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Unconventional gas resources

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Presentation on theme: "Unconventional gas resources"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unconventional gas resources
- a challenge for the future - Prof. Dr. Nicolae Anastasiu Cor. Member of Romanian Academy

2 Contents, Introduction Unconventional Resources Types Investigation methods Unconventional Gas Description Case Studies – Eastern Europe Outcrops and wells – the Carpathians Gas Shales features – the Carpathians Conclusions

3 Conventional versus unconventional! What is difference?
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Bio-gas=conv Conventional versus unconventional! What is difference? Petroleum system means: Source rock for HC; Shales Reservoir, sandstones and limestones Seal; shales or salt Trap Thermo-gas=unconv Thermo-Gas Reservoir=unconv. modified

4 Unconventional resources – a future alternative
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methode 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Unconventional resources – a future alternative Oil sands - McMurray Fm. model –Canada, Atabaska Gas shales – Barnett, Marcellus, Utica models Tight sand (tight gas) Methane Hydrate ( in sediments – sea, and ocean) Coal Bed Methane (CBM) = Coalbed gas = Coal seam gas (CSG) Production in 2010 was 283 billion cubic feet per day A new technology !

5 Shale Gas in place, by Rogner (AWR) - 2009
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methode 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Shale Gas in place, by Rogner (AWR) Tcm

6 Conventional plays Unconventional plays
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methode 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Conventional plays Unconventional plays Accumulations in medium to highly porous reservoir with sufficient permeability to allow gas to flow to Wellbore Deposits of natural gas found in relatively impermeable rock formations (tight sands, shale and coal beds) Vertical or horizontal completions Key technologies are horizontal drilling and modern fraccing techniques Production from formation matrix, natural flow Production from natural and induced fractures (e.g shales are the source rock) Permeability and porosity determine production rates and estimated ultimate recoveries Total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity and mineralogy determine reservoir and ultimate completion Development plans on a field basis Development plans on a well by well

7 Objectives and methods
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methode 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Objectives and methods Investigation related to GS will be by outcrops records An example ...and description, related to: Map location Topo.. .GPS position (Lat/Long/Elev) Facies descriptions Boundaries, extension Sampling

8 Investigation by Core and Well Log –records
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Investigation by Core and Well Log –records (to use in sequence analysis) Wells Logs

9 Oil sands (bituminous sands)
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Oil sands (bituminous sands) Location : Canada, Kazakhstan, Rusia, Madagascar, SUA; Fort McMurray = km2 Reserves: Canada, Alberta: 177 Md barili, Status: semisolide, viscosity is high ( centipoise) = extra heavy oil Exploitation: open pit (quarry); or pit by hundred meters - green house effect . Production: in 2006 = 1,26 mil barili/zi (44% from total in Canada; 80 new Projects) Profit = 21,75 $/barili (conventional oil=12,41$/baril) Secondary recovery- heavy metals: vanadiu, nickel, plumb, zinc, cobalt, mercur, crom, cadmiu, seleniu, cupru, mangan.

10 Workers....and machineries
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT McMurray Fm. - Oil sands Alberta Workers....and machineries

11 from Gas shales to Shale gas
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT from Gas shales to Shale gas Location: in 48 de basins, 32 countries, cu 70 de shale formations: USA, Canada, Rusia, Venezuela, Australia, Argentina, China, Egipt…..tens to hundred km2. Reserves: 15 Tmc mondial, UE=2,4 Tmc, China (36,1 Tmc), SUA (24,4 Tmc) si Argentina (21,9 Tmc). Status: v.low permeability-10 nanodarcy, porosity is low, brittle rocks. Depth (burrial condition): m, with slates, and black shales. Exploitation by drilling, and wells – horisontal, and hydraulic fracturing. Production: Tcf (cca 4 Md m in the world; in SUA, – 20% din total ; 50% form total for 2035,

12 unconventional conventional Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methode 3.UG-Descrip
4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Source: EIA unconventional conventional

13 Europe Geological Map Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip
4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Europe Geological Map

14 Age of Gas Shales formations / Countries/Reserves
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Age of Gas Shales formations / Countries/Reserves France Germany Holland UK Sweden Norway Poland Hungary Romania Ucraine Reserves: Trmc - 3,1 0,57 1,16 2,35 5,3 0,54 1,19 Geological Age  mil.y  Miocene 15  Mako  Miocene Shales   Cretaceous  80 Weald Clay  Jurasic  150 Alum Shale Posidonia Shale  Carbonifer  320 Shale Namurian marine Shales  Devonian  360 Devonian shales Silurian  420 Bituminous Slate Black shales-graptolites Black shales  Cambrian  520 Alum shale

15 Gas Shales – from concept to capitalisation
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Gas Shales – from concept to capitalisation What means Gas Shales? What properties GS have – a condition for succes! Where we can find GS in Romania? - Geological units; - Geological age; - Potential Sedimentary Formations. A potential for shale gas are: Synonym= “șisturile bituminoase = bit. slate”, = argilele bituminoase, = “argilele negre = black shale” = argilite (=slate) etc. și, alte petrotipuri generatoate de hidrocarburi : = “rocile sursă (=source rock)“ sau “rocile mamă“ All with captiv natural gas.

