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Shipping Division 6.2 Dangerous Goods, Patient Specimens & Dry Ice

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1 Shipping Division 6.2 Dangerous Goods, Patient Specimens & Dry Ice
August 2012

2 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Topics ♦ Category A Infectious substances ♦ Category B Infectious substances ♦ Exempt patient specimens ♦ Genetically modified organisms ♦ Dry ice ♦ Liquid nitrogen dry shippers ♦ Liquid nitrogen wet shippers ♦ Limited and excepted quantities of some dangerous goods Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

3 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Course Outline Training and testing is mandatory for shippers Potential liabilities both criminal and civil This training is designed to meet the training and testing requirements as set forth in the regulations Guidance tools including flow charts for interpretation A series of quizzes to test your progress A comprehensive final exam Upon course completion, you will receive a printed training record/certificate Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

4 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Course Objectives Apply dangerous goods regulations correctly Explain the legal aspects Explain responsibilities Identify hazards both visible & hidden Decide which substances are dangerous goods Select proper packaging Properly pack dangerous goods Mark & label packages Complete shipping documentation Accept or reject shipments Know your employer's responsibilities regarding a security plan Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

5 Chapter 1 Regulations

6 Hazardous Materials Regulations
Dangerous Goods Regulations National and international regulatory bodies Harmonization Training Testing, certification and recordkeeping Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

7 Dangerous Goods Regulations
Dangerous goods can cause harm if they are involved in an accident or incident Dangerous goods, hazardous materials and hazmat all mean the same thing Regulations apply to transport of dangerous goods by air, rail, road or vessel International and national guidelines may be different Differences between regulations can cause problems Harmonization relieves these problems Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

8 International Regulation Bodies
United Nations Committee of Experts (UNCOE) UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods Model Regulations (UN Model Regulations) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) publishes Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO TI) The UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) publishes the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID) The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code published by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulates for the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) The Universal Postal Union (UPU) publishes The Letter Post Manual Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

9 United Nations Committee of Experts UNECE
UNCOE United Nations Committee of Experts UNECE The UN Economic Commission for Europe publishes the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID) ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization publishes Technical Instructions (ICAO TI) IATA DGR International Civil Aviation Organization Dangerous Goods Regulations UPU The Universal Postal Union (UPU) publishes The Letter Post Manual 49 CFR Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations TDGR Canada Transportation of Dangerous Goods Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

10 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
IATA Regulations for air transport are more restrictive Delta Airlines, United Airlines, Air Canada, Air France, Lufthansa and freight carriers such as Fed Ex, and UPS, etc. are members of IATA IATA works with the airlines to improve safety and efficiency in the transportation of dangerous goods The IATA DGR is in full compliance with the ICAO TI IATA dangerous goods regulations apply to anyone who offers a consignment of dangerous goods to an IATA member airline or air carrier (IATA DGR 1.2.1) IATA DGR are the set of guidelines for IATA members IATA is the most restrictive set of guidelines NOTE:: IATA "Must" and "shall" are used when the requirement is mandatory. "Should" and "may" are used to indicate a preferred requirement but are not binding. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

11 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
National Regulations The US Department of Transportation (DOT) publishes the Title 49 Transportation of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) Parts of the 49 CFR or Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) The HMR governs shipment of dangerous goods by air, rail, road and sea The HMR is in harmony with UN Model Regulations The HMR recognizes the ICAO TI for air shipments, as long as US variations are also followed (49 CFR ) Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

12 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
National Regulations Violations can result in a civil penalty up to $50,000 Criminal penalty up to $500,000 and/or 5 years in jail Penalties double when the violation results in serious injury or death According to United States’ 49 Code of Federal Regulations, Canada’s Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations, and IATA’s Dangerous Goods Regulations all persons handling dangerous goods must be trained. The Federal Aviation Administration currently issues a minimum penalty of $250 per violation, except training violations are subject to a $450 minimum penalty. The maximum assessment is set at $50,000 per violation per day, except $100,000 if the violation results in death, serious illness or severe injury to any person, or substantial destruction of property. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

13 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Training Who needs to be trained? ► Anyone who handles, offers for transport or transports dangerous goods Who certifies that a dangerous goods employee is trained? ► Employers are responsible for the training of those who handle, offer for transport or transport dangerous goods What sort of test is required for certification? ► Testing may be performance, written and/or verbally based Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

14 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Training There are four required areas of training General Awareness/Familiarization Training Provides familiarity with general requirements of dangerous goods regulations, and enables the employee to recognize and identify hazardous materials Function Specific Training Training that specifically addresses or is applicable to the functions the employee performs ICAO and IATA use a table to outline some of the specific aspects of the regulations that are required for different positions. Function Specific: ► In order for training to be compliant with the ICAO TI and IATA DGR each of the required areas must be included: ● General philosophy ● Limitations ● General requirements for shippers ● Classification ● List of Dangerous Goods ● Packing requirements ● Labeling and marking ● Dangerous goods transport documentation and other relevant documentation ● Recognition of undeclared dangerous goods ● Provisions for passengers and crew ● Emergency procedures Note: Even those in the transport industry who do not handle dangerous goods still need to be trained in: Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

15 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

16 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Training 3. Safety Training Each dangerous goods employee shall receive safety training in the following three areas: Emergency response information required by 49 CFR Protection from the risks associated with the hazardous materials that an employee will be working with Accident avoidance NOTE: Safety training should include standard precautions. ● Treat all potential infectious fluids as if they were infectious Note: Training conducted by employers that complies with the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen (BBP) standard (29 CFR ) may be used to satisfy the requirement for safety training. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

