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Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Prof. Dr. Nicolae Anastasiu Cor. Member of Romanian Academy - a challenge for the future -

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Presentation on theme: "Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Prof. Dr. Nicolae Anastasiu Cor. Member of Romanian Academy - a challenge for the future -"— Presentation transcript:

1 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Prof. Dr. Nicolae Anastasiu Cor. Member of Romanian Academy - a challenge for the future -

2 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Contents, Introduction 1.Unconventional Resources Types 2.Investigation methods 3.Unconventional Gas Description 4.Case Studies – Eastern Europe 5.Outcrops and wells – the Carpathians 6.Gas Shales features – the Carpathians Conclusions

3 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Conventional versus unconventional! What is difference? Petroleum system means: -Source rock for HC; Shales -Reservoir, sandstones and limestones -Seal; shales or salt -Trap Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Thermo-gas=unconv Bio-gas=conv Thermo-Gas Reservoir=unconv. modified

4 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Oil sands - McMurray Fm. model –Canada, Atabaska Gas shales – Barnett, Marcellus, Utica models Tight sand (tight gas) Methane Hydrate ( in sediments – sea, and ocean) Coal Bed Methane (CBM) = Coalbed gas = Coal seam gas (CSG) Unconventional resources – a future alternative Production in 2010 was 283 billion cubic feet per day A new technology ! Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methode 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT

5 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Shale Gas in place, by Rogner (AWR) Tcm Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methode 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT

6 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Conventional playsUnconventional plays Accumulations in medium to highly porous reservoir with sufficient permeability to allow gas to flow to Wellbore Deposits of natural gas found in relatively impermeable rock formations (tight sands, shale and coal beds) Vertical or horizontal completions Key technologies are horizontal drilling and modern fraccing techniques Production from formation matrix, natural flow Production from natural and induced fractures (e.g shales are the source rock) Permeability and porosity determine production rates and estimated ultimate recoveries Total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity and mineralogy determine reservoir and ultimate completion Development plans on a field basisDevelopment plans on a well by well Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methode 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT

7 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th Map location 2.Topo...GPS position (Lat/Long/Elev) 3. Facies descriptions 4. Boundaries, extension 5.Sampling An example...and description, related to: Investigation related to GS will be by outcrops records Objectives and methods Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methode 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT

8 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Wells Logs Investigation by Core and Well Log –records (to use in sequence analysis) Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT

9 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Oil sands (bituminous sands) Location : Canada, Kazakhstan, Rusia, Madagascar, SUA; Fort McMurray = km 2 Reserves: Canada, Alberta: 177 Md barili, Status: semisolide, viscosity is high ( centipoise) = extra heavy oil Exploitation: open pit (quarry); or pit by hundred meters - green house effect. Production: in 2006 = 1,26 mil barili/zi (44% from total in Canada; 80 new Projects) Profit = 21,75 $/barili (conventional oil=12,41$/baril) Secondary recovery- heavy metals: vanadiu, nickel, plumb, zinc, cobalt, mercur, crom, cadmiu, seleniu, cupru, mangan. 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

10 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Workers....and machineries McMurray Fm. - Oil sands Alberta 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

11 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 from Gas shales to Shale gas Location: in 48 de basins, 32 countries, cu 70 de shale formations: USA, Canada, Rusia, Venezuela, Australia, Argentina, China, Egipt…..tens to hundred km 2. Reserves: 15 Tmc mondial, UE=2,4 Tmc, China (36,1 Tmc), SUA (24,4 Tmc) si Argentina (21,9 Tmc). Status: v.low permeability-10 nanodarcy, porosity is low, brittle rocks. Depth (burrial condition): m, with slates, and black shales. Exploitation by drilling, and wells – horisontal, and hydraulic fracturing. Production: 11 Tcf (cca 4 Md m in the world; in SUA, 2010 – 20% din total ; 50% form total for 2035, 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

12 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 unconventionalconventional Introd 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methode 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Source: EIA

13 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Europe Geological Map 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

14 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 France German yHollandUKSwedenNorwayPolandHungary Romani aUcraine Reserves: Trmc - 3,1 0,571,162,355,30,541,19 Geological Age mil.y Miocene 15 Mako Miocene Shales Cretaceous 80 Weald Clay Jurasic 150 Alum Shale Posidoni a Shale Carbonifer 320 Shale Namuri an marine Shales Devonian 360 Devonia n shales Silurian 420 Bitumin ous Slate Black shales- graptolit es Black shales Cambrian 520 Alum shale Age of Gas Shales formations / Countries/Reserves 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

15 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Gas Shales – from concept to capitalisation What means Gas Shales? What properties GS have – a condition for succes! Where we can find GS in Romania? - Geological units; - Geological age; - Potential Sedimentary Formations. Synonym= isturile bituminoase = bit. slate, = argilele bituminoase, = argilele negre = black shale = argilite (=slate) etc. i, alte petrotipuri generatoate de hidrocarburi : = rocile sursă (=source rock) sau rocile mamă All with captiv natural gas. A potential for shale gas are: 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

