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The American Free Market System. Economy The system through which people in a society make choices about how to use their limited resources to produce.

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Presentation on theme: "The American Free Market System. Economy The system through which people in a society make choices about how to use their limited resources to produce."— Presentation transcript:

1 The American Free Market System

2 Economy The system through which people in a society make choices about how to use their limited resources to produce goods and services. The system through which people in a society make choices about how to use their limited resources to produce goods and services.

3 Scarcity The inability to satisfy all wants at the same time. All resources and goods are limited. This requires that choices be made. The inability to satisfy all wants at the same time. All resources and goods are limited. This requires that choices be made.

4 Choice Selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives. Individuals must choose/make decisions about desired goods and services because these goods and services are limited. Selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives. Individuals must choose/make decisions about desired goods and services because these goods and services are limited.

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6 Opportunity Cost What is given up when a choice is made the highest valued alternative foregone. Individuals must consider the value of what is given up when making a choice. What is given up when a choice is made the highest valued alternative foregone. Individuals must consider the value of what is given up when making a choice.

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8 Resources Factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services. Types of resources are natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship. Factors of production that are used in the production of goods and services. Types of resources are natural, human, capital, and entrepreneurship.

9 Price The amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Interaction of supply and demand determines price. Price determines who acquires goods and services. The amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Interaction of supply and demand determines price. Price determines who acquires goods and services.

10 Incentives Things that incite or motivate. Incentives are used to change economic behavior. Things that incite or motivate. Incentives are used to change economic behavior. Examples? Examples?

11 Demand The amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price. The amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price.

12 Supply The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price. The amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price.

13 Interaction of Supply & Demand Determines price. Determines price.

14 Supply and Demand for the Hand Held All-American Game System Quantity SuppliedPriceQuantity Demanded 0$ $ $ $5050 $ $ $ $ $1001

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16 Production The combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services. The combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services.

17 Consumption Using goods and services. Consumer preferences and price determine what is purchased. Using goods and services. Consumer preferences and price determine what is purchased.

18 Free Markets Markets that are allowed to operate without undue interference from the government. Markets that are allowed to operate without undue interference from the government.

19 Private Property Individuals and businesses have the right to own personal property as well as the means of production without undue interference from the government. Individuals and businesses have the right to own personal property as well as the means of production without undue interference from the government.

20 Profit Profit consists of earnings after all expenses have been paid. Profit consists of earnings after all expenses have been paid.

21 Competition Rivalry between producers/sellers of a good or service results in better quality goods and services at a lower price. Rivalry between producers/sellers of a good or service results in better quality goods and services at a lower price.

22 Consumer Sovereignty Through their purchases, consumers determine what goods and services will be produced Through their purchases, consumers determine what goods and services will be produced

23 Proprietorship A form of business organization with one owner who takes all the risks and all the profits. A form of business organization with one owner who takes all the risks and all the profits.

24 Partnership A form of business organization with two or more owners who share the risks and the profits. A form of business organization with two or more owners who share the risks and the profits.

25 Entrepreneur A person who takes a risk to produce goods and services in search of profit A person who takes a risk to produce goods and services in search of profit

26 Corporation A form of business organization that is authorized by law to act as a legal person regardless of the number of owners. Owners share the profits. Owner liability is limited to investment. A form of business organization that is authorized by law to act as a legal person regardless of the number of owners. Owners share the profits. Owner liability is limited to investment.

27 3 Types of Economies

28 Basic Economic Questions What and how much to produce? What and how much to produce? How to produce goods and services? How to produce goods and services? Who will get what is produced? Who will get what is produced? The type of economy a govt. has is determined by how it answers the above questions. The type of economy a govt. has is determined by how it answers the above questions.

29 Economies Free MarketCommandMixed

30 Market Economy Characteristics Private ownership of property and resources Profit Competition Consumer sovereignty Individual choice

31 What and how much to produce? Answered by consumer sovereignty and supply and demand. Answered by consumer sovereignty and supply and demand.

32 How to produce goods and services? Determined by individual business owners Determined by individual business owners

33 Who will get what is produced? Those with higher paying jobs will buy more of the goods and services than those who dont. Those with higher paying jobs will buy more of the goods and services than those who dont.

34 Command Economy Characteristics Central (govt.) ownership of property and resources. Centrally-planned economy Lack of consumer choice

35 Basic decisions answered by the government In this type, the government owns important parts of the economy and they decide what and how much of a product will be produced. In this type, the government owns important parts of the economy and they decide what and how much of a product will be produced. The goods usually go to a dictator or are split up equally among the citizens. The goods usually go to a dictator or are split up equally among the citizens.

36 Mixed Economy Characteristics Individuals and businesses as decision makers for the private sector Individuals and businesses as decision makers for the private sector Government as decision maker for the public sector Government as decision maker for the public sector A greater government role than in a free market economy A greater government role than in a free market economy Most common economic system today Most common economic system today

37 Modern – Day Economies Today most economies are mixed, or they contain a mixture of command and market economies. Today most economies are mixed, or they contain a mixture of command and market economies.

38 United States Economy Characteristics

39 Free markets Allowed to operate without undue interference from the government. Allowed to operate without undue interference from the government.

40 Private property Individuals have the right to own personal property as well as the means of production without undue interference from the government. Individuals have the right to own personal property as well as the means of production without undue interference from the government.

41 Profit Earnings after all expenses have been paid. Earnings after all expenses have been paid.

42 Competition Rivalry between producers/sellers of a good or service results in better quality goods and services at a lower price. Rivalry between producers/sellers of a good or service results in better quality goods and services at a lower price.

43 Consumer sovereignty Consumers determine through purchases, what goods and services will be produced. Consumers determine through purchases, what goods and services will be produced.

44 Economic Flow

45 Individuals (households) own the resources used in production, sell the resources, and use the income to purchase products. Individuals (households) own the resources used in production, sell the resources, and use the income to purchase products.

46 Businesses (producers) buy resources; make products that are sold to individuals, other businesses, and the government; and use the profits to buy more resources. Businesses (producers) buy resources; make products that are sold to individuals, other businesses, and the government; and use the profits to buy more resources.

47 Governments use tax revenue from individuals and businesses to provide public goods and services. Governments use tax revenue from individuals and businesses to provide public goods and services.

48 Individuals and businesses provide resources (land, labor and capital) that businesses use to create goods Businesses sell their goods to consumers in the market place. taxes Public goods and services Consumers pay for goods and services received Producers pay for resources received

49 Characteristics of Private Financial Institutions Include banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and securities brokerages Include banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and securities brokerages Receive deposits and make loans Receive deposits and make loans Encourage saving and investing by paying interest on deposits Encourage saving and investing by paying interest on deposits

50 Ways the government promotes marketplace competition Enforcing antitrust legislation to discourage the development of monopolies Enforcing antitrust legislation to discourage the development of monopolies Engaging in global trade Engaging in global trade Supporting business start-ups Supporting business start-ups

51 Government agencies that regulate business FCC (Federal Communications Commission) FCC (Federal Communications Commission) EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) FTC (Federal Trade Commission) FTC (Federal Trade Commission)


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