Presentation on theme: "LECTURE 3 CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR."— Presentation transcript:
LECTURE 3 CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR
ASSIGNMENT Choose one example of dangerous goods from class 1-9 (choose only one dangerous goods from one class only). By reference of Annex 18 in Technical Instruction for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods, please explain how to manage the dangerous goods from the perspective of ICAO requirement. Hint: 1. Identify the class of dangerous goods. 2. Packaging 3. Marking and Labeling 4. Documentation 5. Acceptance for air transport 6. Handling and storage 7. Procedure and Emergency respond (if required)
ASSIGNMENT Your assignment should include: 1) Introduction 2) Body Content 3) Discussion 4) Conclusion 5) Reference
DANGEROUS GOODS CLASSIFICATION: INTRODUCTION Hazardous materials (dangerous goods) will not be accepted and approved for transport unless: The material is properly classed The material is properly described The material is properly packaged The material is properly marked The material is properly labeled Get permission and approval from authority.
KEYPOINT FOR DANGEROUS GOODS 1) Dangerous goods classes 2) Class definition 3) Example of materials 4) Material characteristic 5) Material potential risk / threat. By knowing this, we will distinguish the difference of each dangerous goods classes.
Class 1 - Explosives Definition An explosives materials. A solid or liquid substance (or a mixture). Contain great amount of stored energy that can produce an explosion. Produce light, heat, sound and pressure. Produce gas and pressure on their own to a certain temperature and speed by chemical reaction. Cause damage to surrounding.
Sub-class of Class 1 AMC - TDG 2103 BY SIR ARIFF Explosives with a mass explosion hazard. 1.2 Explosives with a blast/projection hazard. 1.3 Explosives with a minor blast hazard. 1.4 Explosives with a major fire hazard. 1.5 Blasting agents. 1.6 Extremely insensitive explosives.
Examples Fireworks a) Used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. b) Four primary effects are noise, light, smoke, and floating materials. c) Common feature of fireworks is a paper tube or casing filled with the combustible material. Ammunition (Ammo or material use for war) Bombs (TNT, Dynamite) Rocket propellant
Characteristic & Potential Risk Burn at very high temperatures Produce large amounts of gas at high pressures Risk of explosion which cause damage to surrounding: - Human - Structure Possibility of fire Risk of splinters
Class 2 : Gases What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. Definition & Basic characteristic Low density and viscosity. Colorless and invisible to human. Is completely gaseous at 20 0 c at a standard pressure of kPa. A gas is a substance which at 50 0 c has a vapour pressure greater than 300 kPa.
Sub-class of Class 2 AMC - TDG 2103 BY SIR ARIFF Flammable Gas: Gases which ignite on contact with an ignition source, such as acetylene and hydrogen.acetylenehydrogen 2.2 Non-Flammable Gases: Gases which are neither flammable nor poisonous. Includes the cryogenic gases/liquids (temperatures of below -100°C) used for cryopreservation and rocket fuels, such as nitrogen and neon.nitrogenneon 2.3 Poisonous Gases: Gases liable to cause death or serious injury to human health if inhaled; examples are fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen cyanide.fluorine chlorinehydrogen cyanide
Examples Hydrogen Gas Highly flammable and will burn in air. Hydrogen dissolves in many metals leading to cracks and explosions. Ignite spontaneously if the container is leaking. Chlorine Toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system. Strong oxidizer, which may react with flammable materials.
Examples Gas Cylinders Pressurized containers (aerosol) Butane Lighter
Characteristic & Potential Risk Often present in pressurized containers. Can explode if damage or expose to fire. Can burn or burst expose to high pressure and high temperature. Gas can be flammable Produce low temperature (affect structure) Displace air (No more oxygen to breath) Poisonous (cause difficulties in breathing)
Class 3 : Flammable Liquids Definition Liquid or mixture of liquids Mixture of liquids containing solids in solution. Produce flammable vapour at its flash point temperature. Different liquid or gas has different flash point temperature. WHAT IS FLASH POINT?
Flash Point Lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air. Every liquid has a vapour pressure, which depends on liquid's temperature. As the temperature increases, the vapour pressure increases. As the vapour pressure increases, the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air increases. Hence, temperature determines the concentration of evaporated flammable liquid in the air. Each flammable liquid requires a different concentration of its vapour in air to sustain combustion.
Example Kerosene - Used in power jet engine aircraft. - The flash point of kerosene is between 37 and 65 °C and its auto ignition temperature is 220 °C. Paint - Harmful to the environment and especially for people who work with them on a regular basis Gasoline - Primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. - The flash point of gasoline is - 43 °C and its auto ignition temperature is 246 °C.
Characteristic & Potential Risk Flammable at certain temperature based on flash point. Usually flammable at temperature from 60.5 °C °C or below (general description). Can be easily burn. Produce dark smoke.
Class 4 : Flammable solids. Definition Substance which is easily to ignite (either spontaneously or not) and readily combustible. Substance which in contact with water, emit flammable gas. Substance which by interaction with water become spontaneously flammable.
Sub-Class of Flammable Solids 4.1 Flammable Solids: Solid substances that are easily ignited and readily combustible (nitrocellulose, magnesium, safety or strike-anywhere matches).nitrocellulosemagnesiummatches 4.2 Spontaneously Combustible: Solid substances that ignite spontaneously (white phosphorus)white phosphorus 4.3 Dangerous when Wet: Solid substances that emit a flammable gas when wet or react violently with water (sodium, calcium, potassium, calcium carbide).sodiumcalciumpotassiumcalcium carbide
Examples Nitrocellulose Highly flammable compound Used as a low order explosive White phosphorus Has been extensively used as a weapon. Capable of causing serious burns or death. Highly efficient smoke producing agent, burning quickly and causing an instant bank of smoke.
Characteristic & Potential Threats Ignite spontaneously React with water and easily burn. Easily ignite and flammable Produce fire Produce smoke