Presentation on theme: "Unconventional gas resources"— Presentation transcript:
1Unconventional gas resources - a challenge for the future -Prof. Dr. Nicolae AnastasiuCor. Member of Romanian Academy
2Contents,IntroductionUnconventional Resources TypesInvestigation methodsUnconventional Gas DescriptionCase Studies – Eastern EuropeOutcrops and wells – the CarpathiansGas Shales features – the CarpathiansConclusions
3Conventional versus unconventional! What is difference? Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTBio-gas=convConventional versus unconventional! What is difference?Petroleum system means:Source rock for HC; ShalesReservoir, sandstones and limestonesSeal; shales or saltTrapThermo-gas=unconvThermo-Gas Reservoir=unconv.modified
4Unconventional resources – a future alternative Introd1.UR.Types2. Methode3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTUnconventional resources – a future alternativeOil sands - McMurray Fm. model –Canada, AtabaskaGas shales – Barnett, Marcellus, Utica modelsTight sand (tight gas)Methane Hydrate ( in sediments – sea, and ocean)Coal Bed Methane (CBM) = Coalbed gas = Coal seam gas (CSG)Production in 2010 was 283 billion cubic feet per dayA new technology !
5Shale Gas in place, by Rogner (AWR) - 2009 Introd1.UR.Types2. Methode3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTShale Gas in place, by Rogner (AWR)Tcm
6Conventional plays Unconventional plays Introd1.UR.Types2. Methode3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTConventional playsUnconventional playsAccumulations in medium to highlyporous reservoir with sufficientpermeability to allow gas to flow toWellboreDeposits of natural gas found inrelatively impermeable rock formations(tight sands, shale and coal beds)Vertical or horizontal completionsKey technologies are horizontal drillingand modern fraccing techniquesProduction from formation matrix,natural flowProduction from natural and inducedfractures (e.g shales are the sourcerock)Permeability and porosity determineproduction rates and estimatedultimate recoveriesTotal organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity and mineralogy determine reservoir and ultimate completionDevelopment plans on a field basisDevelopment plans on a well by well
7Objectives and methods Introd1.UR.Types2. Methode3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTObjectives and methodsInvestigation related to GS will be by outcrops recordsAn example...and description,related to:Map locationTopo.. .GPS position (Lat/Long/Elev)Facies descriptionsBoundaries, extensionSampling
8Investigation by Core and Well Log –records Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTInvestigation by Core and Well Log –records(to use in sequence analysis)Wells Logs
9Oil sands (bituminous sands) Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTOil sands (bituminous sands)Location : Canada, Kazakhstan, Rusia, Madagascar, SUA; Fort McMurray = km2Reserves: Canada, Alberta: 177 Md barili,Status: semisolide, viscosity is high ( centipoise) = extra heavy oilExploitation: open pit (quarry); or pit by hundred meters - green house effect.Production: in 2006 = 1,26 mil barili/zi (44% from total in Canada; 80 new Projects)Profit = 21,75 $/barili (conventional oil=12,41$/baril)Secondary recovery- heavy metals: vanadiu, nickel, plumb, zinc, cobalt, mercur, crom, cadmiu, seleniu, cupru, mangan.