17 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Training Security Awareness Training Security training for appropriate hazardous material, including recognizing possible security threats Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

18 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Recordkeeping A record of training must be created and maintained for all dangerous goods employees The record must be retained for 36 months from the most recent training completion date (ICAO 1;4.25, IATA ) Retained for as long as the employee is employed and 90 days after (49 CFR (d)) The record of training must include: The employee's name; most recent completion date of the employee's training; description, copy, or the location of the training materials used to meet the requirements,; name and address of the organization providing the training; evidence that the employee has been trained and tested. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

19 Testing and Certification
The final exam at the end of this training will meet the regulatory testing requirement The training certificate provided, plus retention of this training material, constitutes a valid "record of training“ Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

20 For how long is training valid for?
ICAO/IATA require recurrent training every two years (ICAO 1;4.2.3/IATA ) Recent amendments to recurrent training (ICAO 1;4.2.3 IATA 1.5) Recurrent training that is conducted within the final 3 months of the 24-month period will be considered to have been completed on the expiry date of the 24-month period DOT requires recurrent training every three years [49 CFR (c)(2)] For example a person who completed a course on 30 June 2007 needs to complete revalidation by 30 June However the revalidation may be taken between 1 April 2009 and 30 June 2009 for the revalidation to be considered to have been completed on 30 June The next revalidation date will then be 30 June 2011 NOTE: If a regulatory change occurs that affects the functions of a dangerous goods employee, the employee must be retrained in those functions. Training must be based on the most current version of the regulations. Keep up-to-date with regulatory changes by joining Saf-T-Pak's list. CLICK HERE. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

21 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Chapter 1 Review The national and international regulatory bodies Harmonization of the regulations Training requirements Training certificates Recurrent training requirements Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

22 Introduction to Shipping
Chapter 2 Introduction to Shipping

23 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Topics to Discuss The shipper or consignor The operator or carrier The consignee or receiver Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

24 Shipper’s Responsibilities
The shipper prepares the shipment The shippers and operators have regulated responsibilities Shipper must be aware of any changes in the regulations Shipper's responsibilities include: Classification, Identification, Packaging, Marking and Labeling, Documentation, Import/Export Permits, and State and Operator variations ► Classification ● Classification is the most important part of a shipper's responsibilities ● Hazardous Material are listed by name on the List of Dangerous Goods (ICAO table 3-1, IATA table 4.2, 49 CFR table , TDGR Schedule 1 and 3, ADR/RID Chapter 3) ● Some substances are not named directly on the list. However, the substance may still be classified as a dangerous good ► Identification ● Selecting a proper shipping name ● A standardized naming system helps to remove confusion between nations ► Packaging ● Packing instructions are associated with proper shipping names ● Shippers are accountable for improperly packaged dangerous goods ► Marking and Labeling ● Hazard labels must be placed on the package ● Shippers must ensure that all appropriate marks and labels are placed on the shipment ► Documentation ● The shipper is responsible for accurate information on all shipping documents ● Advanced arrangements Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

25 Operator’s Responsibilities
Operators (carriers) move the shipment The operator is responsible for the acceptance, handling, loading, transporting and delivery Acceptance of a package by an operator transfers some liability to the operator Operators are the last line of defense against the transport of improperly prepared packages Operators use a checklist to check for errors Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

26 Operator’s Responsibilities
Operator checklist will look for proper: Documentation, Quantity, Marking and Labeling, Proper packaging for its intended use, visible leaks or damage An operator may refuse a package even if it is packed, labeled and documented correctly. ICAO 7;(i) Nothing in the regulations should be interpreted as requiring an operator to transport a particular article or substance, or, as preventing an operator from imposing special requirements on the transport of a particular article or substance. (IATA 9.1.3) NOTE: Any item that is not completed correctly will result in a rejected package. ICAO 7:1.3.1 and IATA allow small variations that do not compromise the safety of the package in transport. These errors include: ● Omissions of dots and commas in the proper shipping name ● Minor variations in hazard labels which do not affect the obvious meaning of the label Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

27 Consignee’s Responsibilities
Inspect packages upon arrival If a package of Infectious substances is damaged or leaks during transport, the consignee should report it to the proper authorities (Incident reporting is discussed in Chapter 8) Verify that the itemized list of contents is accurate NOTE: It is always a good idea to report back to the shipper upon receipt of a shipment. The consignee can help with import permits for international shipments Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

28 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Chapter 2 Review Shipper Responsibilities for: Classification, Identification, Packaging, Marking and Labeling, Documentation, Other arrangements Operator Responsibilities Suggestions for the Consignee Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

29 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Chapter 3 Classification Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

30 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Topics to Discuss Dangerous goods 9 Classes of dangerous goods Infectious substances Exemptions Dry ice Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

31 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Dangerous Goods ICAO TI 1;3.2 - dangerous goods " ... articles or substances which are capable of posing a risk to health, safety, property or the environment and which are shown in the List of Dangerous Goods in these instructions (Regulations) or which are classified according to these instructions (Regulations)"(IATA DGR 1.0) 49 CFR The DOT defines hazardous material as "… a substance or material that the Secretary of Transportation has determined is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce... The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine pollutants, elevated temperature materials, materials designated as hazardous in the Hazardous Materials Table (see 49 CFR ) NOTE: In commerce is defined as: in the public sector, in a motor vehicle, in pursuit of a commercial enterprise (government is exempt). All of these definitions have one important aspect in common: the shipper must use the definitions and classification criteria outlined in the regulations to determine whether a material is a dangerous good or not Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