16 Gas Shales – What properties GS have – a condition for success! .
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Gas Shales – What properties GS have – a condition for success! . lutit and silt grain size; bulk and clay mineralogy ; silica (quartz clasts); organic matter: kerogen, bitumen; TOC, and Ro=vitrinite reflectance; marin, lake or delta facies; permeability and porosity; petrophysic properties; thermal maturity joints-faults: Geomecanic: Young Modul, Poisson Ratio. ...hydraulic fracture

17 Where is gas locate? Intergranular space Intracrystal voids
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Where is gas locate? Microporosity, SEM Organic Matter Fluorescenţă UV Intergranular space Intracrystal voids Microfractures

18 Tight sands (and Tight gas ) very low permeability
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Tight sands (and Tight gas ) very low permeability It is stuck in a very tight formation underground, trapped in unusually impermeable, hard rock, or in a sandstone or limestone formation that is unusually impermeable and non-porous. Location: many countries - USA, Canada, Rusia,Venezuela,Australia, Argentina, China, Egipt…..on hundred-thousand SqKm. Reserves: x 109 m3, in SUA reservoires, 900 gas filelds. Status: very low permeability (1 nanodarcy), and effective porosity - in sandstones, limestones. Depth, and burial: m, versus conventional gas, la m. Extraction: by secondary recovery, with horisontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing. Production: in SUA, din wells = 2-3 Trilioane cf=0,8-1 Md m3/an. Gas

19 50-100 m aquifer 3000 m-gas Tight gas Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods
3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT m aquifer 3000 m-gas Tight gas

20 We can solve green house effect!
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT Secondary Recovery: De la 30…la 70% Tight Sands CO2 We can solve green house effect!

21 mobile alpine regions (Carpathian chain and North Dobrogea area),
1-C.Or 2-Pl.Mo Pl.Mold. 4-Dep.Bar. 5-Dep.Get. 6-Dep.Pann. 7-B.Trans. mobile alpine regions (Carpathian chain and North Dobrogea area), intermountain basins (Transylvanian and Pannonian basins) pre-alpine cratons (Moesian,  Scythian and Moldavian Platforms). Gas shales Gas shales gas oil Gas shales Gas shales 3 6 1 Gas shales 7 Gas shales 4 2 5 8

22 Olig-Dysodile Oil-Schists
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT The Eastern Carpathians Olig-Dysodile Oil-Schists Source:Univ.Report-2011/12

23 I-Research and Prospecting
Permit is non-exclusive; It does not assure any further exploration and/or exploitation rights. II – Exploration It is exclusive and It assures the further exploitation rights (preemption right); III - Exploitation

24 Exploration and exploitation stage. Risk and cost.
Recognise-research Evaluation Exploration-Development High risk Low risk Cost- Documentation Prospecting Data aquisition Tests Framework development Production start Decision I Decision II USA, China etc Europe Extraction The Carpathians area Environmental impact –risk studies Regulatory framework and energy policies

25 Equipment and technology

26 Hydraulic Fracturing Water (vibrations) Microseism ‘ years

27 Water Conventional Unconventional – shale gas bioGas Aquifer – 150 m
oil water Reservoir conv. Source rock Water m Shale thermo-gas reservoir >1000 – 5000 m3 of water per stage = 2-3 Olympic pool

28 Drilling Mud Composition
Water-based drilling mud most commonly consists of:  bentonite clay (gel) with additives such as ; barium sulfate (barite),  calcium carbonate (chalk) or hematite. Various thickeners are used to influence the viscosity of the fluid, e.g   xanthan gum, guar gum, glycol, carboxymethylcellulose, polyanionic cellulose (PAC), orstarch. In turn, deflocculants are used to reduce viscosity of clay-based muds; anionic polyelectrolytes (e.g. acrylates, polyphosphates, lignosulfonates ; (Lig) ortannic acid derivates such as Quebracho.

29 Sodium / Potassium Carbonate
0,05 % Aditive products Compound Purpose Common application Acids Helps dissolve minerals and initiate fissure in rock Swimming pool cleaner Sodium Allows a delayed breakdown of the gel polyner Table salt Polyacrylamide Minimizes the friction between fluid and pipe Water treatment, soil conditioner Ethylene Glycol Prevents scale deposits in the pipe Automotive anti-freeze, deicing agent, household cleaners Borate Salts Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature inscreases Laundry detergent, hand soap, cosmetics Sodium / Potassium Carbonate Maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers Washing soda, detergent, soap, water softener, glass, ceramics Glutaraldehyde Eliminates bacteria in the water Disinfectant, sterilization of medical and dental equipment Guar Gum Thickens the water to suspend the sand Thickener in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces Citric Acid Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Food additive, food and beverages, lemon juice Isopropanol Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid Glass cleaner, antiperspirant, hair coloring