16 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Gas Shales – What properties GS have – a condition for success!. - lutit and silt grain size; - bulk and clay mineralogy ; - silica (quartz clasts); - organic matter: kerogen, bitumen; - TOC, and Ro=vitrinite reflectance; - marin, lake or delta facies; - permeability and porosity; - petrophysic properties; - thermal maturity - joints-faults: - Geomecanic: Young Modul, Poisson Ratio....hydraulic fracture 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

17 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Where is gas locate? Microporosity, SEM Organic Matter Fluoresc enţă UV Intergranular space Intracrystal voidsMicrofractures 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

18 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Tight sands (and Tight gas ) very low permeability It is stuck in a very tight formation underground, trapped in unusually impermeable, hard rock, or in a sandstone or limestone formation that is unusually impermeable and non-porous. Location: many countries - USA, Canada, Rusia,Venezuela,Australia, Argentina, China, Egipt…..on hundred-thousand SqKm. Reserves: x 10 9 m 3, in SUA reservoires, 900 gas filelds. Status: very low permeability (1 nanodarcy), and effective porosity - in sandstones, limestones. Depth, and burial: m, versus conventional gas, la m. Extraction: by secondary recovery, with horisontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing. Production: in SUA, din wells = 2-3 Trilioane cf=0,8-1 Md m 3 /an. 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd Gas

19 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th m aquifer 3000 m-gas Tight gas 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

20 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Tight Sands CO 2 Secondary Recovery: De la 30…la 70% We can solve green house effect! 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

21 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 gas 1-C.Or 2-Pl.Mo. 3-Pl.Mold. 4-Dep.Bar. 5-Dep.Get. 6-Dep.Pann. 7-B.Trans. oil Gas shales mobile alpine regions (Carpathian chain and North Dobrogea area), intermountain basins (Transylvanian and Pannonian basins) pre-alpine cratons (Moesian, Scythian and Moldavian Platforms).

22 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Olig-Dysodile Oil-Schists The Eastern Carpathians 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd Source:Univ.Report-2011/12

23 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 I-Research and Prospecting Permit is non-exclusive; It does not assure any further exploration and/or exploitation rights. II – Exploration It is exclusive and It assures the further exploitation rights (preemption right); III - Exploitation

24 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Recognise-research Evaluation Exploration-Development High risk Low risk Cost- Documentation Prospecting Data aquisition Tests Framework development Production start Decision I Decision II Extraction Exploration and exploitation stage. Risk and cost. Environmental impact –risk studies Regulatory framework and energy policies The Carpathians area Europe USA, China etc

25 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Equipment and technology

26 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th years

27 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Conventional Unconventional – shale gas Source rock Shale thermo-gas reservoir Reservoir conv. bioGas water oil Water Aquifer – 150 m m >1000 – 5000 m 3 of water per stage = 2-3 Olympic pool

28 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Drilling Mud Composition Water-based drilling mud most commonly consists of: bentonite clay (gel) with additives such as ;bentoniteclay barium sulfatebarium sulfate (barite), calcium carbonatecalcium carbonate (chalk) or hematite.hematite Various thickeners are used to influence the viscosity of the fluid, e.g xanthan gum, guar gum, glycol, carboxymethylcellulose,thickenersviscosityxanthan gumguar gumglycolcarboxymethylcellulose polyanionic cellulose (PAC), orstarch.starch In turn, deflocculants are used to reduce viscosity of clay-based muds;deflocculants anionic polyelectrolytes (e.g. acrylates, polyphosphates, lignosulfonates ;polyelectrolytesacrylatespolyphosphateslignosulfonates (Lig) ortannic acid derivates such as Quebracho.tannic acidQuebracho

29 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 CompoundPurposeCommon application Acids Helps dissolve minerals and initiate fissure in rock Swimming pool cleaner Sodium Allows a delayed breakdown of the gel polyner Table salt Polyacrylamide Minimizes the friction between fluid and pipe Water treatment, soil conditioner Ethylene GlycolPrevents scale deposits in the pipe Automotive anti-freeze, deicing agent, household cleaners Borate Salts Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature inscreases Laundry detergent, hand soap, cosmetics Sodium / Potassium Carbonate Maintains effectiveness of other components, such as crosslinkers Washing soda, detergent, soap, water softener, glass, ceramics GlutaraldehydeEliminates bacteria in the water Disinfectant, sterilization of medical and dental equipment Guar Gum Thickens the water to suspend the sand Thickener in cosmetics, baked goods, ice cream, toothpaste, sauces Citric Acid Prevents precipitation of metal oxides Food additive, food and beverages, lemon juice Isopropanol Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid Glass cleaner, antiperspirant, hair coloring 0,05 % Aditive products

30 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 The Eastern Carpathians, BuzăuValley Olig-Dysodile Oil-Schists Vanadiu Crom Nichel Plumb Cupru CuPbZnCoNi MnMoCrBeV ScSbSnBiGe CdAgBBaGa SrAsTiZr Heavy Metals

