3Ethics and Morality Morality – from the Latin (mores) for conduct -Right vs. Wrong-Focuses on actsEthics – from the Greek (ethos) for character-Good vs. Bad-Virtue vs. Vice-Focuses on states of affairs or persons
4Moral Intuitions vs. Moral Principles Moral Theories try to bring our moral principles into line with our intuitions.Moral intuitions are our immediate intuitions about the moral status of somethingMoral principles are the rules established by the moral theory.
5Moral Theories (have parts) Theory of ValueTheory of Moral ValueTheory of non-Moral ValueTheory of Right ConductInter-definability…
6Deontic Status of an Action RIGHTWRONGOBLIGATORYPERMISSIBLEFORBIDDENInterdefinability…
7Divine Command Theory A useful theory to start with…. DCT = An action A is morally wrong iff God commands not-A; an action A is morally right if God commands A or if God permits ATheory of Right ConductTheory of Value
8The Euthyphro DilemmaAssume that A is good just in case God commands AWhy does God command A?Does (i) God command A because A is Good? Or (ii) Is A good because God commands A?
9Euthyphro Dilemma (2)If (i) God commands A because A is Good, then God is not the explanation for why A is Good. DCT fails as an account of morality.If (ii) A is good because God commands A, then either (iia) God has a reason or (iib) God has nor reason to command A.
10Euthyphro Dilemma (3)If (iib) then God is not Rational and classical theism is flawed. [At worst, God’s commands are arbitrary and morality can change moment to moment]If (iia) God is rational, but God’s reason (e.g. the goodness of A) is the real explanation. [Thus, back to (i)]
11Euthyphro Dilemma (4) ED is a problem for Classical theists DCT is motivated by theismBut ED shows that DCT requires either that a) God is not Rational or b) God not the source of morality.
12Moral Objectivism and Relativism Moral Objectivism – The view that there are universal moral standards that apply in all cases. [There is a single correct answer to moral questions]Moral Relativism--Cultural Relativism – moral standards are relative to ‘culture’.--Subjectivism – moral standards are relative to the individual
13An Argument for Subjectivism [S] Morality is supposed to motivate and guide conduct.I can only be motivated by what is part of my individual psychology.My subjective moral intuitions are part of my psychology, moral principles are notTherefore, morality is subjective.
14Critical Evaluation of [S] Not every motivation is moral. Just because someone is motivated to do X, when X is what moral intuitions require, does not mean that X was motivated by the moral intuition.Individual intuitions may tend to converge upon objective moral principles
15Argument for Cultural Relativism [CR] If there are objective facts about X, then there should not be persistent disagreement about X.There is persistent disagreement (as between cultures) about moralityTherefore, there are no objective moral facts.
16Evaluation of CR (1) Same Principle / Different Practices Moral Judgments lack significance/moral Criticism impossibleMoral Progress becomes difficult
17Relativists in Theory are not relativists in practice. Evaluation of CR (2)Relativists in Theory are not relativists in practice.Even if you think torture is OK, I would never agree that your view makes it OK to torture me.
18Objectivist Moral Theories There are three main objectivist moral theoriesUtilitarianism/Consequentialism (Bentham and Mill)Deontological/Non-consequentialist (Kant)Virtue based ethics(Aristotle)
19Duty Based vs. Outcome Based Moral Theories Moral theories are usually divided according to whether the theory aims to require a certain kind of conduct (duty-based) or to recommend a specified end or goal (outcome-based).
20Outcome-Based Theories Teleological Theories (Telos: Gk. goal, aim, or purpose)The Outcome is a state of affairs – the nature of the good is specified. Duty is then defined relative to good. This is sometimes called a consequentialist theoryThe Outcome is a state of character for a person. Goodness is specified with a certain way of living a human life. Rightness is a function of living that life. This is sometimes called a virtue based theory.
21Duty based TheoriesDeontological Theories (Deon: Gk. Duty or obligation).Deontological theories determine duty (what is required or forbidden of a person) without regard to the consequences of the actions or to what sort of person is involved.
22Right vs. Good A Useful Distinction? Consider:She did the right thing for the wrong reason.He is a good person who did a bad thing.He did the right thing, but the result was bad.
23Consequentialism Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill THIS IS BENTHAM’S REAL HEAD
24Bentham’s Utilitarianism The Greatest Happiness Principle:Humans only act for the sake of pleasure and to avoid pain. The good is pleasure.The Hedonic Calculus – calculate utility of each possible action
25HEDONISM Both Bentham and Mill are “Hedonistic Utilitarians” Hedonism has two versions that we must attend to:Psychological Hedonism – The claim that human action is motivated by pleasure/pain.Ethical Hedonism – The claim that pleasure is good and pain is bad/evil.
