2The average person sees or hears more than 1,500 trademarks each day!
3IMPORTANCE OF TRADEMARK increased competition among companies undertaking trade in more than one countryused to simplify the identification by consumers of goods or services, as well as their quality and valueEffects on consumer preferationsConsumer dependency on products/servicesIncrease on the demand of product/servicesDistinction: Pepsi-Cola and Coca-ColaAsset value? Trademark value?
4The main purpose of a trademark the main purpose of a trademark is -to identify the source of a product and -to distinguish that product from products coming from other sources.
51. What is a trademark? What it is not Classical definition: “A trademark is any sign that individualizes the goods of a given enterprise and distinguishes them from the goods of its competitors”.Two functions:- individualization- distinction (Also shows quality, origin/ be used as advertisement)Two main characteristics:-it must be distinctive-it should not be deceptive
61. What is a trademark?Court of Justice of the European Communities, September 29, Case C-39/97, Canon Kabushiki Kaisha v Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., formerly Pathe Communications Corporation:“… according to the settled case-law of the Court, the essential function of the trade mark is to guarantee the identity of the origin of the marked product to the consumer or end user by enabling him, without any possibility of confusion, to distinguish the product or service from others which have another origin.”
7TRIPS, Article 15Article 15 - Protectable Subject Matter 1. Any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark. Such signs, in particular words including personal names, letters, numerals, figurative elements and combinations of colours as well as any combination of such signs, shall be eligible for registration as trademarks. Where signs are not inherently capable of distinguishing the relevant goods or services, Members may make registrability depend on distinctiveness acquired through use. Members may require, as a condition of registration, that signs be visually perceptible.
8European Directive 89/104Article 2 - Signs of which a trade mark may consistA trade mark may consist of any sign capable of being represented graphically, particularly words, including personal names, designs, letters, numerals, the shape of goods or of their packaging, provided that such signs are capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings.
9AIM/OWNER/REGISTRATION to protect the name of the product rather than the invention or idea behind the product.Owner:can be owned by individuals or companiesRegistration:should be registered at a governmental agency, which is usually referred to as the Trademarks Office.
10A trademark may consist of words,designs,letters,numerals or packaging,abbreviations or names (famous make of car, Ford – named, of course, after Henry Ford, who built the first one)slogans,devices,symbols, etc.
11Sample TrademarksWords: ‘Apple’ for computers; Deutsche Bank for a bank,Arbitrary or fanciful designations: Coca-Cola, Nikon, Sony, NIKE, Easy Jet.Names: Ford, Peugeot, Hilton (hotel)Slogans: ‘Fly me’ , for an airline;Devices: the star for Mercedes Benz, the flying lady for Rolls RoyceNumber: the 4711 cologneLetters: GM, FIAT, VW, KLMPictures or symbols: Lacoste (small crocodile)Reference: WIPO Notes concerning General Course on Intellectual Property Rights
12DISTINCTIVENESSwhen assessing the distinctiveness of a sign for a TRADEMARK it has to be judged together with the goods or services it is to be associated with.
13The most common way of protecting a trademark is to have it registered in the Trademark Register unregistered trademarks are also protected in some countries but it is a less reliable form of protection.
14COLLECTIVE MARKS“Collective marks usually belong to a group or association of enterprises. Their use is reserved to the members of the group or association. A collective mark therefore distinguishes the goods or services of members of the association from those of other undertakings.The function of the collective mark is to inform the public about certain particular features of the product for which the collective mark is used. An enterprise which uses the collective mark may, in addition, use its own trademark. Example: in an association of architects or engineers, a member may use the logo of the association as well as the logo of the enterprise.”Reference: WIPO Notes concerning General Course on Intellectual Property Rights
15CERTIFICATE MARKS“A certificate mark is a mark indicating that the goods or services in connection with which it is used are certified by the proprietor of the mark in respect of the origin, mode of manufacture of goods, quality or other characteristics. The certification mark may only be used in accordance with the defined standards. Example: ISO 9000.Reference: WIPO Notes concerning General Course on Intellectual Property Rights
16WELL-KNOWN TRADEMARKS “Some companies have successfully established, via their trademarks or service marks, worldwide renown. Subsequently, consumers can, without effort, recognize and identify their goods and services, their qualities and their features without referring to the location of the company in question. These trademarks are called well-known marks or famous marks. Examples: Sony, Versace, Louis Vuitton, etc.”Reference: WIPO Notes concerning General Course on Intellectual Property Rights
17When a trademark is well-known trademark? The Factorsdegree of knowledge or recognition of the mark in the relevant sector of the public and the duration, extent and geographical area of any use of the mark.
19RATIFIED INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS RELATED TO PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS Paris ConventionTRIPs AgreementMadrid ProtocolTrademark Law TreatyViyana AnlaşmasıNice Agreement
20Current Legislation Decrees with the effect of law numbered 556 By-law related to the application of Decrees with the effect of law numbered 556
21DEFINITION Decrees with the effect of law numbered 556 Article 5 “Any sign provided that it distinguishes the goods or services of a given enterprise from the goods&services of its competitors”
22Trademark consist of any sign such as names ,words,letters,NumeralsColour combinations ,
23TYPES OF THE TRADEMARK Commercial Trademarks Service Trademark Collective TrademarksGuarantee TrademarkCommunity TrademarkIndustrial Designs can not be registered as Trademark
24Application for Trademark Registration Real &Legal person or their legal representativeNecessary Documents:PetitionTrademark sampleThe list of goods or services where the trademark shall be usedPayment documentsFor each trademark registration, seperate application is necessary
25Process Formal Examination Meritorious Examination Objection period Registration
26Grounds for refusal of trademark registration Absolute grounds (Article 7)Relative grounds (Article 8)