32 Hidden Dangerous Goods
Unmarked, improperly packaged hidden dangerous goods have the potential to cause catastrophic problems in air transport There are numerous personnel who are specially trained at detecting hidden dangerous goods Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

33 Hidden Dangerous Goods
ICAO 7;6.1/IATA 2.2 maintains a list of common hidden dangerous goods. The list includes: Dry ice, camping equipment, repair kits, wheel chairs, diving lights, strike anywhere matches NOTE: Infectious agents, blood, body fluids, tissues, cultures and other potentially biohazardous materials must NEVER be carried onto an airplane in either checked or carry-on baggage. Camping equipment - may contain flammable gases or liquids Repair kits - may contain organic peroxides ● Wheel chairs - may contain acid or alkaline batteries Diving lights - may overheat and cause fires; in order to be carried safely, the bulb or battery must be disconnected ● Strike-anywhere matches - may self ignite if jostled Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

34 Forbidden Dangerous Goods
All infectious substances are allowed to be transported by air Since not all operators accept infectious substances, check if they will accept your shipment Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

35 List of Dangerous Goods
Many dangerous goods are listed by their common name; for example, Ethanol Proper shipping name UN number Both the proper shipping name and UN number are the same in all regulations The list is the key to dangerous good regulations List of Dangerous Goods on blue pages of ICAO TI and IATA DGR DOT list of hazardous material is found in the 49 CFR section Infectious substances are on the List of Dangerous Goods Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

36 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

37 Classes of Dangerous Goods
Class 1-Explosives Class 2-Gases Class 3-Flammable Liquids Class 4-Flammable Solids Class 5-Oxidizing Substances & Organic Peroxides Class 6-Toxic & Infectious Substances Class 7-Radioactive Materials Class8-Corrosives Class 9-Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

38

39 Classes of Dangerous Goods
If a dangerous good can be classified under two different classes, the most dangerous class is listed as the primary class and the less dangerous class is listed as the subsidiary risk NOTE: The numbers indicate the Class not the degree of danger. This training focuses on: Division Infectious substances Class 9 - Genetically modified organisms Class 9 - Dry ice Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

40 Classification of Biological Substances
Category A Infectious substances - high consequence, high containment, life-threatening pathogens Category B Infectious substances - moderately hazardous and/or potentially pathogenic substances Exempt human/animal specimens - human and animal specimens with minimal likelihood of a pathogen Unrestricted biological materials - those that are known to be free of pathogens or are expressly excepted from the regulations Genetically modified organisms and micro-organisms - non-pathogenic organisms that are capable of altering animals, plants or microbial substances in a way which is not normally the result of natural reproduction Medical or clinical waste - wastes derived from the medical treatment of animals or humans or from bio-research For shipping purposes all biological substances will fit into one of the following categories: A shipper of a biological material must properly classify their material using the categories listed above NOTE: Pathogenic Genetically modified organisms must be classified as either Category A or Category B Infectious substances. NOTE: The US DOT does not consider Genetically modified organisms to be hazardous materials for ground transport. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

41 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Key Definitions Infectious substances are substances which are known or reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in humans or animals. (ICAO 2; /IATA ) Cultures are the result of a process by which pathogens are intentionally propagated. This definition does not include patient specimens as defined below. (ICAO2; /IATA ) Key words "known or reasonably expected" to contain a pathogen. Plant pathogens are not regulated at this time Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

42 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Key Definitions Patient specimens are those collected directly from humans or animals, including but not limited to, excreta, secreta, blood and its components, tissue and tissue fluid swabs, and body parts being transported for purposes such as research, diagnosis, investigational activities, disease treatment and prevention. (ICAO 2; / IATA ) Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

43 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Key Definitions Regulations divide infectious substances into two categories, Category A and Category B. However, it is necessary to understand the following definitions before selecting categories: Category A: An infectious substance which is transported in a form that, when exposure to it occurs, is capable of causing permanent disability, life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals. The table of Indicative examples of Category A Infectious substances includes examples which meet this criteria. (ICAO 2; / IATA ) Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

44 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
The list is not exhaustive. Infectious substances which do not appear in the list but which meet the criteria, including new or emerging pathogens, must be assigned to Category A The micro-organisms written in italics are bacteria, mycoplasma, rickettsiae or fungi In addition, if there is any doubt as to whether or not a substance meets the criteria it must be included in Category A Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

45 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Key Definitions Category B: An infectious substance which does not meet the criteria for inclusion in Category A. (ICAO 6; / IATA ) NOTE: Appendix 3 in Part 2 of the TDGR contains a list of common Category A and B Infectious substances. NOTE: The ADR and RID allow for the classification of cultures of Escherichia coli, verotoxigenic, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Shigella dysenteriae type I as Category B Infectious substances when they are transported for diagnostic or clinical purposes. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

46 Exempt Patient Specimens
Patient specimens are those which are taken directly from a human or animal Patient specimens for which there is minimal likelihood that pathogens are present are not subject to these Instructions (Regulations) if the specimen is packed (properly)... and is marked with the words "Exempt human specimen" or "Exempt animal specimen", as appropriate. (ICAO 6; / IATA ) NOTE: In determining whether a patient specimen has a minimal likelihood that pathogens are present, an element of professional judgment is required to determine if a substance is exempt under this paragraph. That judgment should be based on the known medical history, symptoms and individual circumstances of the source, and endemic local conditions. NOTE: For ground shipments only, the DOT has a similar exception found in 49 CFR (b) (11). They use the words "low probability" instead of "minimal likelihood". Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

