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COST OF GOODS SOLD, 101 What It Is Where It Is & How You Figure It Out Book Expo America 2005 NEW YORK, NEW YORK.

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Presentation on theme: "COST OF GOODS SOLD, 101 What It Is Where It Is & How You Figure It Out Book Expo America 2005 NEW YORK, NEW YORK."— Presentation transcript:

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2 COST OF GOODS SOLD, 101 What It Is Where It Is & How You Figure It Out Book Expo America 2005 NEW YORK, NEW YORK

3 THE THREE BASIC FINANCIAL DOCUMENTS BALANCE SHEET A financial snapshot of a company at a point in time. SOURCES AND USES OF CASH (Cash Flow Statement) Shows how the cash was generated and was used, by breaking down the activities into operations, financing, and investment activities. OPERATING STATEMENT The performance of a company over a designated period of time.

4 ABACUS ABACUS is an initiative to create a benchmark for the measurement of independent bookstore operations. To create the standard To measure against different business models To make available a measuring index for use in presentations to landlords and banks To help identify the variables for success

5 ABACUS The numbers generated by the ABACUS study were used to create…

6 THE 2% SOLUTION Concentrates on Four Areas: Sales Margin Compensation Occupancy Today were focusing on margin…

7 BUT TODAYS SESSION IS REALLY ABOUT COST OF GOODS SOLD To make a plan to increase margin, you must first understand and know your Cost of Goods Sold.

8 DEFINITION OF COST OF GOODS The total cost of everything you sold or offered for sale during the period.

9 GROSS MARGIN Cost of Goods subtracted from sales equals gross margin. Sales$400,000100% - Cost of Goods$240,000 60% = Gross Margin$160,000 40%

10 GROSS PROFIT SECTION OF AN OPERATING STATEMENT Sales$400,000100% Cost of Sales (COG Available for Sale) $284,000 – Beginning Inventory (cost)$40,000 – Purchase Expense$244,000 Less Ending Inventory (cost) $44,000 Cost of Goods Sold$240,00060% Gross Profit$160,00040% In the Gross Profit section of an Operating Statement, we use a calculated Cost of Goods percentage to come up with the Gross Profit percentage.

11 GROSS PROFIT SECTION OF AN OPERATING STATEMENT Sales$400,000100% Cost of Sales (COG Available for Sale) $284,000 – Beginning Inventory (cost)$40,000 – Purchase Expense$244,000 Less Ending Inventory (cost) $44,000 Cost of Goods Sold$240,00060% Gross Profit$160,00040% But in reality, we are coming up with a way to calculate the ending inventory at cost. We do that by using…

12 RETAIL INVENTORY METHOD A formula for calculating Cost of Goods that works extremely well for the retail book business.

13 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) + Purchases = COG% Ending Inventory (retail) + Sales (retail)

14 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) = COG% Where does this number come from? We find this number on the Balance Sheet of the previous years final financial statement.

15 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA + Purchases = COG% Purchase expense is the only number in the Retail Inventory Formula that requires a calculation. The other three variables are either actually counted or exist on the year-end Balance Sheet. Purchase expense equals what you spent on merchandise for sale (+) or (-) the difference in accounts payable from the beginning of the period to the end.

16 PURCHASE EXPENSE CALCULATION Checks written for merchandise for sale during the period, plus the difference between accounts payable at the beginning of the period and accounts payable at the end of the period, equals purchases: Checks= $50,000 Accounts Payable (opening)= $20,000 Accounts Payable (ending)= $10,000 Difference=-$10,000 Purchases= $40,000

17 PURCHASE EXPENSE CALCULATION Heres another example: Checks= Accounts Payable (opening)= Accounts Payable (ending)= Difference= Purchases= $46,000 $15,000 $19,000 $ 4,000 $50,000

18 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA = COG% Ending Inventory (retail) This must be based on an actual count of the merchandise for sale at the end of the last day of the fiscal year. The count is done at the price at which the goods are being offered for sale at that point in time.

