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Chapter 1 Why Economics? These slides supplement the textbook, but should not replace reading the textbook.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Why Economics? These slides supplement the textbook, but should not replace reading the textbook."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Why Economics? These slides supplement the textbook, but should not replace reading the textbook

2 2 Who is an economist? Persons learned in the science and practices of economics

3 3 What is the economic problem? Because we live in a world of scarce resources, but people have unlimited wants and needs, how do we meet their needs in this world of scarcity?

4 4 What assumption do we make? People behave in accordance to their own self interest

5 5 What is rationale self interest? People select the alternatives they expect will yield the most satisfaction and happiness

6 6 What is opportunity cost? That which is given up in the best alternative when a choice is made

7 7 How is opportunity cost estimated? Opportunity cost is subjectively estimated by the individual decision maker

8 8 What is the opportunity cost of a city to use local taxes to pay for a park? The best alternative foregone by not building the park

9 9 What is your opportunity cost of attending college? If you make $300 a week, but you expect you could make $500 without school - your opportunity cost is $200

10 10 What is the opportunity cost of cleaning your room? Its greater on sunny days than on rainy days

11 11 What is marginal analysis? You will decide to do something if your marginal benefit exceeds your marginal cost

12 12 What is macroeconomics? The study of the economic behavior of entire economies

13 13 What is microeconomics? The study of the economic behavior in particular markets, such as the market for computers

14 14 What is a market? A set of arrangements through which buyers and sellers carry out exchange at mutually agreeable terms

15 15 What is special about the market? Unless there is a market transaction we are not concerned about it in economics

16 16 What is a good? A tangible item that is used to satisfy wants

17 17 What is a service? An intangible activity that is used to satisfy wants

18 18 What is a free good or service? There is enough of a good or service to go around to everyone who wants it for free

19 19 What is a Scarce Good or Service? There is not enough of a good or service to go around to everyone who wants it for free

20 20 When is a good or service scarce? When the amount people desire exceeds the amount available to them at a zero price

21 21 What is a resource? Something that is used to produce goods and services

22 22 What are some examples of resources? Land Labor Capital Entrepreneurship

23 23 What is land? Plots of ground and other natural resources used to produce goods and services

24 24 What is labor? The physical and mental efforts of humans used to produce goods and services

25 25 What is capital? Buildings, equipment, and human skills used to produce goods and services

26 26 What is human capital? The skills used to work with capital

27 27 What does money allow you to do? Make choices

28 28 What is entrepreneurial ability? Managerial and organizational skills combined with the willingness to take risks

29 29 Entrepreneur characteristics? has a dream overcomes obstacles delayed gratification is a risk taker can duplicate himself strives to be unimportant

30 30 Why can the entrepreneur have more free time, make more money, and have more security than an employee? A business owner can duplicate himself

31 31 How can you duplicate yourself? employees rental property savings in a bank owning shares of stock

32 32 Why is Duplication the flip side of debt? Life is either an adding to or a taking away, growth is adding to, not growing is taking away

33 33 What are two basic laws of entrepreneurship? What ever you have you will be given more, and what you do not have will be taken away Whatever you give away you keep and whatever you keep you lose

34 34 Is economics more like history or math? It is like math, know the vocabulary, understand the concepts, and use your logical thinking

35 35 What is the rule of man? Events are determined by whoever is in authority

36 36 What is the rule of law? Events are determined by law

37 37 What is a democracy? The majority rules What is a danger in a democracy? The majority can take everything away from the minority

38 38 What is a republic? A political system based on law What is the purpose of a republic? To protect the minority from the majority

39 39 What is a democracy in a republic? A political system where there is a balance between a democracy and a republic

40 40 What is a positive economic statement? A statement that can be proved or disproved by reference to facts

41 41 What is a normative economic statement? A statement that represents an opinion, which cannot be proved or disproved

42 42 More or less government? Choices are not clear cut

43 43 Why did Europeans come to America in 1492? To flee the autocratic policies of government and the catholic church

44 44 Why was America a colony of England in the 1600s and 1700s? To enrich England in terms of gold and silver

45 45 What is Mercantilism? The belief that gold and silver constituted a nations wealth

46 46 What role did the government play under mercantilism? Government had to play a large role in economic affairs, a strong central government was supported

47 47 How does a country enrich itself? It encourages exports and discourages imports

48 48 What was the East India Company? A company which the English government gave monopoly power to buy certain raw materials from Americans at low prices

49 49 What is a good book on the subject? Merchant Kings: when Companies Ruled the World, 1600-1900 by Stephen R Bown

50 50 What else did the English government do? It forbid Americans from manufacturing, therefore forcing them to purchase goods from England

51 51 What were the Grenville and Townsend Acts? In the 1700s taxes were levied on colonial imports and British businesses were given preferential treatment

52 52 What was the colonialists main concern? Taxation without representation which was considered a violation of mans natural rights

53 53 What are the main ideas of the Declaration of Independence 1776? Our rights come from God and that liberty is fragile Declaration of Independence

54 54 What was the main idea of the Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith 1776? Everyone would benefit from less government and free trade

55 55 What was the Treaty of Paris in 1783? England recognized Americas sovereignty

56 56 According to Adam Smith, what is the invisible hand? Self interest will guide the economy to produce what we want and offer us reasonable prices

57 57 How can consumers buy things at reasonable prices? Competition whereby lower costs will lead to lower prices and more profit

58 58 Can we expect steady economic growth and prosperity? No, slumps are as much a part of events as prosperity – we should let the winners win and the losers lose

59 59 What role do prices play in a free market system? convey information give incentives determine the distribution of income

60 60 What is the biggest threat to our freedom? Centralized power

61 61 How does our constitution protect our freedom? It spreads the allocation of power among several agencies, it decentralizes the power base

62 62 What are the three branches of government? President Congress (house/senate) Supreme Court

63 63 What is the unofficial fourth branch of our political system? A free press

64 64 What causes unemployment? Excessive inventory

65 65 What led to the excessive inventory in the 1920s? Businessmens greed– the idea was to keep wages low and prices high

66 66 What led to risky investments in the 1920s? Excessive profits

67 67 What events in the early 30s led to the Great Depression? Smoot – Hawley Tariff Decrease in the money supply Increase in taxes

68 68 What was the unemployment rate in the Great Depression? It was 25 percent and lasted the whole decade of the 1930s

69 69 What was the role of President Franklin Roosevelt in the 1930s? His New Deal policies led to a larger role of government in economics affairs

70 70 What role did John Maynard Keynes play in the 1930s? His book the General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money 1936 led to a larger role of government in economic affairs

71 71 What was the Depression of 1920 like? It was as severe as the Depression of the 1930s but it was very short

72 72 How big is our national debt? > $15 trillion >$49,000 per citizen >$136,000 per tax payer Debt Clock

73 END

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