47 Examples of Exempt patient specimens include:
Blood or urine tests to monitor: Cholesterol levels, Blood glucose levels, Hormone levels, Prostate specific antigens Tests required to monitor organ functions Tests required for insurance or employment purposes Pregnancy tests Cancer biopsies Antibody detection Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

48 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
The Difference Between Category B Infectious Substances and Exempt Patient Specimens In order for a sample to be classified as an Exempt patient specimen it must fulfill two requirements: It must be a specimen taken directly from a human or animal. Cultures from patient specimens are not exempt Professional judgment has been made to confirm that it does not contain a pathogen If a patient specimen is being transported for non-diagnostic purposes and the source patient is known to be infected with a pathogen then the sample must be classified as a Category A or B Infectious substance as appropriate NOTE: Professional judgment is based on known medical history, symptoms and individual circumstances of the source and endemic local conditions. NOTE: If this judgment is not available for a patient sample then it cannot be classified as an Exempt specimen, and must be transported as a Category B Infectious substance. Exempt status only applies to those samples that are known or are reasonably expected NOT to contain a pathogen Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

49 Non-Regulated Biological Substances
Exceptions from the regulations A substance is excepted from the regulations if it does not need to be classified or packaged as a dangerous good NOTE: These exceptions do not apply to patient specimens. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

50 Non-Regulated Biological Substances (Exceptions)
Substances which do not contain infectious substances, or substances which are unlikely to cause disease in humans or animals. (ICAO 6; /IATA ) Substances which contain micro-organisms that are non-pathogenic to humans or animals. (ICAO 6; /IATA ) Substances in a form that any present pathogens have been neutralized or inactivated such that they no longer pose a health risk. (ICAO 6; /IATA ) The following is a list of substances which are excepted from the regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class: Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

51 Non-Regulated Biological Substances (Exceptions)
Environmental samples (including food and water samples) which are not considered to pose a significant risk of infection. (ICAO 6; /IATA ) Dried blood spots collected by applying a drop of blood onto absorbent material, or faecal occult blood screening tests and blood or blood components which have been collected for the purposes of transfusion or for the preparation of blood products to be used for transfusion or transplantation and any tissues or organs intended for use in transplantation. (ICAO 6; / IATA ) NOTE: Refer to 49 CFR (b) (12-16) for other exceptions such as: laundry, medical equipment and used health care products, waste other than regulated medical waste, corpses, remains, anatomical parts, forensic materials, agricultural products and food. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

52 Other Biological Material
ICAO 6;3.3 /IATA Biological products are divided into the following groups: Those which are manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of appropriate national authorities and transported for the purposes of final packaging or distribution, and used for personal health care by medical professionals or individuals. Substances in this group are not subject to these Instructions Those which do not fall under the above designation and are known or reasonably believed to contain infectious substances and which meet the criteria for inclusion in Category A or Category B Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

53 Medical or Clinical Waste
Medical or clinical waste are wastes derived from the medical treatment of animals or humans or from bio-research. Examples include: waste bandages, waste stocks and cultures, sharps waste, etc. Waste containing Category A Infectious substances must be classified as Category A infectious substances Waste containing Category B Infectious substances must be classified as Medical or Clinical wastes Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

54 Genetically Modified Organisms
Genetically modified organisms are organisms which have been purposely altered through genetic engineering in a way that does not occur naturally Genetically modified micro-organisms that can cause disease in humans or animals (pathogens) must be classified as either Category A or Category B Infectious substances and shipped accordingly Non-pathogenic genetically modified organisms that are capable of altering animals, plants or microbiological substances in a way which is not normally the result of natural reproduction are considered Class 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods NOTE: For ground shipments the U.S. DOT does not consider non-pathogenic genetically modified organisms to be classified as hazardous materials. Dry ice is classified as a Class 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous Good Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

55 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

56 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
A sample of a patient's blood containing HIV Category B A sample of a patient's blood suspected to contain Ebola virus Category A A whole kidney being sent for transplantation Not Regulated A culture of Hepatitis B from a sample of a patient's blood Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

57 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Review List of Dangerous Goods The nine classes of dangerous goods Classification of infectious substances Exemptions to the regulations Biological products and medical waste Class 9 Miscellaneous Dangerous goods Genetically modified organisms Dry ice Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

58 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Chapter 4 Identification Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

59 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Topics to Discuss List of Dangerous Goods The columns in the List of Dangerous Goods, including: Proper shipping names and UN numbers State and operator variations Special provisions Packing groups Infectious substance identification Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

60 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Proper Shipping Name A dangerous good must only be assigned one proper shipping name The proper shipping name is written in bold faced type. Portions of the entry not bolded are not considered part of the proper shipping name but are permitted Use the full name - Abbreviations are NOT allowed; Both singular or plural forms are accepted. For example: substance or substances - either is correct Generic proper shipping names n.o.s. - not otherwise specified; Flammable liquid, toxic n.o.s.; Example - a mixture of gasoline and carbon tetrachloride Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

61 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Technical Names Technical names must be entered in brackets immediately following the proper shipping name The technical name must be a recognized chemical name or name currently used in scientific and technical handbooks, journals and texts Trade names are not acceptable as a technical name Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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UN Numbers Proper shipping names and UN numbers are standard internationally Hazard labels will be discussed in Chapter 6 of this training Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

