Four groups of information systems (transaction processing systems), (management information systems), (decision support systems), dan (artificial intelligence atau expert systems).
Rankings System Information Function Main User Main Type Decision Expert system Replace humans in decision making Management at all levels Structured and unstructured decisions Decision Support System Assist management in making decisions Top managementunstructured decisions Management information system Providing various forms of information Manajemen madya Semi-structured decision Transaction processing system Noting the various forms of transactions Low managementStructured Decision
Tier at the bottom shows the most basic information systems, or in other words, from within a company, because it was used to record various transactions. The transactions that are in a firm, agency, or organization is not a sale and purchase transactions only, but various forms of the events that caused changes in the data.
Things that can be input as a transaction is a natural occurrence in the institution, organization or company, shall be note that would later be used as material for decision making. In addition to record sales and purchases, which included into other transactions between moving the customer's address, employee promotions, employee status changes from yet to be married, depreciation expense charges, and changes in the price of goods.
Decision on use by decision makers to choose the best decision. Decision-making without based on information, causing the decision was taken not to give results on Want. For example, a seller set a sale price of Rp 10,000, while buyers can obtain similar goods elsewhere RP 7000. decisions set the selling price is IDR 10,000 if the information is based on, for example based on purchase price and selling price of the goods elsewhere, may be getting for Rp.7.500.
The Types of De cision DECISIONPROBLEMSWAY OUTFREQUENCY StructuredClear Example: finished goods in a shop Clear Example: take the goods at the warehouse. Often: This decision can be automated using the tool. Semi-structuredClear Example: goods in the warehouse run out. Most obvious Example: to buy, but as much as how much? Where to buy? Rather frequently: this decision in great need of middle managers. UnstructuredIt is not clear Example: whether the company needs to sell a new product? What? it is not clear Example: determining the selling price of a new product. Rare: This decision often involves top management.
Decision Type Structured decisions: decisions that most often occurs within a company / organization If there is a buyer of the money amounted to 100 thousand to the cashier while spending only 80 thousand, so automatically, the cashier will give the return 20 thousand. This decision can be taken over by machines (computers)
Unstructured decision The decision that the problem does not clear and the solutions are also unclear. Decision in rare and are generally made by top management Opening new branches, creating new products, promotions through the Internet.
Transaction Processing Systems information system whose primary function is to record various transactions that occur within a company or organization. Transactions are events or events that might be noted by the company. Thus, the transaction is not always a sale or purchase transaction, but also includes price increases, promotion of employees, the movement of goods from the warehouse to the store, and change management. Transactions of the most widely recorded by the TPS system is the sales transactions, purchases, cash receipts and payments
Transaction Processing System Other tasks, the TPS results that the information or reports in a form that is standard, relatively routine and not a lot of variations. Ex: statement of cash receipt, reports sales of goods / week, etc. Executif management is a lot involved in the use of TPS.
Example The sales manager to read the report in every store and one of stock children's shoes were expired and the manager immediately called the warehouse to remove the goods. Problem: The goods gone The way out: take stock of goods in warehouse
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM many information systems that produce a variety of information or reports, for the purposes of decision making by managers, especially middle managers and top managers. Information generated can be either hardcopy (print) or softcopy (not printed, just shown in the screen, or voiced through speakers). Softcopy reports need not be printed, because the information is temporary.
MIS Middle level management is the management's most lots require reports from the MIS. Decisions are semi- structured decision Semi-structured decision is a decision that the problem is clear but the way out some obvious, some not
example If the items in the warehouse run out then how the way out? Inventory managers have to buy this stuff (the way out is clear) - How much should be purchased - Which suppliers will be ordered - Pay cash or credit - These decisions need information about a purchase price of an ideal, efficient inventory levels, firms cash flow (the exit is not so obvious)
If there is an employee who retired - The problem:? (Clear) - Solution:? It is not clear
Decision Support System The information system that helps top management in taking decisions that are not structured Unstructured decisions are not routine. Called unstructured decision because the issue is not clear, the solution was also not clear Ex:
Example Wahana bus transportation company, has a route from Jakarta to Semarang return trip and had been operating since five years ago. Although an initial circulation of the company's sales were fairly good, but starting next year, the management wants to open a new travel, the Jakarta-Surabaya. To make the decision that had never taken before, of course, top management got into trouble. They do not know how much rates price should be offered to passengers. What time should the bus departed from Surabaya or Jakarta, and what facilities should be obtained by passenger
How to solve the problem? management companies need to analyze the various count with numbers, that almost all numbers are approximate figures. Nevertheless, it would be nice if the company can have the numbers closer to reality. Example: - ticket prices can be learned from other companies, -hours of departure can be equated with other companies, - facilities may create their own company.