11from Gas shales to Shale gas Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTfrom Gas shales to Shale gasLocation: in 48 de basins, 32 countries, cu 70 de shale formations: USA, Canada, Rusia, Venezuela, Australia, Argentina, China, Egipt…..tens to hundred km2.Reserves: 15 Tmc mondial, UE=2,4 Tmc, China (36,1 Tmc), SUA (24,4 Tmc) si Argentina (21,9 Tmc).Status: v.low permeability-10 nanodarcy, porosity is low, brittle rocks.Depth (burrial condition): m, with slates, and black shales.Exploitation by drilling, and wells – horisontal, and hydraulic fracturing.Production: Tcf (cca 4 Md m in the world; in SUA, – 20% din total ; 50% form total for 2035,
14Age of Gas Shales formations / Countries/Reserves Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTAge of Gas Shales formations / Countries/ReservesFranceGermanyHollandUKSwedenNorwayPolandHungaryRomaniaUcraineReserves:Trmc -3,10,571,162,355,30,541,19Geological Age mil.y Miocene15 Mako Miocene Shales Cretaceous 80Weald Clay Jurasic 150Alum ShalePosidonia Shale Carbonifer 320ShaleNamurian marine Shales Devonian 360Devonian shalesSilurian 420Bituminous SlateBlack shales-graptolitesBlack shales Cambrian 520Alum shale
15Gas Shales – from concept to capitalisation Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTGas Shales – from concept to capitalisationWhat means Gas Shales?What properties GS have – a condition for succes!Where we can find GS in Romania?- Geological units;- Geological age;- Potential Sedimentary Formations.A potential for shale gas are:Synonym= “șisturile bituminoase = bit. slate”,= argilele bituminoase,= “argilele negre = black shale”= argilite (=slate) etc. și, alte petrotipuri generatoate de hidrocarburi := “rocile sursă (=source rock)“ sau “rocile mamă“All with captiv natural gas.
16Gas Shales – What properties GS have – a condition for success! . Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTGas Shales – What properties GS have – a condition for success!.lutit and silt grain size;bulk and clay mineralogy ;silica (quartz clasts);organic matter: kerogen, bitumen;TOC, and Ro=vitrinite reflectance;marin, lake or delta facies;permeability and porosity;petrophysic properties;thermal maturityjoints-faults:Geomecanic: Young Modul, Poisson Ratio....hydraulic fracture
17Where is gas locate? Intergranular space Intracrystal voids Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTWhere is gaslocate?Microporosity, SEMOrganic MatterFluorescenţă UVIntergranular spaceIntracrystal voidsMicrofractures
18Tight sands (and Tight gas ) very low permeability Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTTight sands (and Tight gas ) very low permeabilityIt is stuck in a very tight formation underground, trapped in unusually impermeable, hard rock, or in a sandstone or limestone formation that is unusually impermeable and non-porous.Location: many countries - USA, Canada, Rusia,Venezuela,Australia, Argentina, China, Egipt…..on hundred-thousand SqKm.Reserves: x 109 m3, in SUA reservoires, 900 gas filelds.Status: very low permeability (1 nanodarcy), and effective porosity - in sandstones, limestones.Depth, and burial: m, versus conventional gas, la m.Extraction: by secondary recovery, with horisontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing.Production: in SUA, din wells = 2-3 Trilioane cf=0,8-1 Md m3/an.Gas
1950-100 m aquifer 3000 m-gas Tight gas Introd 1.UR.Types 2. Methods 3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTm aquifer3000 m-gasTight gas
20We can solve green house effect! Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTSecondaryRecovery:De la 30…la 70%Tight SandsCO2We can solve green house effect!
21mobile alpine regions (Carpathian chain and North Dobrogea area), 1-C.Or 2-Pl.Mo Pl.Mold. 4-Dep.Bar. 5-Dep.Get. 6-Dep.Pann. 7-B.Trans.mobile alpine regions (Carpathian chain and North Dobrogea area),intermountain basins (Transylvanian and Pannonian basins)pre-alpine cratons (Moesian, Scythian and Moldavian Platforms).Gas shalesGas shalesgasoilGas shalesGas shales361Gas shales7Gas shales4258
23I-Research and Prospecting Permit is non-exclusive;It does not assure any further exploration and/or exploitation rights.II – ExplorationIt is exclusive and It assures the further exploitation rights (preemption right);III - Exploitation
24Exploration and exploitation stage. Risk and cost. Recognise-researchEvaluationExploration-DevelopmentHigh riskLow riskCost-DocumentationProspectingData aquisitionTestsFrameworkdevelopmentProductionstartDecision IDecision IIUSA, China etcEuropeExtractionThe Carpathians areaEnvironmental impact –risk studiesRegulatory framework and energy policies
26Hydraulic FracturingWater(vibrations)Microseism‘ years
27Water Conventional Unconventional – shale gas bioGas Aquifer – 150 m oilwaterReservoir conv.Source rockWatermShale thermo-gas reservoir>1000 – 5000 m3 of water per stage= 2-3 Olympic pool
28Drilling Mud Composition Water-based drilling mud most commonly consists of: bentonite clay (gel) with additives such as ;barium sulfate (barite), calcium carbonate (chalk) or hematite.Various thickeners are used to influence the viscosity of the fluid, e.g xanthan gum, guar gum, glycol, carboxymethylcellulose,polyanionic cellulose (PAC), orstarch.In turn, deflocculants are used to reduce viscosity of clay-based muds;anionic polyelectrolytes (e.g. acrylates, polyphosphates, lignosulfonates ;(Lig) ortannic acid derivates such as Quebracho.