30 Cu Pb Zn Co Ni Mn Mo Cr Be V Sc Sb Sn Bi Ge Cd Ag B Ba Ga Sr As Ti Zr
Heavy Metals The Eastern Carpathians, BuzăuValley Cu Pb Zn Co Ni Mn Mo Cr Be V Sc Sb Sn Bi Ge Cd Ag B Ba Ga Sr As Ti Zr Olig-Dysodile Oil-Schists Vanadiu Crom Nichel Plumb Cupru

31

32

33 Natural rocks radioactivity

34

35 Hydraulic fracturing .....effect....impact: a microseismicity

36

37 Seismic scale

38 Monitoring – Norme- regulatory revision

39 The basic conditions thought to account for the genesis, accumulation
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT A summary The basic conditions thought to account for the genesis, accumulation and preservation of gas shales are present in many European geological units; Many unconv. gas fields have been discovered in these units. There is a good understanding of the geological formations located between 0 and 3500 m, which are mainly of a Neogene age. Less well understood are the geological formations deeper than 3500/4000 m, which are basically pre-Neogene. Many shales with good petrophysical gas reservoir parameters exist from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary. The best is Silurian (Paleozoic) There is a large variety of traps. The predominant type is stratigraphic (lithologic) and structural. The oil and gas fields can be considered as small to medium in size but occurring with a remarkable frequency (comparative with US, China…)

40 The questions confronting the explorationist are:
Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip 4. Case-EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion-SWOT The questions confronting the explorationist are: 1. where are these new fields located ? 2. how can they be discovered? 3. would these be commercial discoveries? 1. The best opportunities are in deeper than 1,500 – m seated gas shales reservoirs onshore and offshore. 2. By data accumulated up to the present (reconsideration old data according to new concept - processes, sequence stratigraphy…depositional systems….) 3.The new possibilities offered by modern seismic techniques in the field of data acquisition and data processing (3D and soft…..), improvement of new log operations…. 3. A refined geological interpretation…… can lead to new commercial discoveries everywhere in the world.

41 and shale oil plays. Marine and Petroleum Geology 31, 53-69.
References, Anastasiu N., Branzila M., Filipescu S., Roban R., Seghedi A., Geological Report. Arhiva Dept. Mineralogy. Badics, B., Vetö. I., Source rocks and petroleum systems in the Hungarian part of the Pannonian Basin: The potential for shale gas and shale oil plays. Marine and Petroleum Geology 31, Dicea, O., 1996, Tectonic setting and hydrocarbon habitat of the Romanian external Carpathians, in Ziegler, P.A., and Horvath, F., eds., Peri-Tethys Memoir 2. Structure and prospects of Alpine basins and forelands: Memoires du Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle 170, Paris, p. 403–425. Krezsek, C., Petroleum System of Romania. AAPG ER Newsletter, June 2011: 4-7 Krézsek, C., Bally, A.W., The Transylvanian Basin (Romania) and its relation to the Carpathian fold and thrust belt: insights in gravitational salt tectonics. Marine and Petroleum Geology 23, 405–442. Krézsek, C., Filipescu, S., Silye, L, Matencu, L., Doust, H., Miocene facies associations and sedimentary evolution of the Southern Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Marine and Petroleum Geology 27, Krezsek, C., Lange, S., Olaru, R., Ungureanu, C., Namaz, P., Dudus, R., Turi, V Non-Conventional Plays in Romania: the Experience of OMV Petrom. SPE , SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna March, 2012. Mațenco, L., Krézsek, C., Merten, S., Schmid, S.M., Cloetingh, S., Andriessen, P., Characteristics of collisional orogens with low topographic build‐up: an example from the Carpathians. Terra Nova 22, 155–165. Seghedi, A., Vaida, M., Iordan, M. and Verniers, J., Palaeozoic evolution of the Moesian Platform, Romania: an overview. Geologica Belgica, 8: Sachsenhofer, R.F., Koltun, Y.V., Black shales in Ukraine – a review. Marine and Petroleum Geology 31, Ştefănescu, M., Dicea, O., Butac, A., and Ciulavu, D Hydrocarbon Geology of the Romanian Carpathians, their foreland and the Transylvanian Basin. In: Golonka, J., Picha, F. (eds.), The Carpathians and their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources, AAPG Memoir 84: 521‐567. Tari, G., The divergent continental margins of the Jurassic proto-Pannonian Basin: implications for the petroleum systems of the Vienna Basin and the Moesian Platform. Transactions GCSSEPM Foundation 25th Annual Research Conference: Tari, G., Dicea, O., Faulkerson, J., Georgiev, G., Popov, S., Stefanescu, M. and Weir, G Cimmerian and Alpine stratigraphy and structural evolution of the Moesian Platform (Romania/Bulgaria). In: Andrew G. Robinson (Editor), Regional and Petroleum Geology of the Black Sea and Surrounding Regions. AAPG Memoir 68: Tari, G., Poprawa, P., and Krzywiec, P., Silurian lithofacies and paleogeography in Central and Eastern Europe: implications for shale-gas expolartion. SPE , SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna March, 2012. UE-Commission Report – Unconventional Gas: Potential Energy Market Impacts in the European Union.

42 Thank you


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