Presentation on theme: "AGEC 340 – International Economic Development Course slides for week 14 (April 13 & 15) Macroeconomic Policy* Exchange rates and inflation Monetary and."— Presentation transcript:
AGEC 340 – International Economic Development Course slides for week 14 (April 13 & 15) Macroeconomic Policy* Exchange rates and inflation Monetary and fiscal policy * If you are following the textbook, this is chapter 18.
The U.S. economy
Dividing the pie: How is it used? How is it made? How is it earned? US data on incomeUS data on demand US data on supply Click here for the latest figures:
How does macroeconomics matter for trade? What is macroeconomics, anyway? How would it enter our diagrams?
Our country (US)Rest of the world (ROW)Intl. Trade Q (tons) S exports D imports Q (tons) Q (thou. tons) From week 3, the three-panel diagram… What if our currency falls in value? (e.g. more US$ per foreign currency)
More simply, from week 4s small country diagrams, When our currency falls in value… Pt SD Price ($/unit) Pt SD An importable goodAn exportable good
How does agriculture fit in? Devaluation or depreciation of the currency helps producers of any tradable, whether exported or imported Agriculture is a major producer of tradables, using non-tradable land and labor; a low value of the currency helps farmers! But note that currency depreciation hurts most consumers, who are net buyers of tradable goods, and net sellers of non-tradables…
How has the U.S. exchange rate moved?
The exchange rate and farm income
Qty. of ag goods Qty of other goods We can think of this using a PPF and indifference curves Foreigners are trading with us along the dashed line, at price = Pag/Pother QsQd exports Gains from trade
Qty. of all tradable goods (e.g. farm products) Qty of other goods (all non- tradables, e.g. most services) Adding up all tradable goods on the X axis… If total exports = imports (exactly balanced trade), then the slope of the price line here would be Pt/Pother
Qty. of all tradable goods (e.g. farm products) Qty of other goods (all non- tradables, e.g. most services) Now we can see effects of macro policy: What if our country (e.g. the U.S.) borrows money from the rest of the world? Then we have capital inflows and a matching trade deficit; we consume more tradables than we produce: Pt/Pother is lower than if we did not borrow. Qs Qd Gains from borrowing (but note losses if/when we have to pay back!)
…but now back to the textbook!
What does the U.S government actually do? The U.S. Government Printing Office publishes all our official documents, –e.g. for the budget, historical data is here: note especially: Receipts and Outlays as Percentages of GDP: 1930–2015 Receipts by Source as Percentages of GDP: 1934–2015 Outlays by Function and Subfunction: 1962–2015
Some conclusions from macroeconomics A key function of government is to stabilize the economy over time, by borrowing more in bad times and saving more during boom periods. A key macroeconomic variable is the international exchange rate, which determines the prices of all internationally-traded goods relative to domestic ones. To maximize long-run national income, governments should pursue freer international trade, and focus its interventions remedies for market failure. Next week: foreign investment, migration and aid