29Sodium / Potassium Carbonate 0,05 % Aditive productsCompoundPurposeCommon applicationAcidsHelps dissolve minerals and initiate fissure in rockSwimming pool cleanerSodiumAllows a delayed breakdown of the gel polynerTable saltPolyacrylamideMinimizes the friction between fluid and pipeWater treatment, soil conditionerEthylene GlycolPrevents scale deposits in the pipeAutomotive anti-freeze, deicing agent, household cleanersBorate SaltsMaintains fluid viscosity as temperature inscreasesLaundry detergent, hand soap, cosmeticsSodium / Potassium CarbonateMaintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkersWashing soda, detergent, soap, water softener, glass, ceramicsGlutaraldehydeEliminates bacteria in the waterDisinfectant, sterilization of medical and dental equipmentGuar GumThickens the water to suspend the sandThickener in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, saucesCitric AcidPrevents precipitation of metal oxidesFood additive, food and beverages, lemon juiceIsopropanolUsed to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluidGlass cleaner, antiperspirant, hair coloring
30Cu Pb Zn Co Ni Mn Mo Cr Be V Sc Sb Sn Bi Ge Cd Ag B Ba Ga Sr As Ti Zr Heavy MetalsThe Eastern Carpathians, BuzăuValleyCuPbZnCoNiMnMoCrBeVScSbSnBiGeCdAgBBaGaSrAsTiZrOlig-Dysodile Oil-SchistsVanadiuCromNichelPlumbCupru
39The basic conditions thought to account for the genesis, accumulation Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTA summaryThe basic conditions thought to account for the genesis, accumulationand preservation of gas shales are present in many Europeangeological units; Many unconv. gas fields have been discovered in these units.There is a good understanding of the geological formations locatedbetween 0 and 3500 m, which are mainly of a Neogene age.Less well understood are the geological formations deeper than 3500/4000 m,which are basically pre-Neogene.Many shales with good petrophysical gas reservoir parameters existfrom the Paleozoic to the Tertiary. The best is Silurian (Paleozoic)There is a large variety of traps. The predominant type is stratigraphic (lithologic) and structural.The oil and gas fields can be considered as smallto medium in size but occurring with a remarkable frequency(comparative with US, China…)
40The questions confronting the explorationist are: Introd1.UR.Types2. Methods3.UG-Descrip4. Case-EastEur5. Out-Wells Data6.GS featuresConclusion-SWOTThe questions confronting the explorationist are:1. where are these new fields located ?2. how can they be discovered?3. would these be commercial discoveries?1. The best opportunities are in deeper than 1,500 – m seated gas shales reservoirs onshore and offshore.2. By data accumulated up to the present (reconsiderationold data according to new concept - processes, sequencestratigraphy…depositional systems….)3.The new possibilities offered by modern seismic techniquesin the field of data acquisition and data processing(3D and soft…..), improvement of new log operations….3. A refined geological interpretation……can lead to new commercial discoveries everywhere in the world.
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