Presentation on theme: "American Revolution Declaration of Independence Shot Heard around the World Constitution Federal Govt takes shape George Washington alliance with the French."— Presentation transcript:
American Revolution Declaration of Independence Shot Heard around the World Constitution Federal Govt takes shape George Washington alliance with the French
British Suggested that the colonies organize under a federal govt. This was called the Albany plan of union. The French and Indian War was the British and its Indian allies and the French and its Indian allies. Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1763. Ending French power in North America. Britain the loan super power in North America
1763 Natives started attacking forts and towns Proclamation of 1763- This limited western settlement from going across the Appalachians mountains Taxes Sugar act- changed tax rates on sugar, molasses imported from foreign colonies. (also silk, wine, coffee, pimento) Taxation w/o represntation
Stamp act 1765- required for most printed material. Newspapers, pamphlets, wills, dice, and playing cards
Declaratory act- which gave England the power to make laws for the colonies. Townshend Acts- Charles Townshend introduced a new set of Regulations and taxes Revenue act of 1767- new customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea. Allowed for writs of assistance- British officials right to seize property without following due process.
Sons of liberty encouraged colonist to support the boycott of British goods. 1770 British troops fired into colonist in Boston killing a man named Crispus Attucks. This became known as the Boston massacre.
Britain started intercepting colonist ships in the Atlantic ocean smuggling goods. Thomas Jefferson- wanted colonies to create committee of correspondence-communication between colonies what Britain is doing. Unified colonies more
Dec. 1773 tea ships arrived from British east India company and colonist boarded ships and dumped tea in harbor. Became known as Boston tea party.
Boston Tea Party led to British passing the Intolerable acts. Boston harbor closed Military governor over Massachusetts Expanded Canadian boarder.
First Continental congress met in Philadelphia. 1774 Wrote the declaration of rights and Grievances- which expressed loyalty to the king but condemned the coercive acts. A plan for every town to boycott British goods
. Town of concord created a special unit called the minutemen Minutemen- trained and ready to fight the British at a minutes warning.
Loyalists- remained loyal to the king and felt British laws should be upheld. Govt. officials, merchants, landowners Patriots- thought the British were tyrants. Artisans, farmers, planters, urban workers
General Gage were going to seize a supply depot in concord. To get there British army need to pass through Lexington. Paul Revere and William Dawes were sent to Lexington to warn the people the British were coming (midnight Ride) Dr. Samuel Prescott went to warn people of concord.
Battle of bunker Hill- colonist turned back two British advances. Proved colonist could stand with the British army.
July 1775 Continental Congress sent the olive branch petition to the king. Stated the colonist were still loyal to the king Same time radicals in Congress had ordered an attack on British troops in Quebec.
Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet called common sense which inspired the colonist to call for independence.
July 4 1776 Committee approved a document Thomas Jefferson had wrote most of the Declaration of Independence The continental congress issued the Declaration of independence The American Revolution had begun.
British Gen William Howe commander of a disciplined, well grained, and well equipped British army. Continental Army- Army of colonist George Washington commander Was inexperienced, poorly equipped and had difficulty keeping soldiers
British army had to fight the continental army and local militias. Militias often used Guerilla warfare- hid behind trees, walls and then ambushed troops British needed to win war quickly before public opinion changed..
George Washington planned unexpected winter attacks on the British mercenaries called Hessians at Trenton an Princeton, NJ He Lead his troops across the Delaware river. Continental Army camped at Valley Forge for the rest of the winter. Conditions were terrible at valley forge but Washington trained his army
Saratoga- is where 5000 British troops were taken prisoners and was the turning point of the war. This convinced France to send troops Feb 1778- Americans signed two treaties with France. France 1 st country to recognize the U.S. as independent country
American Warships attacked British merchant ships to disrupt trade. Congress issued letters of marque- licenses to private ships owners authorizing them to attack British merchant ships.
The British started focus attention on south, they thought they had more loyalist support. Charles Cornwallis took over for Clinton in south.
Battle at kings mountain- the militia destroyed the loyalist army. This battle was turning point of war in the south. Francis Marion (swamp Fox)- most famous person who led hit and run raids on British camps.