26Bentham’s Hedonic Calculus Intensity (The relative strength of the sensation)Duration (how long it lasts)Certainty or uncertainty (How likely the sensation is to follow the act)Propinquity or remoteness (how immediate is the sensation)Fecundity (likelihood of producing further utility effects)Purity (is the sensation of a single kind or is it mixed?)Extent (for all who are affected…) [KEY POINT, NOT JUST YOU]
27Bentham’s Moral Theory Bentham’s Theory of Value: The good is pleasure. Each action has an objective value determined by the hedonic calculusBentham’s Theory of Right Conduct: every agent is morally obligated to perform the action which will maximize pleasure overall for everyone involved.
28Mill’s Utilitarianism Mill defends and extends Bentham’s view against criticisms.There are subtle changes which make Mill’s view superiorThese changes result from the attempt to answer specific objections.
29Mill’s Moral Theory-Right Conduct “The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure. To give a clear view of the moral standard set up by the theory, much more requires to be said; in particular, what things it includes in the ideas of pain and pleasure; and to what extent this is left an open question.” (Mill Util, II, para 2)
30Mill’s Theory of Right Conduct TRC-U: actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure.
31Mill’s Moral Theory- Value “But these supplementary explanations do not affect the theory of life on which this theory of morality is grounded- namely, that pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends; and that all desirable things (which are as numerous in the utilitarian as in any other scheme) are desirable either for the pleasure inherent in themselves, or as means to the promotion of pleasure and the prevention of pain.” (Mill, Util, II, Para 2).
32Mill’s Theory of ValueTV-U: Pleasure and freedom from pain are the only things desirable as ends.
33The Objections:Mill formulated his version of Utilitarianism in response to specific objections which had undercut Bentham’s versionThese objections either attacked utilitarianism for denying that humans were special or by denying that it was practical.
34The Doctrine of Swine Objection Util. assumes that pleasure is the good (Moral Hedonism)Util. assumes that we only act for the sake of pleasure (Psychological Hedonism)This is how animals behave, not humansThus, Util. requires that humans be like animals (like swine).Hence we should reject Util. because humans are not swine.
35Types of Pleasure Reply So What. If Psychological Hedonism is true then it is true.Two Types of Pleasure: Higher and LowerHigher Pleasures are superior (the comparison proof)
36Too High for Humanity Objection Util. requires that we act for the sake of the greatest good.This might require a human to act to their own disadvantage or death.This is an unrealistic expectation, most humans are constitutionally incapable of altruism (ought implies can)Therefore, Util. requires more from humans than they are capable of.Therefore, Util. cannot be the correct account of human morality.
37Individual Goods comprise the General Good Reply The good of all is the same as the sum of all individual goodsIndividuals can always pursue their own goodsIf every individual pursues their own pleasure that is the same as pursuing the good of all.[Economic Analogue?]
38Lack of Time ObjectionUtil. requires that we calculate the value of every possible act and chose the best.Such a calculation is beyond the ability of human beingsSuch calculations would take a great deal of timeWe must therefore either act without calculating or calculate in place of action – we lack time to do both.Therefore, we cannot fulfill our obligations under Util.
39Rule of Thumb Reply Not every action requires a new calculation The history of humanity provides adequate evidence of general rules of utilityTraditional morality reflects these general rulesObeying traditional morality yields the same basic result that would result from calculation
40Mill’s Hedonic Calculus Intensity (The relative strength of the sensation)Duration (how long it lasts)Certainty or uncertainty (How likely the sensation is to follow the act)Propinquity or remoteness (how immediate is the sensation)Fecundity (likelihood of producing further utility effects)Purity (is the sensation of a single kind or is it mixed?)Extent (for all who are affected…) [KEY POINT, NOT JUST YOU]Type (higher or lower?)
41Mill’s Moral Theory The basic gist of Mill’s moral theory is this: Human beings pursuing their own happiness (primarily intellectual happiness) will over time produce a world that contains the greatest net amount of happiness. Therefore, each person has a moral obligation to maximize their own pleasure (or at least to structure their life so as to permit the pursuit of pleasure).
42General Objections to Mill’s Utilitarianism Immoral to PromulgateIllegitimate Aggregation of GoodsCannot Quantify UtilityAllows the ends to justify the means-Lives for Headaches-Innocent Spelunker-Dying Promise Case
43A Complication…Act-Utilitarianism: The rightness or wrongness of an action is determined through case-by-case calculationRule-Utilitarianism: The rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by rules that generally tend to promote overall utility
44A Question (or two, to keep in mind)… If Act utilitarianism is too complicated consequentialists must be rule utilitarians.BUT How do we determine the moral rules?And is there any difference between rule-utilitarianism and Kantian ethics?
45Is Utilitarianism Correct? The factors in favor of consequentialism generally seem less than conclusive.What are the other options?-Morality based on Rules/Principles-Morality based upon Character