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Chapter 23: The Seventh and Tenth Commandments INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLICISM.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23: The Seventh and Tenth Commandments INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLICISM."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 23: The Seventh and Tenth Commandments INTRODUCTION TO CATHOLICISM

2 ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes about what Genesis 1:26-31 implies concerning the relationship between the human being and the rest of the created world. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

3 BASIC QUESTIONS What is stewardship? What is the universal destination of goods? Is there a natural right to private property? What is the relationship between the right to private property and the universal destination of goods? KEY IDEAS We are stewards of Gods creation with a right to use the goods of the earth responsibly for the good of all people. The universal destination of goods is the doctrine that the goods of the earth are meant for everybody rather than a select few. Private property is a natural human right necessary to secure the goods of the earth for people. When there is a true conflict between private property and the universal destination of goods, the universal destination of goods takes precedence. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

4 FOCUS QUESTIONS What moral questions are at the basis of the Seventh and Tenth Commandments? The moral questions are theft, covetousness, and the broader issue of the right possession and use of goods. What two principles do the Seventh and Tenth Commandments balance? They balance the right to own and use property against the needs of the common good, which take precedence over such possession. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

5 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the intended destination of created goods? They are destined for the use and service of all people. What is a steward? A steward has charge of managing anothers goods and is held accountable for their use. What is the Christian concept of stewardship? God did not give human beings an absolute right over creation but rather entrusted them with the world to be used responsibly and justly. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

6 GUIDED EXERCISE Perform a paragraph shrink on the quote from Communion and Stewardship, 26 (pp ) to get at its essential content. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

7 GUIDED EXERCISE According to the Catechism, no (p. 523), private property (1) guarantees the freedom and dignity of persons, (2) gives each person a way to secure his or her basic needs, and (3) helps a natural solidarity develop among people. Work with a partner to explain how private property accomplishes each of these. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

8 FOCUS QUESTIONS How do human beings share in the creativity of God? They share in the creativity of God through work. What is the purpose of work? Work transforms Gods creation to fulfill the various needs of human existence. Extension: In addition to material needs, human beings also yearn for beauty, which is expressed in music, art, architecture, literature, fashion, and other areas. What is the concept of the universal destination of goods? The created goods of the earth are supposed to benefit everyone. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

9 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the basis of the universal destination of goods? Its basis is the innate dignity and equality of every human being, who possesses the right to life, nourishment, shelter, and other things. Is private property a right based on human nature? Yes. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

10 FOCUS QUESTIONS When does a conflict arise between the right to property and the universal destination of goods? A conflict arises when there is a shortage or poor distribution of necessary goods. In a true conflict between the universal destination of goods and the right to private property, which has priority, and why? The universal destination of goods has priority because God has given creation to the whole human race rather than to certain people; ownership of property is not absolute. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

11 FOCUS QUESTIONS Who is the true owner of everything? God owns everything. How does a person exercise proper stewardship over his or her possessions? He or she manages his or her possessions on Gods behalf and uses them in ways God intends. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

12 FOCUS QUESTIONS In what way does God intend a person to exercise stewardship? God calls each person first to take care of his or her family and then to use the excess possessions for the good of others. When a person in poverty desires the basic goods that another possesses, is that covetousness? No; to covet is to desire something for which that person has no moral right, whereas every person has a right to basic goods to maintain his or her dignity. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

13 FOCUS QUESTIONS In what ways does a person have a right to acquire basic goods? A person has a right to acquire basic goods through labor, charity, state assistance, and, in cases of extreme necessity, by simply taking them. When can a person take anothers property without permission? A person in dire need may take anothers property without permission. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

14 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Study Questions 1-4, 6-7 (p. 542) Practical Exercise 1 (p. 543) Workbook Questions 1-10 Read The Just Use of Goods through Covetousness (pp ) 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

15 CLOSURE Write a paragraph explaining the relationship between the right to private property and the principle of the universal destination of goods. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

16 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Work with a partner to brainstorm examples of situations in which the universal destination of goods and the right to private property might come into conflict. Indicate a moral solution for each situation. 1. Stewardship, Private Property, and the Universal Destination of Goods (pp )