Spring 1781 British invaded Virginia, hoping to keep the south General Cornwallis linked up with Benedict Arnold to conquer Virginia. Cornwallis troops had to retreat to Yorktown. American and French troops surrounded Yorktown and the British surrendered on Oct 1781.
Treaty of Paris was signed on September3, 1783. British recognized the U.S. as a new nation with Mississippi River as it western border.
Nov 1777, continental congress adopted the articles of confederation. – loose union of that states under congress. 1 st govt of United States Articles- had power to declare war, raise armies and sign treaties. National level could not impose taxes or regulate trade and only met once a year.
Shays rebellion- Massachusetts 1786 raised taxes Farmers could not pay tax. Daniel shay led a rebellion with about 1200 farmers. They tried to seize a state arsenal. This showed the weakness of the articles of confederation. Needed a stronger national govt.
Weaknesses Federal govt Could not tax Congress needed 9 states to pass a law Congress had no power to enforce laws Did not provide for a governor or courts States could ignore laws United States won its independence from england. Peace treaty of Paris 1783.
People who supported a strong central govt. were called nationalist. Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton Virginia Plan National govt. made up of 3 branches of Govt. Congress would be two houses(bicameral) based on population Benefited large states.
Wanted to Revise the articles to make central govt. stronger Congress single house(unicameral) with each state having equal representation Benefited small states
Great Compromise House of Representatives- states represented according to population Senate would have equal representation Voters elected house of representatives State legislature would choose the senators
Three-fifths compromise- for every five enslaved people they would count as three free person. Determining Representation and taxes The new constitution would need 9 our of 13 states to ratify it. 3/5 and great compromises deal with representation in congress
Constitution based on popular sovereignty- rule by the people. Federalism- divided govt. between national and state Separation of powers among the 3 branches Legislative- make laws(two houses) Executive – enforce laws Judicial –interpret Montesquieu said need 3 branches (S o P)
1.Checks and balances Keeps one branch from becoming to powerful. Each branch can check or restrain the power of the other. Amendments- change to constitution Proposal has to have 2/3 of congress Ratified by 3/4 of the states.
Government is also limited by the rule of law. This means that the law applies to everyone
This split of authority among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches is called the separation of powers. Baron de Montesquieu came up with separation of powers
Under federalism, power is shared by the national government and the states. Americans must obey the laws of both.
Federalist- people who supported the constitution. Antifederalists- opponents of the constitution. They wanted a bill or rights Example John Hancock and Patrick Henry The federalist explained why the constitution should be ratified in The Federalist papers. Written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay
George Washington and James Madison presented strong arguments at the Virginia convention for ratification A bill of rights was added and Virginia ratified constitution By 1788 all but two states had ratified the constitution. Bill of rights is the first 10 amendments James Madison is known as the father of the Constitution
George Washington became the 1 st president. Alexander Hamilton became head of the treasury department. Judicial branch and the first federal judges was established. John jay 1 st chief justice of supreme court.
Alexander Hamilton got the bank of the united states started by using the necessary and proper clause.
Whisky Rebellion- Hamilton got a tax on American Whisky. Western farmers were mad and started a rebellion. Washington had to send 13,000 troops in. This showed the new constitution was strong not like the articles
Congress split over Hamiltons financial plan Federalist- (James Madison,Hamilton and John Adams) strong national govt. in the hands of the wealthy Republicans- ( Jefferson)- believed strength came from its independent farmers.
Civil war in France- known as the French revolution 1793 France Declared War on Britain. Washington issued a proclamation that U.S. would be neutral.
Jays Treaty gave Britain right to seize American cargo U.S. got most-favored nation status- American merchants would not be discriminated against when they traded with Britain Pinkneys treaty- gave the U.S. right to navigate the Mississippi and deposit goods in New Orleans.
Avoid sectionalism Warned against political parties Entangled alliances United States should be neutral (policy of Neutrality)
French angered over jays treaty stopped American ships. Adams sent negotiators to France. This became known as XYZ affair Wanted a bribe