64 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Special Provisions They are found in the List of Dangerous Goods and only apply to the proper shipping name where they are listed UN 2814 Infectious substances, affecting humans - special provisions A81 and A140 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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66 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Packing Groups Packing group I - Substances presenting high danger Packing group II - Substances presenting medium danger Packing group III - Substances presenting low danger Example - Flammable liquid, toxic n.o.s. can be divided into packing group I, II or III Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

67 State and Operator Variations
ICAO and IATA allow countries (State) and airlines, air carriers, or couriers (Operator) to submit variations to the regulations. If a variation is less restrictive; it is mentioned as information only US(G)-United States, CA(G)-Canada, FR(G)-France, FX-FedEx, 5X- United Parcel Service Be aware of any variations affecting your shipment For example, a shipment of dangerous goods being sent from Mexico City, Mexico to Ottawa, Canada by United Airlines, the shipper must follow all applicable variations for Mexico, United States, Canada and United Airlines. G stands for govenrment Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

68 State and Operator Variation Examples
ES(G)-01 In domestic transport and in international transport originating in Spain, Spanish shall be used in all markings and on the Shipper's Declaration for Dangerous Goods, in addition to the language required by the States of transit and destination CA(G)-05 Infectious substances are not permitted in the mail in Canada FX-09 Division 6.2 items classified as Risk Group 4 by the World Health Organization (WHO) will not be accepted for carriage AC-01 Advanced arrangements must be made for all shipments of dangerous goods as defined in these regulations Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

69 Infectious Substance Identification
Category A has two proper shipping names UN 2814 Infectious substance, affecting humans UN 2900 Infectious substance, affecting animals Category B Infectious Substances UN 3373 Biological substance, Category B UN 2900 Infectious substance, affecting animals Infectious substances, affecting humans applies to those substances which affect both humans and animals. If an infectious substance only affects animals it is classified as UN 2900 Infectious substance, affecting animals Category A Infectious substances require a technical name. For example: UN 2814 Infectious substance, affecting humans (Bacillus anthracis) NOTE: ICAO and IATA Special Provision A140 states - For the purposes of documentation, the proper shipping name must be supplemented with the technical name. Technical names need not be shown on the package. NOTE: The proper shipping name for Category B Infectious substances does not require a technical name. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

70 Medical and Clinical Waste UN 3291
Medical or clinical wastes containing Category A Infectious substances must be assigned to UN 2814 or UN 2900 as appropriate. Medical or clinical wastes containing Infectious substances in Category B must be assigned to UN (ICAO 2; /IATA Medical or clinical wastes that are reasonably believed to have a low probability of containing Infectious substances must be assigned to UN (ICAO 2; /IATA ) Decontaminated medical or clinical wastes which previously contained infectious substances are not subject to these Instructions (Regulations) unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class. (ICAO 2; /IATA ) The proper shipping name for UN 3291 is: UN 3291 Clinical waste, unspecified, n.o.s. UN 3291 Biomedical waste, n.o.s. UN 3291 Regulated medical waste, n.o.s. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

71 Genetically Modified Organisms & Dry Ice
UN 3245 Genetically modified organism UN 3245 Genetically modified micro-organism NOTE: Genetically modified organisms are not assigned technical names. UN 1845 Dry ice UN 1845 Carbon dioxide, solid Genetically Modified Organisms or Micro-Organisms Dry ice has two acceptable proper shipping names; Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

72 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Review List of Dangerous Goods Proper shipping names, UN numbers, Hazard labels, Special provisions, Packing groups, State and operator variations Proper shipping names and UN numbers Infectious substances, Genetically modified organisms, Dry ice Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Chapter 5 Packing Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

74 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Topics to Discuss Quantity limits from the list of Dangerous Goods Packing instructions Packing - Packaging – Package Triple packaging Detailed instructions for packing: Category A Infectious substances Category B Infectious substances Exempt patient specimens Genetically modified organisms Refrigerants Small quantities of dangerous goods Overpacks Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Quantity Limits Quantity limits are per package, not per consignment Column 11 in ICAO TI (J in IATA DGR) indicates the maximum net quantity of dangerous goods per package permitted on a passenger aircraft If amount exceeds quantity in column 11 (J) it can only be loaded on a cargo aircraft Column 13 in ICAO TI (L in IATA DGR) lists the maximum quantity allowed for cargo aircraft shipments For example: Ethanol in packing group II allowed on a passenger aircraft is 5 L and 60 L per package on a cargo aircraft Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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353 364 Y341 954 954 354 365 Y342 620 620 959 959 361 352 Y341 364 366 355 Y343 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Packing Instructions ICAO/IATA both use the same format which is found in the yellow pages in the ICAO TI and the IATA DGR Column 10 and 12 indicate packing instructions. For example: 5 L of Ethanol needs to be packed according to Packing Instruction 352 The DOT packing instructions are included in a different section of the 49 CFR This training will refer to packing instructions from the ICAO TI and the IATA DGR Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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353 364 Y341 954 954 354 365 Y342 620 620 959 959 361 352 Y341 364 366 355 Y343 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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PACKING - The art and operation by which articles or substances are enveloped in wrappings and/or enclosed in packaging or otherwise secured PACKAGING - Receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function and to ensure compliance with the minimum packing requirements of these Instructions (Regulations) PACKAGE - The complete product of the packing operation consisting of the packaging and contents prepared for transport Shipper is responsible for packing A shipper must follow all the appropriate packing instructions Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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81 UN Specified Packaging
Packaging for dangerous goods needs to be strong, durable and able to withstand a reasonable amount of damage without leakage Package tests are required for dangerous goods packaging Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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"u" over "n" inside a circle 4G - Type and shape of packaging 4 – Box, 5 – Bag, G – Fibreboard, H – Plastic Y - Packing groups X - Packing groups I, II and III; Y - Packing groups II and III; Z - Packing groups III 145 - Maximum gross mass S - Solid dangerous goods or inner packagings 09-Year of manufacture US - United States PACK1-765 – Manufacturer The example is a fibreboard box, Gross maximum of 145 kilograms, Packing groups II or III, Solid dangerous goods or inner packagings, PACK1, United States, 2009 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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NOTE: The UN specification mark for Category A Infectious substances is slightly different than other UN specification marks. Packing groups do not apply to infectious substances and the package design tests are different than other dangerous goods. Therefore the UN specification mark contains the words Class 6.2, referencing that the package meets the requirements for infectious substance packaging. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

