Presentation on theme: "SAFE TRANSPORT OF INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES AND DIAGNOSTIC SPECIMENS BY AIR Alana Hansen Flinders University."— Presentation transcript:
1SAFE TRANSPORT OF INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES AND DIAGNOSTIC SPECIMENS BY AIR Alana HansenFlinders University
2REGULATIONS as of 1 JULY 2004If either you or your staff packs or supervises an individual who packs dangerous goods for transport by air (including enclosing the goods in packaging, or marking or labelling the consignment or preparing a shipper’s declaration) then you are required by the Civil Aviation Safety Regulation Part 92 (CASR 92) to ensure that both you and your staff receive dangerous goods training on a Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) approved course from 1st July 2004 and every two years thereafter.
3REGULATORY FRAMEWORK United Nations Committee of Experts (CoE) International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)International Civil Aviation Organisation(ICAO)International Air Transport Association(IATA)Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA)Australia
4GENERAL PHILOSOPHY Pressurized cabin Enclosed environment Unlike transport by road and sea, air transportationhas a unique set of circumstances:Pressurized cabinEnclosed environmentOperating at altitude
5WHY AWARENESS TRAINING? In the interest of global public health infectious substances and diagnostic specimens need to be transported by air safely and efficiently.More than 90% of all aviation accidents and incidents worldwide involving dangerous goods were caused by UNDECLARED dangerous goods.Less than 1% of dangerous goods incidents worldwide were caused by correctly packaged, declared and documented dangerous goods.
6THE CASE FOR AWARENESS TRAINING A heavy duty plastic cylinder exploded as it was being transported by a courier.Dry ice was packed into a cylinder (secondary packaging) contrary to both the IATA Regulations and the manufacturers instructions.Just imagine if this had happened onboard an aircraft in flight!
7KEY DEFINITIONS Dangerous Goods Carbon Dioxide, Solid (Dry Ice) Substances capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment when transported by airCarbon Dioxide, Solid (Dry Ice)Diagnostic SpecimensBiological products
9NINE (9) UN HAZARD CLASSES STEP 1ClassifyNINE (9) UN HAZARD CLASSESWith dangerous goods, the shipper must classify each item by determining which of the nine (9) Hazard Classes it falls within.Class 1 – ExplosivesClass 2 – GasesClass 3 – Flammable LiquidsClass 4 – Flammable Solids; Substances Liable toSpontaneous Combustion; Substances Whichin Contact With Water, Emit Flammable GasesClass 5 – Oxidising Substances and Organic PeroxideClass 6 – Toxic and Infectious SubstancesClass 7 – Radioactive MaterialClass 8 – CorrosivesClass 9 – Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods
10UN HAZARD CLASSES These may be further divided into Hazard Divisions STEP 1ClassifyUN HAZARD CLASSESThese may be further divided into Hazard DivisionsThe order in which they appear does not imply relative degreeof danger.
11CLASS 6.2 - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES STEP 1ClassifyCLASS INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCESDivision 6.2 materials are substances which are known tocontain or reasonably expected to contain pathogens.Pathogens are micro-organisms (such as bacteria, viruses,rickettsia parasites and fungi) and recombinant micro-organisms (hybrid or mutant) that may cause infectiousdiseases in humans or animals.Division 6.2 includes biological products; diagnosticspecimens such as blood, body fluids and tissue samples;clinical and medical waste; and genetically modified micro-organisms and organisms.
