Presentation on theme: "The Regulation of the Atlantic Trade – The Navigation Acts*)"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Regulation of the Atlantic Trade – The Navigation Acts*) The purpose of the Navigation acts:England/Great Britain, was to be:the exclusive beneficiary of the trade in the products of its coloniesthe exclusive beneficiary of the trade in the supply of goods to its coloniesthe exclusive beneficiary of the carrying trade of the colonies*) De facto five acts from 1651, 1660, 1662, 1663, 1671, 1673 and 1696, but only three are important to remember. (1651, 1660 &1663).What marked the development form the 1650s and onwards was a series of legislations that are known as the Navigation Acts.The purpose of the Navigation acts were threefold,) England, and after 1707 Great Britain, was to be the exclusive beneficiary of the trade in the products of its colonies (the selling of bit))England, and after 1707 Great Britain, was to be the exclusive beneficiary of the trade in the supply of goods to its colonies, (the selling to bit)) England, and after 1707 Great Britain, was to be the exclusive beneficiary of the carrying trade of the colonies (the transport bit)These acts was to maximise the profit of English merchants and the revenue from the colonies.De facto five acts, Navigation Act 1651, 1660, 1662, 1663, 1670,1673, and 1696 but only three are important to remember. (1651, 1660 &1663), and 1773 a bit.
2 No foreign ships transporting goods from outside Europe to England Navigation Ordinance 1651No foreign ships transportinggoods from outside Europe to Englandor its colonies, no third party’s country’sship to transport goods from a country elsewherein Europe to England (i.e. Dutch ships bringing Norwegian wood to England)Navigation Ordinance 1651Banned foreign ships from transporting goods from outside Europe to England or its colonies andBanned third party countries' ships from transporting goods from a country elsewhere in Europe to England.These rules specifically targeted the Dutch who controlled a large section of Europe's transnational trade and even much of England's coastal shipping.The most important beneficiaries were the dominant London Merchants, who suffered most from the competition from the Dutch.
3 Still, Dutch ships could go to English colonies and Navigation Ordinance 1651Still, Dutch ships could go to English colonies andbring back goods to AmsterdamStill the act had holes,the Dutch were not banned from going and trading in the colonies,neither did it ban English ships from bringing stuff from elsewhere to the English colonies.In other words, Dutch and English ships could go with tobacco and sugar from the West Indies and North America to London and Amsterdam.
4 And, English ships could bring stuff from e.g. the continent Navigation Ordinance 1651And, English ships could bring stuff from e.g. the continentto the English colonies directlyAnd, English ships could bring stuff from e.g. the continentto the English colonies directly
5 Navigation Acts of 1660All trade in or out of any English Colony had to be carried on an “English ship” (i.e. a ship built in England, owned by Englishmen, and with ¾ of its crew from England).The Navigation Acts 1660All trade in or out of any English colony had to be carried on an English Ship,built in England or its colonies,owned by Englishmen, andwith a crews three-quarters English.
6 Navigation Acts of 1660“Enumerated (colonial) goods”: specific colonial goods that to be brought to England first, before being sold off to e.g. the continent (e.g. ginger, sugar, tobacco, cotton, dye stuff, later one Molasses and rice and naval stores)Moreover"enumerated" products not produced by the mother country,such as tobacco,cotton, andsugarwere to be shipped from the colonies only to England or other English colonies.The list enumerated goods expanded over time1660: sugar, tobacco, indigo, ginger, speckle wood, and various kinds of dyewoods1704: rice and molasses1705: naval stores, including tar, pitch, rosin (omitted in 1729), turpentine, hemp, masts, yards, and bowsprits;1721; copper ore, beaver skins, and furs1764: coffee, pimento, cacao, hides and skins, whale fins, raw silk, potash and pearl ash, iron, and lumber: all other commoditiesThe 'enumerated commodities' (such as sugar, rice, and tobacco) had to be landed and tax paid before going on to other countries.This increased the cost to the colonies, andIncreased the shipping time."England" here includes Wales, though it was little involved in trade to distant parts.After the Act of Union 1707, Scotland enjoyed the same privileges.
7 Continental goods for English colonies had to go via England Navigation Acts 1663Continental goods for English colonies had to go via EnglandThe Navigation Act 1663Required all European goods bound for America (or other colonies) to be shipped through England first.In England, the goods would be unloaded, inspected, paid duties, and finally reloaded.The trade had to be carried in English bottoms (i.e. vessels), which included those of its colonies.The Navigation Act 1673Installed royal appointees as customs collectors in every port in the colonies