for substitute goods Negative for complementary goods

63 Problem If the price of coffee rises from Rs 45 to Rs. 50 per hundred gram, as a result of this consumers demand for tea increases from 60 gram per day to 70 gram per day. Find out the cross elasticity of tea for coffee.

64 Income elasticity of demand Percentage change in purchases of a good/ percentage change in income a consumers daily income increases from $50 to $ 60, and so his purchase of good X increases from 25 units per month to 30 per month. Calculate the income elasticity of good X Income elasticity for inferior goods and luxury goods

65 Consumer surplus Difference between the price that a consumer is willing to pay and the price one actually pays for a product Excess of price that a customer would be willing to pay rather than go without a thing over that which he actually pays is the economic measure of consumers surplus.

66 Marginal utility and consumer surplus No of unitsMU ($)Price($)Marginal benefit Consumer surplus20 Marshalls measure of consumer surplus-graphical representation Diamond and water paradox

67 Theory of production

68 Factors of production: Land, Labour, capital, entrepreneur Production function Law of variable function Law of return to scale Isoquant Isocost LCC Theory of cost BEP analysis Theory of firms Concept of revenue

69 Production Function The relationship between input and output of a firm is called as production function – The law of variable proportion – Laws of return to scale Theory of firm: what level of output to be produced to maximize the profit Theory of production supports the theory of firm

70 Production Function Production function states the maximum quantity of output that can be produced with any given quantities of various inputs Q= f(L, K, M) L, K, M stand for labour, capital and raw material Short run production function : Law of variable proportion Long run production Function: forms laws of return to scale

71 Short run Production Function Law of variable proportion Law of diminishing return Varying one input while we keep all other variables fixed

72 Concepts of product Input (units(Total product (quintals) Marginal productAverage product

73 Total product: total amount of output produced by a given amount of factor Average product: total product/ no. of units of factors employed – AP= Q/L Marginal Product: output at the margin – Addition to the total output by the employment of an extra unit of a factor – MP = Change in Q/ Change in L

74 Law of variable proportion Stage-1: Increasing returns – TP increases – AP increases, and maximum where stage 1 ends – MP increases and then declines – MP is the highest at the point of inflection Stage-2: diminishing returns – TP increases – AP and MP decline – TP is the highest when it ends – MP is zero when stage 2 ends Stage 3: negative returns – TP and AP decline – MP is negative

75 Problem Number of variable input Total output (TP)Marginal product of the variable input (MP) Average product of the variable input (AP)

76 Isoquant also called as equal product curve Two factors are considered asvariables in the production process Isoquant represents all those factor combinations capable of producing same amount of output Factor combinations FDactor-1Factor -2 A112 B28 C35 D43 E52

77 Isocost line Represents various combinations of two factors that the farm can buy with a given outlay. Helps in determining what combinations of factors the firm will choose for production

78 Return to scale All factors or inputs in a production process are variable – Constant returns to scale – Increasing returns to scale – Decreasing returns to scale

79 Cost of production and cost curves

80 Accounting cost Economic cost Economic cost= Accounting costs + implicit cost Economic profit = total revenue- economic costs

81 Short run and long run Short run costs – Fixed and variable Total cost (TC)= TFC + TVC Average Total cost= TC/Q AFC= TFC/Q AVC= TVC/Q Marginal cost= change in TC/ Change in Q Exercise

82 Units of output T6otal fixed cost Total variable cost Total costAverage fixed cost Average variable cost Average total cost Graphical representation

83 Problem OutputTCTFCTVCAFCAC

84 Marginal cost OutputTotal costMarginal cost


86 Concepts of revenue Total revenue Average revenue Marginal revenue Production function: decision when MC= MR

87 Summary Micro Vs. Macro Demand and supply Cardinal and ordinal utility Production function Cost concepts Revenue concepts

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