19 COUNTING INVENTORY There are two ways to count inventory: Annual count – On the last day of your fiscal year, physically count every book in the store. Incremental counts – each month count a few sections, totaling those counts at the end of the year These are also known as: The right way – actual count The wrong way – incremental count

20 COUNTING INVENTORY Incremental counts of inventory are helpful in tracking inventory throughout the year, but they cannot be used for obtaining an accurate count of the inventory to be used in calculating your cost of goods. Without doing a physical count of your full inventory at least once a year, inaccuracies will mount, and the discrepancy between your inventory and your payables will grow exponentially. You must reset the clock each and every year.

21 CLEAN CUT-OFFS Everything must be counted only once, whether its a book, a dollar, or a chargeback. Over- or undercounts go directly to your bottom line. For this reason, its crucial to have clean cut-offs. The Building Blocks BookDollarChargeback

22 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA = COG% + Sales (retail) This is a total of all sales of all merchandise during the period. Basically, this is a Z tape for the year.

23 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) + Purchases = COG% Ending Inventory (retail) + Sales (retail) Now lets put some numbers in the formula…

24 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) + Purchases $40,000$244, = COG% $73,000$400,000 Ending Inventory (retail) + Sales (retail)

25 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) + Purchases $40,000$244,000 = $284, = COG% = $473,000 $73,000$400,000 Ending Inventory (retail) + Sales (retail)

26 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) + Purchases $284, =.6004 $473,000 Ending Inventory (retail) + Sales (retail) COG% = 60%

27 GROSS PROFIT SECTION OF AN OPERATING STATEMENT Sales$400,000100% Cost of Sales (COG Available for Sale) $284,000 ° Beginning Inventory (cost) $40,000 ° Purchase Expense$244,000 Less Ending Inventory (cost)? Cost of Good Sold$240,00060% Gross Profit$160,00040% Now we can solve for this…

28 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA Beginning Inventory (cost) + Purchases $40,000$244, =.6004 (COG%) $73,000$400,000 Ending Inventory (retail) + Sales (retail) Physically counted ending inventory at retail X Calculated COG% = $73,000 x.6004= $43,829 Ending inventory at cost

29 GROSS PROFIT SECTION OF AN OPERATING STATEMENT Sales$400,000100% Cost of Sales (COG Available for Sale) $284,000 ° Beginning Inventory (cost) $40,000 ° Purchase Expense$244,000 Less Ending Inventory (cost) $43,829 Cost of Good Sold$240,17160% Gross Profit$159,82940% Wasnt that easy?????

30 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA OK…So this is not a perfect world. There are a couple of small weaknesses to this method: Discounts given are netted into sales Shrinkage (theft) is netted into ending inventory at retail

31 RETAIL INVENTORY FORMULA And to do this right, there are a couple of unbreakable rules that apply: 1.Clean Cut-Offs a.Miscalculations, dollar for dollar, go to the bottom line 2.Actual Counts of: a.Inventory b.Payables (including chargebacks)

32 SO WHY IS THIS ALL SO IMPORTANT? There is no way to measure the results of your operations without an accurate calculation of Cost of Goods Sold. You cant make a plan to increase margin without first understanding and knowing your COGS. You may think you know if you are profitable using historical numbers… BUT, YOU DONT!

33 THE DREAM SCENARIO If we could get all independent booksellers to accurately calculate their Cost of Goods, thereby greatly increasing the number of stores with very accurate financial statements, and then get all of those stores to report all of those accurate numbers to the ABACUS Survey, what wonderful educational tools we could develop. --Anonymous Domnitz

34 BUT FOR NOW… Lets all commit ourselves to creating an accurate set of financial documents, laying a foundation on which we can build stronger, more profitable bookshops moving forward.

35 THANK YOU FOR LISTENING THE BEGINNING


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