17 ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes on what is the most surprising thing about Christs encounter with Zacchaeus (Lk 19:1-10). 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

18 BASIC QUESTIONS What virtues are necessary for the just use of goods? What are sins against the Seventh Commandment? What is the role of restitution in healing sins against the Seventh Commandment? What covetousness is prohibited by the Tenth Commandment, and how is it combated? KEY IDEAS The just use of the goods of this earth requires the virtues of temperance, justice, and the charity of solidarity. Sins against the Seventh Commandment include any unjust appropriation of anothers goods, including theft, borrowing without returning, poor work, bribery, excessive gambling, vandalism, wastefulness, usury, fraud, and cheating. Restitution is required to make up for sins against the Seventh Commandment. Covetousness through avarice or envy, which is forbidden by the Tenth Commandment, can be combated through poverty of spirit. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

19 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is a common false idea regarding the use of private property? People can use their wealth to enjoy themselves without regard for the needs of others. What obligation does a person have with respect to our wealth? He or she is obliged in charity to assist neighbors with excess possessions. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

20 GUIDED EXERCISE Think/Pair/Share using the following question: Why are you in need of others and needed by others? 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

21 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the relationship between the virtue of temperance and faithfulness to the Seventh Commandment? Temperance moderates the attraction of pleasures, and this moderation makes it possible both to have balance in the use of created goods and to create a surplus of wealth available for those in need. Extension: In other words, temperance controls the urge to possess too many things, and this moderation might free up money and goods that can be used to help others. What is the relationship between the virtue of justice and faithfulness to the Seventh Commandment? Justice demands that a person give to God and neighbor what is owed. Extension: Stealing is thus a violation of justice. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

22 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is solidarity? Solidarity is the virtue by which a person practices social charity based on a recognition that all people are equal in dignity and interdependent. How does solidarity lead to social peace? Solidarity helps individuals overcome the desire to seek unjust advantages, which lessens tensions and conflicts among different social classes and economic groups. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

23 FOCUS QUESTION What is the relationship between the virtue of solidarity and faithfulness to the Seventh Commandment? Solidarity motivates a person to share what he or she has with others and to see that everyone has a just share. Solidarity encourages a broader vision of the Seventh Commandment by which he or she understands obligations to assist fellow human beings. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

24 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Create and complete a table, identifying three sins against the Seventh Commandment (other than theft), explaining them, and providing an example of each. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

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26 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is restitution? Restitution is repairing damage unjustly done, which is often accomplished by repaying the owner a just price for his or her stolen or damaged goods. How is restitution related to the Sacrament of Penance? When goods have been stolen or damaged, restitution shows contrition, which is required for absolution. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

27 FOCUS QUESTIONS What must be restored in a sin against the Seventh Commandment? Restitution requires the return of the goods stolen, in the condition it was in before the theft, or the equivalent value, and the profit or advantages the owner would have legitimately obtained from it during its absence. Who must make restitution? Anyone who takes part in a theftdirectly or indirectlymust make restitution in proportion to his or her culpability. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

28 FOCUS QUESTIONS To whom should a person make restitution if it is impossible to compensate the injured party? The fair value of the property damaged or goods stolen must be given to charity. Does restitution have to be made publicly? No. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

29 FOCUS QUESTIONS What root problem do greed, avarice, and envy share? They each make possession of material things an absolute good. What is greed? Greed is the desire for earthly goods that are not truly needed. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

30 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is avarice? Avarice is the inordinate desire to accumulate and hoard wealth. What is envy? Envy is the wrongful desire for things possessed by another or the unhappiness at anothers good fortune. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

31 FOCUS QUESTIONS To what further sins can envy lead? Envy can lead to hatred of a person who possesses the good desired and the sinful desire to acquire the desired goods by How are avarice and envy distinct? Avarice is the sinful desire for wealth in general, while envy is the sinful desire for the specific goods of a neighbor. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

