Presentation on theme: "TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR"— Presentation transcript:
1TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR LECTURE 3CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
2ASSIGNMENTChoose one example of dangerous goods from class 1-9 (choose only one dangerous goods from one class only). By reference of Annex 18 in Technical Instruction for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods, please explain how to manage the dangerous goods from the perspective of ICAO requirement. Hint: 1. Identify the class of dangerous goods. 2. Packaging 3. Marking and Labeling 4. Documentation 5. Acceptance for air transport 6. Handling and storage 7. Procedure and Emergency respond (if required)
3ASSIGNMENT Your assignment should include: Introduction Body Content DiscussionConclusionReference
4DANGEROUS GOODS CLASSIFICATION: INTRODUCTION Hazardous materials (dangerous goods) will not be acceptedand approved for transport unless:The material is properly classedThe material is properly describedThe material is properly packagedThe material is properly markedThe material is properly labeledGet permission and approval from authority.
5KEYPOINT FOR DANGEROUS GOODS Dangerous goods classesClass definitionExample of materialsMaterial characteristicMaterial potential risk / threat.By knowing this, we will distinguish the difference of each dangerous goods classes.
6Class 1 - ExplosivesDefinitionAn explosives materials.A solid or liquid substance (or a mixture).Contain great amount of stored energy that can produce an explosion.Produce light, heat, sound and pressure.Produce gas and pressure on their own to a certain temperature and speed by chemical reaction.Cause damage to surrounding.
7Sub-class of Class 1 1.1 — Explosives with a mass explosion hazard. 1.2 — Explosives with a blast/projection hazard.1.3 — Explosives with a minor blast hazard.1.4 — Explosives with a major fire hazard.1.5 — Blasting agents.1.6 — Extremely insensitive explosives.AMC - TDG 2103 BY SIR ARIFF
8Examples Fireworks Ammunition (Ammo or material use for war) Used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.Four primary effects are noise, light, smoke, and floating materials.Common feature of fireworks is a paper tube or casing filled with the combustible material.Ammunition (Ammo or material use for war)Bombs (TNT, Dynamite)Rocket propellant
9Characteristic & Potential Risk Burn at very high temperaturesProduce large amounts of gas at high pressuresRisk of explosion which cause damage to surrounding:- Human- StructurePossibility of fireRisk of splinters
10Class 2 : GasesWhat distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles.Definition & Basic characteristicLow density and viscosity.Colorless and invisible to human.Is completely gaseous at 200c at a standard pressure of kPa.A gas is a substance which at 500 c has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa.
11Sub-class of Class 22.1 Flammable Gas: Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source, such as acetylene and hydrogen.2.2 Non-Flammable Gases: Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous. Includes the cryogenic gases/liquids (temperatures of below -100°C) used for cryopreservation and rocket fuels, such as nitrogen and neon.2.3 Poisonous Gases: Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled; examples are fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen cyanide.AMC - TDG 2103 BY SIR ARIFF
12Examples Hydrogen Gas Highly flammable and will burn in air. Hydrogen dissolves in many metals leading to cracks and explosions.Ignite spontaneously if the container is leaking.ChlorineToxic gas that irritates the respiratory system.Strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials.
14Characteristic & Potential Risk Often present in pressurized containers.Can explode if damage or expose to fire.Can burn or burst expose to high pressure and high temperature.Gas can be flammableProduce low temperature (affect structure)Displace air (No more oxygen to breath)Poisonous (cause difficulties in breathing)
15Class 3 : Flammable Liquids DefinitionLiquid or mixture of liquidsMixture of liquids containing solids in solution.Produce flammable vapour at its flash point temperature.Different liquid or gas has different flash point temperature.WHAT IS FLASH POINT?
16Flash PointLowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air.Every liquid has a vapour pressure, which depends on liquid's temperature.As the temperature increases, the vapour pressure increases.As the vapour pressure increases, the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air increases.Hence, temperature determines the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air.Each flammable liquid requires a different concentration of its vapour in air to sustain combustion.
17Example Kerosene - Used in power jet engine aircraft. - The flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C andits auto ignition temperature is 220 °C.Paint- Harmful to the environment and especially for peoplewho work with them on a regular basisGasoline- Primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines.- The flash point of gasoline is - 43 °C and its auto ignitiontemperature is 246 °C.
18Characteristic & Potential Risk Flammable at certain temperature based on flash point.Usually flammable at temperature from 60.5 °C °C or below (general description).Can be easily burn.Produce dark smoke.
19Class 4 : Flammable solids. DefinitionSubstance which is easily to ignite (either spontaneously or not) and readily combustible.Substance which in contact with water, emit flammable gas.Substance which by interaction with water become spontaneously flammable.
20Sub-Class of Flammable Solids 4.1 Flammable Solids: Solid substances that are easily ignited and readily combustible (nitrocellulose, magnesium, safety or strike-anywhere matches).4.2 Spontaneously Combustible: Solid substances that ignite spontaneously (white phosphorus)4.3 Dangerous when Wet: Solid substances that emit a flammable gas when wet or react violently with water (sodium, calcium, potassium, calcium carbide).
21Examples Nitrocellulose Highly flammable compound Used as a low order explosiveWhite phosphorusHas been extensively used as a weapon.Capable of causing serious burns or death.Highly efficient smoke producing agent, burning quickly and causing an instant bank of smoke.
22Characteristic & Potential Threats Ignite spontaneouslyReact with water and easily burn.Easily ignite and flammableProduce fireProduce smoke