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TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS

2 OBJECTIVES To give a brief overview of the requirements for the transport of dangerous goods by air To give a brief overview of the requirements for the transport of dangerous goods by air To identify deficiencies in the supply chain that could lead to serious accidents/incidents To identify deficiencies in the supply chain that could lead to serious accidents/incidents To demonstrate the challenges facing industry in ensuring compliance with the regulations To demonstrate the challenges facing industry in ensuring compliance with the regulations

3 DEFINITION OF DANGEROUS GOODS Dangerous Goods are articles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment, and which are shown in the list of Dangerous Goods in the Dangerous Goods Regulations or which are classified according to these Regulations.

4 ENABLING LEGISLATION FOR THE SAFE TRANSPORT BY AIR OF DANGEROUS GOODS Annex 18 to the Convention Annex 18 to the Convention Aviation Act No. 74 of 1962 Aviation Act No. 74 of 1962 ICAO Technical Instructions ICAO Technical Instructions ICAO Technical Instruction Supplement ICAO Technical Instruction Supplement Civil Aviation Regulations of 1997; Part 92 Civil Aviation Regulations of 1997; Part 92 SA-CATS-DG SA-CATS-DG ICAO Emergency Response Guidance for aircraft incidents involving dangerous goods ICAO Emergency Response Guidance for aircraft incidents involving dangerous goods Part 141 Dangerous Goods Training Part 141 Dangerous Goods Training IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations – used by industry (mostly IATA Members) – contains all the requirements in the ICAO Technical Standards IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations – used by industry (mostly IATA Members) – contains all the requirements in the ICAO Technical Standards

5 USE OF THE ICAO TECHNICAL INSTRUCTIONS and IATA DGR Manual Classify & identify proper shipping name Classify & identify proper shipping name Check if permitted on passenger/cargo aircraft or if forbidden Check if permitted on passenger/cargo aircraft or if forbidden If forbidden, check if subject to exemption If forbidden, check if subject to exemption Check quantity and packaging Check quantity and packaging Prepare consignment – mark/label/document Prepare consignment – mark/label/document Sign Transport Document and offer for transport Sign Transport Document and offer for transport State Variation Requirements State Variation Requirements Operator Variations Operator Variations

6 LIMITATIONS OF DANGEROUS GOODS ON AIRCRAFT Forbidden for air transport under any circumstances Forbidden for air transport under any circumstances - certain explosives - substances liable to produce dangerous evolution of heat Forbidden for transport unless exempted by various States Forbidden for transport unless exempted by various States Acceptable for transport on both Passenger and Cargo Aircraft Acceptable for transport on both Passenger and Cargo Aircraft Forbidden for transport on a Passenger Aircraft, Forbidden for transport on a Passenger Aircraft, but acceptable on Cargo Aircraft only

7 LEARNING FROM THE MISFORTUNES OF OTHERS PROBABLE CAUSE Valujet 592; Chemical Oxygen Generators Pan American B-707; Onboard nitric acid fire American Airlines DC-10; Chemical Oxygen Generators Fed-Ex DC-10; Flammable Liquids in Lab Machine Continental Airlines B-727; Safety Matches DC-8 Freighter in Dallas; Carbon Dioxide fumes American Airlines DC-9; Hydrogen Peroxide

8 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Lack of training Lack of training Negligence Negligence Reluctance to declare correct contents - Shippers Reluctance to declare correct contents - Shippers Undeclared dangerous goods Undeclared dangerous goods Mis-declared dangerous goods Mis-declared dangerous goods Lack of communication Lack of communication Incorrect packaging Incorrect packaging

9 UNDECLARED/HIDDEN DANGEROUS GOODS A MAJOR RISK TO THE SAFETY OF CIVIL AVIATION Risk to the safety of passengers & crew Risk to the safety of passengers & crew Risk of explosion Risk of explosion Risk of smoke or fire Risk of smoke or fire Risk of incapacitation of crew – toxic inhalation Risk of incapacitation of crew – toxic inhalation Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Exposure to contaminated substances/liquids Exposure to contaminated substances/liquids Risk to aircraft radiation contamination Risk to aircraft radiation contamination Incompatible dangerous goods - a ticking Incompatible dangerous goods - a ticking time bomb