32 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the covetousness forbidden by the Tenth Commandment? Covetousness is the sinful desire for the goods of others. What is the remedy for sins against covetousness? The remedy for covetousness is spiritual poverty, which is a general detachment from material goods. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

33 FOCUS QUESTIONS What can wealth falsely promise? Wealth can satisfy the human heart. What alone can satisfy the human heart? This what is a who; only God can satisfy the human heart. How can a person grow in poverty of spirit? He or she can meditate on the life of Christ, imitate his loving service, and examine his or her conscience with respect to disordered attachment to earthly goods. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

34 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Study Questions 5, 8-10 (p. 542) Practical Exercise 2 (p. 543) Workbook Questions Read Social Doctrine of the Church through the sidebar Lessons in Preferential Love (pp ) 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

35 CLOSURE Answer each of the Basic Questions of this lesson in two sentences. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

36 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Work with a partner to complete Practical Exercise 2 on moral choices. 2. The Seventh and Tenth Commandments: Sins and Remedies (pp )

37 BASIC QUESTION What is the social doctrine of the Church? KEY IDEA The social doctrine of the Church articulates fundamental moral principles regarding the dignity of the human person, his or her basic rights, and the requirements of the common good. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

38 ANTICIPATORY SET Free write for a few minutes about what you think was foolish about the rich man in the Parable of the Rich Fool (cf. Lk 12:15-21). 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

39 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the social doctrine of the Church? It is the moral teachings of the Church with regard to the dignity of the person, the basic rights of the person, and the requirements of the common good. When did the social doctrine of the Church develop to take its modern form? Social doctrine developed with the onset of industrialism in the nineteenth century. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

40 GUIDED EXERCISE Free write about the relationship between faith and good works and how you can integrate them in your own life. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

41 GUIDED EXERCISE Conduct a focused reading of the selection from Deus Caritas Est (p. 529) using the following question: What is the role of the Church in building a just social order? 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

42 FOCUS QUESTION What is the basis of the Churchs social doctrine? Reason and the natural law are the basis of the Churchs social doctrine. Extension: The Churchs social doctrine is not based on Divine Revelation, which is accepted on faith, but on teachings open to anyone to understand through reason. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

43 FOCUS QUESTION What topics are encompassed by the Churchs social doctrine? The Churchs social doctrine encompasses the following topics: Individual moral conduct as it relates to the dignity of the human person and the guarantee of his or her rights; safeguarding marriage and family as the basic unit of society; the common good and the function of the state; work and just wages; private property and its social function; the right to belong to associations and labor unions; defense of justice; and the social function of economics and political life. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

44 FOCUS QUESTIONS According to the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, is there anything inherently wrong with being rich? No; Lazarus enjoys riches in Heaven. What was the rich mans sin? He ignored Lazarus, the poor man in need who sat at his very doorstep. What is the fate of those who seriously ignore those in need when they can help them? They exclude themselves eternally from Gods love, which is called Hell. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

45 FOCUS QUESTIONS According to the Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, what did the rich man plan to do with his excess wealth? He planned to stop working to eat, drink, and be merry; in other words, he planned to spend his excess wealth for his own pleasure. Why was the rich mans plan foolish? The rich man foolishly thought only of his own pleasure, costing himself earthly wealth and the chance of eternal life. Against what does this parable warn? This parable warns against both avarice, that is, desiring and accumulating more goods than one needs, and the sin of omission of failing to help those in need with surplus wealth. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

46 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Study Question 11 (p. 542) Practical Exercises 3-4 (p. 543) Workbook Questions Read Economy and Social Justice through Conclusion (pp ) 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

47 CLOSURE Write a paragraph summarizing the social doctrine of the Church. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

48 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Free write about what the sidebar Lessons in Preferential Love (pp ) implies with respect to the distribution of goods and compassion for the poor and needy. 3. The Social Doctrine of the Church (pp )

49 ANTICIPATORY SET Incorporate the examination of conscience based on the Seventh and Tenth Commandments (p. 537) into the Opening Prayer. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

