2GNI vs. GDI GNI GDI Gross National Income Gross Domestic Income = income earned by domestic residents.= income created within national borders.GNI = GDI +NFI(GNP = GDP+NFI)Net Factor Income [NFI] is income earned on overseas work or investments minus income generated domestically but paid to foreigners.
3Compare Macau and the Philippines GDP or GNI Macau produces a lot of profits paid to overseas owners of casinos.Philippines workers earn a lot of income overseas.Which is larger Philippines’ GDP or Philippines GNI?Does Macau have greater GDP or GNI?
51. Trade balance refers to net export (export less import) of goods 1. Current Account represents the net sum of trade in goods and services, primary income and secondary income: NX +NFI.a. Net Exports1. Trade balance refers to net export (export less import) of goods2. Net Services, defined as the net export (export less import) of services.b. + c. Net Factor Incomeb. Primary Income comprises compensation of employees (wages, salary) and investment incomec. Secondary Income refers to donation or grant paid to or received from nonresidentsMeta Data
7Capital Account, Financial Account, Capital Account: transfer of ownership of fixed asset, and debt forgiveness), and acquisition and disposal of non-financial assets (tangible: land; intangibles: patents, trademarks)Financial Account: refers to net flows of financial transactions between residents and nonresidents, reflecting changes of ownership over financial assets and liabilitiesCapital and Financial Account measure net inflows
8Current account is (net) domestic non-central bank actors acquiring foreign currency selling goods or services.Capital & Financial Account is (net) foreign actors selling foreign currency to acquire domestic currency.Reserve Assets is (net) acquisition by central bank of foreign currency
9AccountingNet Capital Inflows = (Capital & Financial Account - Reserve Assets )Accounting Net Capital Outflows Should equal Current Account. If you earn more funds selling goods overseas, you can acqure overseas assets.Theory: Current Account + Net Inflows = 0Accounting: Uncounted Inflows = Net Inflows – Current Account
10What if economy does not have enough capital inflows to support its current account deficit? NetCapital OutflowsNot enough buyers for domestic currency goodsToo many buyers for foreign currency assetsCurrentAccount
11Two PossibilitiesFloating Exchange Rates – Changes in the exchange rate equalize forex market.Pegged Exchange Rate – Changes in reserve assets equalize forex market.
12Not enough demand for domestic currency causes exchange rate to depreciate. NetCapital OutflowsCurrentAccountNetCapital OutflowsCurrentAccountFalling price of currency makes domestic goods & financial assets more competitive
13Central bank must use forex reserves to buy domestic currency to absorb pressure on its value. NetCapital OutflowsCurrentAccountNetCapital Outflows
14Hot Money What if economy receives a surge in inflows? Current Account NetCapital OutflowsHot Money
15Floating exchange rates Excess demand for domestic currency causes exchange rate to appreciate?CurrentAccountNetCapital OutflowsCurrentAccountNetCapital OutflowsFloating exchange rates
16Central bank purchases inflows and increases reserves NetCapital OutflowsCurrentAccountNetCapital Outflows
17Types of Capital FlowsDirect Investment reflects the lasting interests of nonresidents of an economy in a resident entity. A direct investor may invest in equity capital, lending to affiliates, or reinvested earnings.Portfolio Investment refers to transaction that involves buying and selling of equity securities, debt securities in form of bonds, notes, money market instrumentsOther Investment includes loans, trade credits, deposits as well as other account receivables and payables
18GrossFlows vs.Net FlowsBalance of Payments Table
19II. The debate over financial globalization Broad agreement (among economists at least) that trade liberalization is beneficial and leads to faster growth→ Free trade in good and services makes countries better offIn contrast, much controversy over whether the liberalization of international financial flows is desirable→ Free trade in financial assets may not make countries better off
20Capital ControlsStock Market: Limits on foreigners holdings of shares, possibly in certain sectors.Financial Institutions: Limits on businesses of foreign banks, insurance co’s.Restrictions on Direct Investors – Requirements of Domestic Partners
21Liberalization and Economic Growth Capital Deepening: Absent capital mobility, national investment must be financed with national savings. In low savings countries, investment may be slow.Allocative Efficiency: Capital mobility allows seeking out the highest rate of return. Investment can go to locations where it has the highest productivity.Technology Transfer: Foreign investors may bring along techniques of production.
22Empirical Evidence: Economic Growth LinkKose, Prasad, Rogoff, and Wei: 2006: “it remains difficult to find robust evidence that financial integration systematically increases growth.” summary of 40 studies. .
23Sudden StopsInternational hot money (short-term lending) is subject to herding behavior from international financial market.Rapid inflows and rapid outflows.When capital inflows stop, either those can be replaced with forex reserves, or domestic borrowers will face bankruptcy.Domestic firms can no longer finance investmentDemand, GDP, and employment fall.Devaluation of currency.Link
24Financial CrisesSudden Stops: Foreign investors herding behavior and short-termism lead them to move in and out of countries rapidly.“The greatest concern I have is that capital account convertibility would leave economic policy in a typical ‘emerging market’ hostage to the whims and fancies of two dozens or so thirty-something country analysts in London, Frankfurt, and New York. ” Dani Rodrik, 1998
25Reaping the Benefits of Financial Globalization Empirical evidence shows that the benefits of opening capital account are mixed.But there are several factors which have been shown to allow countries with open capital accounts to:Increase risk-sharing ;Increase economic growth;Reduce the likelihood of crises.
26Keys to Benefiting from Globalization Financial sector development. Well-regulated domestic financial marketsInstitutional Quality. Low corruption, high transparency, good corporate governance.Sound Macroeconomic Policies. Low deficits and price stability.Trade Integration. High degree of trade openness.
27How to LiberalizeDuring the early 1990’s, some authors argued in favor of a “big bang” approach to capital account liberalization.Since mid-1990’s, taking empirical evidence in mind, IMF has adopted a more moderate approach referred to as sequencing or ‘integrated approach’
28Integrated Approachcapital account liberalization is best undertaken against a background of sound and sustainable macroeconomic policies;domestic financial reform should be complemented by prudential regulation and supervision, and financial restructuring policies;liberalization of capital flows by instruments and/or sectors should be sequenced to take into account concomitant risks—in general, long-term and non-debt creating flows (especially FDI) should be liberalized before short-term and debt-creating flows;Link