10 UNDECLARED DANGEROUS GOODS

11 ORIGINAL CONSIGNMENT OF ACIDS

12 UNDECLARED SULPHURIC AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID

13 CORROSION CAUSED BY ACID TO PALLET BASE

14 UNDECLARED FLAMMABLE PAINT

15

16 UNDECLARED COMPRESSED GAS

17 UNDECLARED SPILLABLE BATTERY

18 UNDECLARED FLAMMABLES/AEROSOLS

19 How Could They Have Been Prevented Correct content declaration Correct content declaration Correct classification Correct classification Adequately trained personnel Adequately trained personnel Educated clients Educated clients Documented and packed as dangerous goods Documented and packed as dangerous goods UN Specification packaging UN Specification packaging Concerted effort by all to ensure an overall Concerted effort by all to ensure an overall level of safety (Dont buck the system)

20 SUPPLY CHAIN (AS STRONG AS ITS WEAKEST LINK) Road Freight Forwarder/ Agent CARGOTERMINALCARGOTERMINAL CARRIER Shipper/ Courier Org. Consolidator PACKER Rail Sea

21 SUPPLY CHAIN - GENERAL CONSIDERATION Communication - Instructions from shipper clear Communication - Instructions from shipper clear Compliance with relevant regulations Compliance with relevant regulations Supply chain commercially driven – No shortcuts Supply chain commercially driven – No shortcuts Packing - 99% of undeclared dangerous goods not packed in accordance with the regulations Packing - 99% of undeclared dangerous goods not packed in accordance with the regulations Honesty/trust - Reluctance of Shippers to declare contents Honesty/trust - Reluctance of Shippers to declare contents Safety/security consciousness – do not compromise safety Safety/security consciousness – do not compromise safety Know what you are shipping Know what you are shipping Liability issues in Supply Chain Liability issues in Supply Chain Dangerous goods packing organisations can Dangerous goods packing organisations canassist

22 SHIPPERS RESPONSIBILITY GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Dangerous Goods not to be transported under any circumstances Dangerous Goods not to be transported under any circumstances Identified/classified Identified/classified Packed – essential component/Valid Package Performance Test Certificate – expiry date of packaging Packed – essential component/Valid Package Performance Test Certificate – expiry date of packaging UN Specified Packaging UN Specified Packaging Marked Marked Labelled Labelled Accompanied by a properly executed transport document (Shippers Declaration) Accompanied by a properly executed transport document (Shippers Declaration) Transport document to be signed by trained Transport document to be signed by trainedpersonnel

23 OPERATORS RESPONSIBILITY Acceptance Procedures Acceptance Procedures Storage and loading Storage and loading Inspection Inspection Retention of records Retention of records Training Training Provision of information, Including emergency response information Provision of information, Including emergency response information

24 DANGEROUS GOODS TRAINING Requirement of regulations – ICAO/CARS and IATA DGR Requirement of regulations – ICAO/CARS and IATA DGR Job Specific Job Specific Different categories of training Different categories of training o Shippers personnel involved in the preparation of a dangerous goods shipment and contractors o Air Operators personnel/aircrew/cabin crew/acceptance personnel/warehouse/drivers o Ramp personnel/security screening personnel o Freight Forwarders/processing dangerous goods Training by a CAA accredited organisation Training by a CAA accredited organisation

25 ENFORCEMENT BY THE APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY (SACAA) CAR 185 & Section 19 of the Aviation Act of 1962 CAR 185 & Section 19 of the Aviation Act of 1962 Criminal charges - on conviction; fine or imprisonment or to both fine & imprisonment Criminal charges - on conviction; fine or imprisonment or to both fine & imprisonment First Time Offender – if not serious - warning First Time Offender – if not serious - warning Injury to persons or damage to property; SAPS will consider findings before moving for possible prosecution Injury to persons or damage to property; SAPS will consider findings before moving for possible prosecution Safety/security is a co-operative venture Safety/security is a co-operative venture

26 ROLE OF SHIPPERS IN TRANSPORTING DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR Transported in accordance with Regulations Transported in accordance with Regulations Overall level of safety maintained at all times Overall level of safety maintained at all times Security of dangerous goods Security of dangerous goods Personnel current in dangerous goods training Personnel current in dangerous goods training Ongoing training Ongoing training Educate clients &personnel about dangerous goods Educate clients &personnel about dangerous goods If a chemical is forbidden for transportation by Air check with CAA if Exemption is applicable If a chemical is forbidden for transportation by Air check with CAA if Exemption is applicable

27 TODAYS CHALLENGES TODAYS CHALLENGES Multi-modal transport – stake holders acting in silos? Multi-modal transport – stake holders acting in silos? Vision for the future – key role players Vision for the future – key role players Fragmented regulations Fragmented regulations Proper management Proper management Identification of critical issues Identification of critical issues International requirements International requirements Complexities in compliance Complexities in compliance Harmonisation – A distant dream? Harmonisation – A distant dream?


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