84 Exceptions for Small Quantities
Small amount of certain dangerous goods can be shipped as exceptions to the regulations Excepted Quantity Small quantity exceptions allows shipments of some biological specimens in ethanol or formalin NOTE: There are no small quantity exceptions for infectious substances. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Limited Quantity Many dangerous goods can be safely carried with relaxed standards for packaging when in small or "limited" amounts These are referred to as "Limited Quantities" or "LTD QTY". Some dangerous goods can be carried as limited quantities only under the following conditions: They are identified as such on the List of Dangerous Goods The completed package is under the volume or mass limit listed for LTD QTY They comply with all the appropriate limited quantity packing, marking and labeling requirements For example: Limited quantity of ethanol - up to 1 L, Packing Instruction Y305 NOTE: There are no limited quantity provisions for: Infectious Substances or Dry Ice Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Triple Packaging A leak-proof primary receptacle (such as a sealed cryovial, test tube, etc.) A leak-proof secondary receptacle Sufficient absorbent to be placed inside the secondary (if the sample is solid no absorbent is necessary) Rigid outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, weight and intended use NOTE: Triple packaging is even recommended for unregulated shipments of biological materials. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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88 PI 620- Category A Infectious Substances
Packages must be in good condition and present no hazard The infectious substance must be packed in triple packaging Multiple fragile primary receptacle(s) must be wrapped individually Itemized list of contents placed between the secondary and rigid outer packaging Primary or secondary can withstand an internal pressure of 95 kPa and a temperature range of -40°C to 55°C (-40°F to 130°F) At least 100 mm (4 inches) in smallest external dimension IATA adds that the name and telephone number of a person responsible be marked on the outside of the package Must have UN specification mark Here is a brief video outlining some of the requirements of the packing instructions Show chapter 5 slide 8 NOTE: Special Provision A81- The quantity limits shown for Category A Infectious substances do not apply to body parts, organs or whole bodies. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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90 PI 650- Category B Infectious Substances
Good quality packaging Sample must be packed in triple packaging Itemized list of contents between the secondary and outer packaging Multiple fragile primary receptacle(s) must be wrapped individually Primary or secondary containers can withstand an internal pressure of 95 kPa and a temperature range of -40°C to 55°C (-40°F to 130°F) Primary receptacle(s) cannot exceed 1 L and entire package is limited to 4 L or 4 kg for solid substances. At least 100 mm (4 inches) in two dimensions Outer packaging or air waybill marked with the name and telephone number of a person responsible NOTE: Packing Instruction 650 allows for shippers of Category B Infectious substances to exceed the quantity limit if the sample is a body part, organ or whole body. NOTE: Category B packages do not need the UN specification mark. Here is a brief video outlining some of the requirements of the packing instructions Chapter 5 slide 9 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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92 Packaging for Exempt Patient Specimens
The package must consist of three components: A leakproof primary receptacle A leakproof secondary receptacle An outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, mass and intended use and at least one surface having minimum dimensions of 100 x 100 mm For liquid patient specimens, absorbent material in sufficient quantities to absorb the entire contents. The absorbent material must be placed between the primary and secondary packaging. Multiple fragile primaries must be wrapped individually Packing instructions for Exempt patient specimens are outlined in ICAO (IATA ) There are no quantity limits for exempt patient specimens Exempt patient specimen packaging does not need a UN specification mark Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Other Dangerous Goods Other dangerous goods must not be sent with infectious substances Exception - if the dangerous good is necessary to maintain the viability, stabilizing or preventing degradation or neutralizing the hazards of the infectious substance Packing Instruction mL or less, per primary receptacle, of preservatives in Classes 3, 8 or 9 may be shipped with Category A Infectious substances Packing Instruction mL or less, per primary receptacle, of preservative in Classes 3, 8 or 9 may be shipped with Category B Infectious substances The dangerous goods must be found in Classes 3, 8 or 9 The quantity of these dangerous goods must be less than 30 mL per primary receptacle(s) NOTE: They are not considered hidden or undeclared. Other dangerous goods over 30 mL per primary are subject to the regulations NOTE: It may be shipped as a limited quantity. The small quantity exception does not apply to Exempt patient specimens Any quantity of other dangerous goods must be declared when packed with exempt patient specimens NOTE: If the quantity is small enough it may be shipped an excepted quantity or limited quantity. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

