Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVES To give a brief overview of the requirements for the transport of dangerous goods by air To identify deficiencies in the supply chain that could."— Presentation transcript:
0 TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS
1 OBJECTIVESTo give a brief overview of the requirements for the transport of dangerous goods by airTo identify deficiencies in the supply chain that could lead to serious accidents/incidentsTo demonstrate the challenges facing industry in ensuring compliance with the regulations
2 DEFINITION OF DANGEROUS GOODS Dangerous Goods are articles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment, and which are shown in the list of Dangerous Goods in the Dangerous Goods Regulations or which are classified according to these Regulations.
3 ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR THE SAFE TRANSPORT BY AIR OF DANGEROUS GOODS Annex 18 to the ConventionAviation Act No. 74 of 1962ICAO Technical InstructionsICAO Technical Instruction SupplementCivil Aviation Regulations of 1997; Part 92SA-CATS-DGICAO Emergency Response Guidance for aircraft incidents involving dangerous goodsPart 141 Dangerous Goods TrainingIATA Dangerous Goods Regulations – used by industry (mostly IATA Members) – contains all the requirements in the ICAO Technical StandardsIn 1953 the member Airlines of IATA recognised the growing need of transportation by Air of Dangerous Goods ( articles and Substances having Harzadous properties) which if not properly controlled could adversely affect the safety of passengers, crew and or Aircraft on which they are carried. Eperience in other modes of transport had demosntrated that this articles can be transported provided that they are properly packed and the quantities in each package were properly limited. Using this experience together with the industry knowledge, IATA developed the first Regulations for Dangerous Gooods Transpotation by Air, and the first edition of the DGR manual was published in 1956 as the IATA Restricted Articles Regulations.
4 USE OF THE ICAO TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS and IATA DGR Manual Classify & identify proper shipping nameCheck if permitted on passenger/cargo aircraft or if forbiddenIf forbidden, check if subject to exemptionCheck quantity and packagingPrepare consignment – mark/label/documentSign Transport Document and offer for transportState Variation RequirementsOperator Variations
5 LIMITATIONS OF DANGEROUS GOODS ON AIRCRAFT Forbidden for air transport under any circumstances- certain explosives- substances liable to produce dangerous evolution of heatForbidden for transport unless exempted by various StatesAcceptable for transport on both Passenger and Cargo AircraftForbidden for transport on a Passenger Aircraft,but acceptable on Cargo Aircraft only
6 LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS PROBABLE CAUSE Valujet 592; Chemical Oxygen GeneratorsPan American B-707; Onboard nitric acid fireAmerican Airlines DC-10; Chemical Oxygen GeneratorsFed-Ex DC-10; Flammable Liquids in Lab MachineContinental Airlines B-727; Safety MatchesDC-8 Freighter in Dallas; Carbon Dioxide fumesAmerican Airlines DC-9; Hydrogen Peroxide
7 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Lack of training Negligence Reluctance to declare correct contents - ShippersUndeclared dangerous goodsMis-declared dangerous goodsLack of communicationIncorrect packaging
8 UNDECLARED/HIDDEN DANGEROUS GOODS A MAJOR RISK TO THE SAFETY OF CIVIL AVIATION Risk to the safety of passengers & crewRisk of explosionRisk of smoke or fireRisk of incapacitation of crew – toxic inhalationExposure to Ionizing RadiationExposure to contaminated substances/liquidsRisk to aircraft radiation contaminationIncompatible dangerous goods - a tickingtime bomb
18 How Could They Have Been Prevented Correct content declarationCorrect classificationAdequately trained personnelEducated clientsDocumented and packed as dangerous goodsUN Specification packagingConcerted effort by all to ensure an overalllevel of safety (Don’t buck the system)
19 SUPPLY CHAIN (AS STRONG AS ITS WEAKEST LINK) ConsolidatorRoadCARGOTEMINLRailCARRIERSeaFreightForwarder/AgentShipper/CourierOrg.PACKER
20 SUPPLY CHAIN - GENERAL CONSIDERATION Communication - Instructions from shipper clearCompliance with relevant regulationsSupply chain commercially driven – No shortcutsPacking - 99% of undeclared dangerous goods not packed in accordance with the regulationsHonesty/trust - Reluctance of Shippers to declare contentsSafety/security consciousness – do not compromise safetyKnow what you are shippingLiability issues in Supply ChainDangerous goods packing organisations canassist
21 SHIPPER’S RESPONSIBILITY GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Dangerous Goods not to be transported under any circumstancesIdentified/classifiedPacked – essential component/Valid Package Performance Test Certificate – expiry date of packagingUN Specified PackagingMarkedLabelledAccompanied by a properly executed transport document (Shippers Declaration)Transport document to be signed by trainedpersonnel
22 OPERATOR’S RESPONSIBILITY Acceptance ProceduresStorage and loadingInspectionRetention of recordsTrainingProvision of information, Including emergency response information
23 DANGEROUS GOODS TRAINING Requirement of regulations – ICAO/CARS and IATA DGRJob SpecificDifferent categories of trainingShippers personnel involved in the preparation of a dangerous goods shipment and contractorsAir Operators personnel/aircrew/cabin crew/acceptance personnel/warehouse/driversRamp personnel/security screening personnelFreight Forwarders/processing dangerous goodsTraining by a CAA accredited organisation
24 ENFORCEMENT BY THE APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY (SACAA) CAR 185 & Section 19 of the Aviation Act of 1962Criminal charges - on conviction; fine or imprisonment or to both fine & imprisonmentFirst Time Offender – if not serious - warningInjury to persons or damage to property; SAPS will consider findings before moving for possible prosecutionSafety/security is a co-operative venturefor period not exceeding 10 years
25 ROLE OF SHIPPERS IN TRANSPORTING DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR Transported in accordance with RegulationsOverall level of safety maintained at all timesSecurity of dangerous goodsPersonnel current in dangerous goods trainingOngoing trainingEducate clients &personnel about dangerous goodsIf a chemical is forbidden for transportation by Air check with CAA if Exemption is applicable
26 TODAY’S CHALLENGESMulti-modal transport – stake holders acting in silos?Vision for the future – key role playersFragmented regulationsProper managementIdentification of critical issuesInternational requirementsComplexities in complianceHarmonisation – A distant dream?