31 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012

32 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012

33 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Natural rocks radioactivity

34 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012

35 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Hydraulic fracturing.....effect....impact: a microseismicity

36 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012

37 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Seismic scale

38 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 Monitoring – Norme- regulatory revision

39 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 A summary The basic conditions thought to account for the genesis, accumulation and preservation of gas shales are present in many European geological units; Many unconv. gas fields have been discovered in these units. There is a good understanding of the geological formations located between 0 and 3500 m, which are mainly of a Neogene age. Less well understood are the geological formations deeper than 3500/4000 m, which are basically pre-Neogene. Many shales with good petrophysical gas reservoir parameters exist from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary. The best is Silurian (Paleozoic) There is a large variety of traps. The predominant type is stratigraphic (lithologic) and structural. The oil and gas fields can be considered as small to medium in size but occurring with a remarkable frequency (comparative with US, China…) 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

40 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 The questions confronting the explorationist are: 1. where are these new fields located ? 2. how can they be discovered? 3. would these be commercial discoveries? 1. The best opportunities are in deeper than 1,500 – m seated gas shales reservoirs onshore and offshore. 2. By data accumulated up to the present (reconsideration old data according to new concept - processes, sequence stratigraphy…depositional systems….) 3.The new possibilities offered by modern seismic techniques in the field of data acquisition and data processing (3D and soft…..), improvement of new log operations…. 3. A refined geological interpretation…… can lead to new commercial discoveries everywhere in the world. 1.UR.Ty pes 2. Methods 3.UG- Descrip 4. Case- EastEur 5. Out-Wells Data 6.GS features Conclusion -SWOT Introd

41 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012 References, Anastasiu N., Branzila M., Filipescu S., Roban R., Seghedi A., Geological Report. Arhiva Dept. Mineralogy. Badics, B., Vetö. I., Source rocks and petroleum systems in the Hungarian part of the Pannonian Basin: The potential for shale gas and shale oil plays. Marine and Petroleum Geology 31, Dicea, O., 1996, Tectonic setting and hydrocarbon habitat of the Romanian external Carpathians, in Ziegler, P.A., and Horvath, F., eds., Peri-Tethys Memoir 2. Structure and prospects of Alpine basins and forelands: Memoires du Museum National dHistoire Naturelle 170, Paris, p. 403–425. Krezsek, C., Petroleum System of Romania. AAPG ER Newsletter, June 2011: 4-7 Krézsek, C., Bally, A.W., The Transylvanian Basin (Romania) and its relation to the Carpathian fold and thrust belt: insights in gravitational salt tectonics. Marine and Petroleum Geology 23, 405–442. Krézsek, C., Filipescu, S., Silye, L, Matencu, L., Doust, H., Miocene facies associations and sedimentary evolution of the Southern Transylvanian Basin (Romania): Implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Marine and Petroleum Geology 27, Krezsek, C., Lange, S., Olaru, R., Ungureanu, C., Namaz, P., Dudus, R., Turi, V Non-Conventional Plays in Romania: the Experience of OMV Petrom. SPE , SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna March, Maenco, L., Krézsek, C., Merten, S., Schmid, S.M., Cloetingh, S., Andriessen, P., Characteristics of collisional orogens with low topographic build up: an example from the Carpathians. Terra Nova 22, 155–165. Seghedi, A., Vaida, M., Iordan, M. and Verniers, J., Palaeozoic evolution of the Moesian Platform, Romania: an overview. Geologica Belgica, 8: Sachsenhofer, R.F., Koltun, Y.V., Black shales in Ukraine – a review. Marine and Petroleum Geology 31, Ştefănescu, M., Dicea, O., Butac, A., and Ciulavu, D Hydrocarbon Geology of the Romanian Carpathians, their foreland and the Transylvanian Basin. In: Golonka, J., Picha, F. (eds.), The Carpathians and their Foreland: Geology and Hydrocarbon Resources, AAPG Memoir 84: Tari, G., The divergent continental margins of the Jurassic proto-Pannonian Basin: implications for the petroleum systems of the Vienna Basin and the Moesian Platform. Transactions GCSSEPM Foundation 25th Annual Research Conference: Tari, G., Dicea, O., Faulkerson, J., Georgiev, G., Popov, S., Stefanescu, M. and Weir, G Cimmerian and Alpine stratigraphy and structural evolution of the Moesian Platform (Romania/Bulgaria). In: Andrew G. Robinson (Editor), Regional and Petroleum Geology of the Black Sea and Surrounding Regions. AAPG Memoir 68: Tari, G., Poprawa, P., and Krzywiec, P., Silurian lithofacies and paleogeography in Central and Eastern Europe: implications for shale-gas expolartion. SPE , SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Vienna March, UE-Commission Report – Unconventional Gas: Potential Energy Market Impacts in the European Union.

42 Prof.N.Anastasiu Workshop – Shale Gas – EU – Oct.9 th 2012


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