94 PI 959 – Genetically Modified Organisms
Packing Instruction Packed according to Packing Instruction 620 without testing or UN specification mark Packages must be in good condition and present no hazard The package must consist of three components: Leak-proof primary receptacle(s) (such as a sealed cryovial, test tube, etc.) Leak-proof secondary packaging Rigid outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, weight and intended use There are no package quantity limits for Genetically modified organisms NOTE: IATA requires the name and telephone number of a person responsible on the outside of the package. Leak-proof primary receptacle(s) (such as a sealed cryovial, test tube, etc.) Multiple fragile primary receptacle(s) must be wrapped individually The quantity per primary receptacle(s) must not exceed 100 mL or 100 g Leak-proof secondary packaging Primary or secondary can withstand an internal pressure of 95 kPa and a temperature range of -40°C to 55°C (-40°F to 130°F) Sufficient absorbent to be placed inside the secondary (if the sample is solid no absorbent is necessary) Rigid outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, weight and intended use At least 100 mm (4 inches) in smallest external dimension Itemized list of contents placed between the secondary and outer packaging NOTE: ICAO/IATA will be changing the packing instructions for Genetically modified organisms effective Jan 01, 2011. ● Only the packing instruction number will change from 913 to 959 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Refrigerants & Dry Ice Place refrigerants outside the secondary receptacle Wet ice is not recommended Packing Instruction Secondary receptacle shall be secured within the outer package to maintain the original position of the inner packages after the dry ice has dissipated NEVER PLACE DRY ICE IN A SEALED CONTAINER The packaging must permit the release of carbon dioxide gas Allow ventilation for packages containing dry ice NOTE: Effective Jan 01, 2011, the ICAO/IATA packing instructions will be changing for dry ice from 904 to 954. NOTE: There are no regulatory differences between Packing Instructions 904 and 954. Wet ice must be contained in a leak-proof containers Video on chapter 5 slide 13 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Division 2.2 Non-Flammable, non-toxic gas There are two options for using liquid nitrogen as a refrigerant: Dry shipper and free standing. Dry shipper - liquid nitrogen is fully absorbed in porous material, package design does not allow pressure build-up and no release of liquid nitrogen regardless of orientation Free standing liquid nitrogen must be classified as Division 2.2 Dangerous Good UN 1977 Nitrogen, refrigerated liquid ICAO/IATA provision A152. Dry shippers are excepted from all the packaging, marking, labeling and documentation requirements for the liquid nitrogen IATA - "Not Restricted" and A152 must appear on the shipping document to indicate that it has been checked and the packaging meets the regulations Packing Instruction 202 gives directions for both open and closed cryogenic receptacles Open receptacles must be metal vacuum insulated vessels or flasks, vented to the atmosphere Closed receptacles must be tested, certified and permanently marked stating that they meet the prescribed regulations Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Gel Packs Gel packs are not regulated and may be reused The selection of gel packs will depend upon circumstances including: The specimen requirements The desired temperature range The travel time Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

98 Excepted (Small) Quantities
Column 9 gives excepted quantity code The following requirements must be met in the packaging of excepted quantities: Inner packagings - Glass, porcelain, stoneware, earthenware, metal or plastic The intermediate packagings must contain the contents without leakage, regardless of orientation For liquids - Sufficient absorbent material to absorb the entire contents should leakage occur. The absorbent may also act as cushioning The intermediate packaging must be secured in strong, rigid outer packaging (wood, fibreboard, or equally strong material). The package must be of sufficient size to contain all necessary marks NOTE: For liquids the plastic must be not less than 0.2 mm thick. The closures must be secured and must be leakproof It must be securely placed in an intermediate packaging or cushioning in such a way that, under normal conditions of transport they cannot break, be punctured or leak contents Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

99 Shipping dangerous goods in excepted quantities
Applicable to shipments where each inner receptacle contains, in general, no more than 30 ml or 30 g, and each complete package contains, in general, no more than 500 ml or 500 g. There are no shipping papers required, the box is a normal inexpensive one that can pass a drop test and stacking test, and there is just one label to be applied to the outside of the box: Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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364 355 Y344 366 E0 - Not permitted as an excepted quantity E1-E5 - Allowed as excepted quantities; however the quantities will differ based on code E2 - Up to 30 g/mL per inner container and a maximum of 500 g/mL per outer package Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Limited Quantities Used when a shipper needs to ship small quantities of dangerous goods which are not permitted, or have exceeded the quantity of, the Excepted quantity provisions. Acceptable for some products of some hazardous goods 'Classes' and some 'Packing Groups' that contain very small quantities of dangerous goods. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

