Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection Expert Meeting The Allocation of Limited Authorizations and Grants in the European Member States Leiden University,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection Expert Meeting The Allocation of Limited Authorizations and Grants in the European Member States Leiden University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection Expert Meeting The Allocation of Limited Authorizations and Grants in the European Member States Leiden University, 18–20 January Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger 1

2 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection BIPOLAR STATE – CITIZEN PARADIGM MULTIPOLAR ALLO- CATION CONFLICT Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger STATE CITIZEN STATE A 1A 2A 3 MULTIPOLARITY AS SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTIC

3 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection Consequences and challenges for legal protection Existence of remedies tailored to the multipolar situation? Adequacy of existing remedies? Who has standing before the court? Under which conditions is an interested party allowed to challenge the allocation in favour of another person? Particular stability of allocation decisions (excludes ex-post repeal) Role and adequacy of damages Phased decision-making when to lodge an appeal? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

4 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection I) Specific Remedies? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger Jurisdiction Specific Jurisdiction Public Procurement (EU) Administrative Courts Public-law Disputes Ordinary Courts Civil Disputes

5 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection I) Specific Remedies? Majority of disputes: public-law matters and thus jurisdiction of administrative courts (e.g. gambling licences, CO2 emission permits or radio/telecommunication frequencies) Since nature of dispute is decisive for determining jurisdiction, ordinary courts may be competent for reviewing administrative action whether the latter may be considered of a private law nature Award of contracts by public authorities (below the thresholds of EU public procurement law) has been a controversial case in this respect (BVerwG: ordinary courts) Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

6 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection II) Standing before the Court Task of German administrative courts is not to review the legality of administrative action as such, but (only) to protect individual rights. To have standing, a violation of a subjective right must be claimed (§42 para. 2 VwGO) To succeed with an action to quash an administrative decision also in substantive terms, it has not only to be established that the latter is illegal, but also that it has violated a subjective right (§ 113 para. 1 s. 1 VwGO) Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

7 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection II) Standing before the Court To win an allocation case –it has to be established not only that the decision was illegal, –but also that the applicant either may claim the good for himself or – in case of administrative discretion – has a chance to be considered when redistributing the good in line with the courts findings Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

8 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection III) Stability According to general rules of administrative procedure law (§ 74 para. 1 and 2 VwGO), an allocation decision has to be challenged within one month of announcement (legal certainty; legitimate interests of the successful applicant) Beyond this, some allocation decisions are awarded a particular stability once executed: No ex-post repeal E.g. Public procurement contracts, admission to universities or award of posts in the public service Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

9 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection III) Stability Models No ex-post remedy, but damages –Accepted by German Constitutional Court in case of public procurement below EU-thresholds (BVerfGE 116, 135) Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

10 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection III) Stability No ex-post remedy, but preliminary action –Posts in the public service, public procurement contracts (EU- regime) –Applicants are informed about the negative decision and its pending execution … –… and thus have the chance to apply for an injunction to prevent the execution –Hence, the usual ex-post remedy is substituted by a preliminary ruling procedure expediting the process Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

11 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection III) Stability No ex-post, but prospective remedy –Admission of students to universities –The decision cannot be challenged ex post; –Whether it can be established that the applicant is entitled to receive the good, but had not been considered contrary to the law, he has a claim to receive a similar good in a future allocation procedure Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

12 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection III) Stability Issues: –To what extent are such limitations in line with the constitutional law, EU law and ECHR guarantee of effective legal protection? –Advantages and disadvantages of the specific models? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

13 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection IV) When to lodge the appeal? Complexity entails phased decision-making to rationalise it, to enhance transparency and to reduce complexity E.g. definition of contractual object, award criteria and procedure – publication of a contract notice – evaluation of tenders in a multi-step procedure If an error becomes manifest, when to lodge an appeal? only against final decision or already against intermediate acts? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

14 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection IV) When to lodge the appeal? § 44a s. 1 VwGO: Appeals against procedural acts by authorities may only be asserted at the same time as appeals which are admissible against the factual decision. –Usually: intermediate acts not challengeable –Deviation in the field of allocating telecommunication frequen- cies: basis for subsequent procedure Public procurement (§ 107 para. 3 GWB): obligation to immediately notify error to contracting entity and, whether the latter is unwilling to redress the complaint, to lodge the appeal within 15 calendar days Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

15 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection V) Damages Legal protection may also be realised by awarding damages for breach of individual rights Important role, in particular whether the possibility of annulment action is restricted Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

16 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection V) Damages However: Damages are secondary to an action for annulment of an allocation decision –Guarantee of effective judicial protection establishes the primacy of quashing unlawful decisions over awarding damages for having to accept them (effectiveness) –When a claimant of damages has failed to avert the damage by not having recourse to available actions to quash administrative decisions, liability is excluded (e.g. § 839 para. 3 BGB) Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

17 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection V) Damages (P) Effectiveness of damages proof of causation in case of administrative discretion Often it can be established that the decision was illegal and that the claimant might have been successful in an allocation in line with legal requirements … … but: in view of administrative discretion or the specific nature of the error (e.g. no call for tenders) it cannot be established that the claimant is the only one who should have received the good Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

18 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection V) Damages Consequences –No damages (P) effective legal protection –Modification/shift of burden of proof (P) danger of over-compensation (potential number of claimants) Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

19 Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection V) Damages –Liability for lost chances Avoids all-or-nothing-solution Problem: evaluation of chances § 126 s. 1 GWB: If the contracting entity violates a provi- sion intended to protect undertakings, and if the underta- king would have had a real chance without this violation of being granted the award upon an assessment of the ten- ders, which, as a consequence of that infringement, was adversely affected, the undertaking may demand compen- sation for the costs of preparing the tender or of participa- ting in an award procedure. [limited scope] Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

20 Questions 1.Which specific problems of legal protection in disputes concerning limited authorizations and grants are discussed? 2.At what moment(s) in the allocation procedure can interested parties lodge an appeal? 3.Which judge (civil, administrative or otherwise) will have jurisdiction? 4.Is there an opportunity to discuss allocation decisions with the competent administrative authority before addressing a judge? 5.Is the normal procedure for interim relief sufficiently tailored to the allocation issues? Are there other possibilities such as an expedited procedure? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

21 6.Which parties (e.g. newcomers and competitors) are considered to be interested parties, and which decisions are considered in the allocation process? 7.Are there any examples of specific problems with the method of judicial review in regard to the (re)allocation of limited grants or subsidies? Is the judge able to review more than marginally? Do judges lack expert knowledge? Is there a specific requirement when motivating administrative decisions to facilitate judicial review? Which party bears the burden of proof? 8.How is transparency ensured within the judicial process? Which documents are at the disposal of interested parties? 9.How is effective restitution accomplished? Are the competences of the authorized judge sufficiently tailored to restitution in the event of irregularities with allocation procedures? Are there specific remedies? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger

22 10.What role does the possibility of compensation for damages play in this respect? Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Wollenschläger


Download ppt "Allocating Scarce Goods & Legal Protection Expert Meeting The Allocation of Limited Authorizations and Grants in the European Member States Leiden University,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google