12STEP 1ClassifyRISK GROUPSClassification into the appropriate Risk Group is based upon:The pathogenicity of the organism.The mode and relative ease of transmission.The degree of risk to both an individual and a community.Reversibility of the diseasethrough the availability of knownand effective preventative agentsand treatment.Risk groups 1,2,3,4
13GENETICALLY MODIFIED MICRO-ORGANISMS AND ORGANISMS STEP 1ClassifyGENETICALLY MODIFIED MICRO-ORGANISMS AND ORGANISMSGenetically modified micro-organisms which meet the definition of aninfectious substance must be classified in Division 6.2 and assigned UN2814 or UN 2900.Animals which contain, or are contaminated with, genetically modifiedmicro-organisms that meet the definition of an infectious substance mustnot be transported by air unless exempted by the State concerned.Genetically modified micro-organisms which do not meet the definition ofan infectious substance, but are capable of altering animals, plants ormicrobiological substances in a way which is not normally the result ofnatural reproduction must be classified in Class 9 and assigned to UN3245.
14STEP 1ClassifyDIAGNOSTIC SPECIMENSDiagnostic specimens, including those taken from apparently healthyindividuals, may contain pathogens that meet the criteria for Risk Groups 1,2, 3 or 4. Diagnostic Specimens that contain pathogens which meet thecriteria for Risk Group 1, 2 and 3 must be assigned to UN 3373.Specimens containing Risk Group 4 pathogens are not permitted fortransport as ‘diagnostic specimens’ and must be assigned to UN 2814 or UN2900 and transported according to the requirements for infectioussubstances. Shippers must exercise their professional judgment whenassessing the possible presence of pathogens from Risk Group 4.Blood which has been collected for the purpose of blood transfusion or forthe preparation of blood products, and blood products or any tissues ororgans intended for use in transplants are not subject to the IATADangerous Goods Regulations.
15STEP 1ClassifyBIOLOGICAL PRODUCTSBiological products are divided into three categories:Biological products containing pathogens in Risk Group 1are not considered to be infectious substances and are not subject to the provisions of the IATA DGRs.Biological products manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of national governmental health authorities and transported for the purposes of final packaging or distribution, and for use for personal health care by medical professional or individuals are not subject to the requirements for Division 6.2 substances.(3) Biological products known or reasonably known to contain pathogens in Risk Groups 2. 3 or 4 and which do not meet the criteria of (2) above must be classified in Division 6.2 under UN 2814 or UN 2900 as appropriate.
16SHIPPER’S RESPONSIBILITIES Step 2IdentifySHIPPER’S RESPONSIBILITIESAssign, where relevant, each item to one of three Packing Groups (I, II or III)Identify the Proper Shipping Name, UN Identification Number, cargo and passenger aircraft limitations and any special provisions.Comply with IATA Regulations
17GENERAL PACKING REQUIREMENTS Step 3 Select PackagingGENERAL PACKING REQUIREMENTSUse only packaging permitted by applicable Packaging InstructionsFollow manufacturers instructionsUse only certified package configurationsRestrict the overpack quantity to design specificationsRestrict quantity per package to the specified limitsPackaging must be:Good qualityStrong enoughConstructed to prevent loss of contentClosed so as to prevent loss of content
24GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Two colour formats Step 6DocumentationGENERAL REQUIREMENTSTwo colour formatsLegible (computerised or handwritten)Two copies required by all OperatorsFull signature required when any type of amendment made except:Air waybill or con-note numberAirport of DepartureAirport of Destination
25TRANSPORT PLANNING The Sender The Carrier The Receiver Step 7Advance ArrangementsTRANSPORT PLANNINGAdvance Arrangements need to be made betweenThe SenderThe CarrierThe ReceiverPartner relationship required between the three partiesAll have specific responsibilities to carry out
26Step 8 Emergency Response Emergency Response information must accompany all shipments of dangerous goods and must be available at all facilities involved in the transport process.Risk ReductionRisk Management
27CONCLUSIONThe Civil Aviation Academy Australasia’s ‘Safe Transport of Infectious Substances and Diagnostic Specimens’ Course is CASA approved.One-day tutorial course ($140 per person)Via correspondence ($99 per person + $6 postage and handling).For further informationor ph
28ACKNOWLEDGEMENTMany thanks to Sue-anne Roberts and Robyn McMenamin from the Civil Aviation Academy Australasia Pty Ltd for their assistance in putting this presentation together.THANK YOU