50 BASIC QUESTIONS What are the rights and duties of workers, employers, and the state with respect to one another? What attitude should developed nations have toward developing nations? What is the preferential option for the poor? KEY IDEAS Workers, employers, and states have rights and duties with respect to one another to promote human dignity and the common good. Based on the principle of solidarity, developed nations have the duty to assist developing nations. People are called to love the poor with a generous, preferential option for them. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

51 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the primary purpose of economic activity? It is the service of the human person. According to the Churchs social doctrine, what rights do workers possess? They include the right to use their talents for the sake of the common good, to have access to employment, to strike, and to receive a just wage. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

52 FOCUS QUESTIONS To determine a just wage, why is agreement between a worker and employer not sufficient to justify the amount morally? The agreement could be based on coercion by the employer. For example, an employer might force a worker to accept insufficient wages when work is scarce. Extension: On the other hand, a worker might demand such a high wage that it is impossible to run the business. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

53 GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to summarize the respective responsibilities of workers, employers, and states. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

54 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the basic responsibility of developed nations toward developing ones? They must show solidarity by contributing to their material welfare. When do richer nations have a duty in justice to give to poor nations? They do so when their prosperity is a result of unjust exploitation of others natural resources. According to the Catechism, no (p. 534), what are three perverse mechanisms that impede developing nations from progressing? They are abusive, if not usurious, financial systems; unfair international commercial relations; and the arms race. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

55 GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to articulate the rights and obligations of both immigrants and host nations. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

56 FOCUS QUESTIONS What should be Christians attitude toward the poor? Christians are called to love the poor, having for them a preferential option. What is the gravity of ignoring or neglecting the poor and needy? It is a grave sin of omission. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

57 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the relationship between work and helping the poor? Work gives a person the ability to earn money and help others. How did the widow Christ observed (cf. Mk 12:41-44; p. 535) give more than anyone else? Although the amount she gave was not objectively great, it was all she had to live on, and so, subjectively, she gave everything. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

58 FOCUS QUESTIONS What does a preferential love for the poor require? It requires identifying with the poor and needy as Christ did, recognizing his presence within them, and serving them with a love and compassion that is in keeping with their inherent dignity as people made in the image of God. How did Sts. Gregory the Great, Basil, and John Chrysostom view giving to the poor? They did not see it as a gift but rather as a restoration to the poor of what actually belonged to them. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

59 FOCUS QUESTION In what sense do a persons surplus goods actually belong to the poor? On the natural level, the poor have a claim on his or her excess goods according to the principle of the universal destination of goods. On the supernatural level, because Christ calls his disciples to serve the poor, he or she should serve them; because they are owed what he or she gives them, the goods were theirs all along. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

60 FOCUS QUESTIONS What type of teaching is the social doctrine of the Church? The social doctrine of the Church is a moral teaching. What issues is it not intended to resolve, and whose responsibility is it to resolve these issues? It is not intended to resolve political and socio-economic problems; rather, it is a moral blueprint that forms the members of society so citizens, society, and the state can find practical solutions to these issues in light of the teachings of Christ. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

61 FOCUS QUESTIONS What is the goal of social development? The goal is not only economic efficiency but the good of the whole person. Societies should foster human freedom and the dignity of the human person. What virtues are required for people to live in peace with their neighbors? The virtues of charity and justice are needed. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

62 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT Study Questions (p. 542) Practical Exercise 5 (p. 543) Workbook Questions Norms of Social Justice (pp )

63 CLOSURE Write a paragraph using one of the following bullet points as a topic sentence. In creation, human beings were named stewards of the material world; therefore, each person has an obligation to take care of the world and its moral order. Christians are called to be poor in spirit and to provide for the needs of the poor. Private property is a gift from God and should be used wisely in a spirit of Christian charity. Christians are called to promote the common good locally, nationally, and internationally, enabling each person to follow his or her vocation from God. Christians must respect the goods of others and avoid the temptations of greed, avarice, and envy. Restitution must be made if a persons property is stolen or damaged. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

64 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Free write for five minutes about some aspect of this lesson that you did not fully understand. 4. Norms of Social Justice (pp )

65 THE END


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