Does this decision luck / no? management will study whether the Jakarta- Surabaya route profitable. management, many using fictitious data. Fictitious data is data that is not real, but still rational for management considerations. The Company provides temporary ticket price (in the calculations, not yet published) of 150,000 for example (comes solely from rough calculations that can be changed again to adjust the company's circumstances and environment)
Expert System systems that accommodate a variety of skills possessed by experts, so that ordinary people will be its ability to act as experts. In ancient times, when people would be photographed, have to count several things, including the distance the object will be photographed from the camera, light levels, shutter speed, large-small, ASA (the sensitivity of the film), at least focus the lens, and the need to use lights at least lightning. Only people who are have been exprecienced that can capture with good results. Now almost all cameras are equipped with intelligence experts, so that someone who's just holding the camera, still can take pictures with satisfactory results.
Other examples When the new copiers are marketed, to use the machine, it should be technicians who have studied the machine concerned. In case of damage such as paper jams in the middle of the engine then the technician will dismantle these copiers. Current copier is equipped with an expert system. When the paper out, paper jams, ink is less, or have other problems, the panel will display images or messages, along with solutions.
VARIATION INFORMATION SYSTEM based on organizational functions: Accounting information system, a system that records and accounting data processing and presenting accounting information. This system recorded the purchase, sale, payment and cash receipts, and other related transactions. The report generated is also quite varied, from standard financial reports so that various management reports, such as the aging analysis of receivables, inventory reports are running low, ratio analysis, and so forth.
Production information systems, ie systems that record and process data products and present information related to the production. With the production information systems, management can yield information on total units produced according to product type, the list of goods produced based on production department, and the ratio between production and realization of plans.
Based on the functions of the organization Marketing information systems, ie systems that process data records and marketing as well as presenting information related to marketing. For example, a sales report by region, by product sales reports, sales reports by salesperson, or sales reports by customer. Office automation system (automatic office system), is an information system that aims to simplify and speed up various jobs related to office activities. Examples are noted and managing incoming and outgoing mail, scheduling an appointment (phone, meetings meetings and visits), searching for information about products, and much more.
Classification of information systems by James O'Brien Based support for the activities of the company, information can be classified as follows: Transaction Processing System (Transaction Processing System), a system used to record and process data daily transactions.
Process Control System (Process Control System), a system of information that is used to ensure that the processes and activities that run the company can run properly. If there are no symptoms - symptoms of distortion or disruption to systems, process control systems will be able to detect it quickly, so that interference can be eliminated immediately, even before the disturbances actually arise. Enterprise Collaboration System (System Collaboration Company), the information system that can be used to combine the outputs of various information systems owned by the company, so that managers can easily assess the performance of the company.
Berdasarkan hubungannya dengan dukungan pembuatan keputusan sistem informasi dikelompokkan menjadi tiga kelompok berikut : Sistem Informasi Manajemen (Management Information System) yaitu sistem informasi yang menyediakan berbagai bentuk informasi melalui berbagai media (baik hardcopy atau tercetak maupun softcopy atau melalui tampilan dan suara). Informasi yang dihasilkan berasal dari basis data internal perusahaan. Sistem ini relatif sederhana dalam mendukung manajemen membuat keputusan.
Sistem Pendukung Keputusan (Decision Support Systems), yaitu sistem informasi yang mendukung manajemen dalam membuat keputusan dengan memberikan usulan atau perbandingan antara berbagai alternatif jalan keluar. Informasi yang dihasilkan oleh sistem ini berasal dari basis data internal (berisi catatan yang ada didalam perusahaan) dan basis data eksternal (berisi data yang berasal dari luar perusahaan). Sistem Informasi Eksekutif (Executive Information Systems) yaitu sistem informasi yang khusus ditujukan untuk para eksekutif dalam membuat keputusan-keputusan strategis.
According to another classification, the information system can be seen in different ways, so that relatively more species Expert Systems (Expert Systems), a system that has the ability to store or formulate one's expertise, so it can be used by others. For example, the intelligence to determine the method of sale, the expertise to determine the selling price of the product, and employee scheduling. Knowledge Management Systems (Knowledge Management Systems), the information systems used to manage knowledge, so that the new decision-making does not need to learn anymore. Examples of this system is the system of decision-making verdict, so the judges are younger can use as an example or reference.
Strategic Information Systems (Strategic Information System) is an information system designed to produce a variety of strategic information to make strategic decisions as well. Examples of this information system is a system to predict the development of the production company five years from now, the system to see the development of the system of determining the number of employees and transportation of products from different warehouses. Business Information Systems (Business Information Systems), the information systems used to produce a variety of information is closely related to the main activity of the company. Business sense this term is not solely limited to buying and selling, but also a variety of other activities related to the company's activities.
Integrated Information Systems (Integrated Information Systems), which is an information system designed to integrate a variety of existing systems and outside the company. This system such as CRM (Customer Relationship Management), SRM (Supplier Relationship Management) and the internet.