102 Shipping dangerous goods in limited quantities
Applicable to shipments where each inner receptacle contains, in general, no more than 0.5 L or 0.5 kg, and each complete package contains, in general, no more than 1 L or 1 kg. The Shipper's Declaration for Dangerous Goods is required. The box may be a normal, inexpensive one that can pass a drop test and stacking test. The box must be marked with the Proper Shipping Name and UN Number. In addition, the box must bear the Dangerous Goods in Limited Quantities label (technically a mark but best purchased from a label printing company): Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Limited Quantities Limited Quantities are found on the List of Dangerous Goods. The Packing Instructions start with the letter Y Combination packaging - inner and outer packaging Packing instructions - maximum quantity limits per inner container. List of Dangerous Goods - outer package quantity limits Limited quantity packages do not need to have the UN specification mark. However they do require a mark indicating that they have successfully passed the required tests. Limited quantity or LTD QTY For example: Ethanol packing group II - 1 L per package Inner container mL Outer packagings Boxes made from aluminum, fibreboard, plywood, reconstituted wood, solid plastics, steel and wood Drums made from aluminum, fibre, plastic, plywood or steel Jerricans made from aluminum, plastic or steel Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Packing Design Tests Includes all aspects of the package - inner and outer packagings The package manufacturer will have this information There are three main package tests: Stacking tests Puncture tests Drop tests Before any drop test is performed the package must be preconditioned in the following ways A water spray of 5 cm/hr for at least 1 hour In an atmosphere of -18C for a period of 24 hours NOTE: If the package is intended to contain dry ice additional preconditioning is required. Five identical packages must be used for the drop test and each one must be dropped in a different orientation after preconditioning: Flat on base Flat on top Flat on longest side Flat on shortest side On a corner Category A Infectious Substances Packaging must meet the design type testing requirements including: Drop test of 9 m A puncture test with a steel rod weighing 7 kg dropped from a height of 1 m with the intent to rupture the primary container Packaging is certified if it can survive these tests without any leakage from the primary receptacle Category B Infectious Substances Package must be capable of surviving a drop test at a height of 1.2 m without leakage from the primary receptacle(s) Packaging is qualified if it can survive these tests without any leakage from the primary receptacle Dry ice There are no specific packing tests for packages containing only dry ice If the package contains other dangerous goods which do require a drop test Store the package until all dry ice dissipates, then subject it to the drop test Excepted Quantities The package must be able to withstand a stacking test of a force applied to the top of the package equal to the total weight of identical packages if they are stacked 3 m high The stacking test must be carried out for 24 hours Drop test of 1.8 m Limited Quantities Stacking test-equivalent to identical packages stacked to 3 m for 24 hours The completed package must be able to withstand a drop test of 1.2 m A test is considered successful if the outer package does not exhibit any damage liable to affect safety during transport and there must be no leakage from the inner packagings Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Overpacks Overpack means an enclosure that is used by a single shipper to provide refrigeration, protection or convenience in the handling of a package or to consolidate two or more packages NOTE: Any package placed in a overpack must be completely compliant with the required regulations for the substance to be shipped. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Examples of Overpacks Placed in a protective outer packaging, such as a box or crate Placed into an insulated chest and surrounded with gel packs, dry ice or other refrigerant Placed or stacked onto a load board such as a pallet and secured by strapping, shrink wrapping, stretch wrapping or other suitable means There are no packing or testing requirements for overpacks A simple cardboard box could be used as an overpack. If two packages were taped together, the tape would be considered an overpack The overpack should have sufficient strength for the weight of contents Video on chapter 5 slide 17 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Proper Packaging Improper packing voids UN specification mark If a package is certified with plastic primaries, glass primaries are not allowed Do not substitute one manufacturer's secondary with another manufacturer's outer packaging NOTE: Once again the shipper will be held responsible for improperly prepared packages or non-compliant packages. Particularly important for shipments of Category A Infectious substances Packing Instruction 602 requires certified packaging to be used as it was designed and tested Carefully read manufacturer's instructions for UN certified packages Manufacturer must keep package test reports on file Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Common Packing Errors Not properly closing/sealing primary and secondary containers Not providing enough absorbent or no absorbent at all Forgetting to include an itemized list of contents Not reading/following the packaging manufacturer's instructions provided with the packaging Using the packaging in a way that has not been tested or certified (Mixing components from different manufacturers results in a non-tested and non-certified packing design.) Exceeding the quantity limits for the package Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Reuse of Packages ICAO/IATA "Before an empty package which had previously contained an infectious substance is returned to the shipper, or sent elsewhere, it must be thoroughly disinfected or sterilized and any label or marking indicating that it had contained an infectious substance must be removed or obliterated." Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Review Quantity limits from the List of Dangerous Goods Packing instructions UN specified packaging Small quantities of dangerous goods Triple packaging Packing Instruction 620 Category A Infectious substances Packing Instruction 650 Category B Infectious substances Exempt patient specimens Packing Instruction 959 Genetically modified organisms Refrigerants Packing Instruction 954 Dry ice Liquid nitrogen Overpacks Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Chapter 6 Marking and Labeling Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Topics to Discuss Correct marking and labeling information including: Hazard labels Handling labels Overpacks Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Marks and Labels Markings and labels must be durable and visible Each package must display the following information on the outer packaging: Complete address of the shipper and consignee The name and telephone number of a person responsible Appropriate hazard label(s) for each dangerous good Proper shipping name for each dangerous good NOTE: The technical name for a Category A shipment need not be shown on the package (See special provision A140). UN identification number for each dangerous good adjacent to the proper shipping name Quantity of the dangerous goods ( required for GMOs and dry ice) NOTE: Required for Category A shipments and LTD QTY. Labels are to be placed adjacent to the proper shipping name & UN number All marks and labels on one side of packages (size permitting) The name and telephone number of a person responsible NOTE: Required for Category A shipments. NOTE: Required for Category B shipments if it is not on the air way bill. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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118 Hazard and Handling Labels
Hazard labels are squares set at an angle of 45 degrees or diamond-on-point The dangerous goods class number must be placed at the bottom of the diamond. The division number is not required Handling Labels: Direct handling procedures - For example: Orientation arrows Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

119 Category A Infectious Substances
Label name: Infectious substance - Minimum dimensions: 100 × 100 mm (for small packages: 50 × 50 mm) - Number of labels per package: One - Color: Black and white The label should also contain the following text: INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCE In case of damage or leakage immediately notify a Public Health Authority in U.S.A notify director-CDC, Atlanta GA Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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121 Category B Infectious Substances Marking
Category B substances require a mark rather than a hazard label Minimum dimensions: 50 × 50 mm - Line thickness at least 2 mm UN3373 must be at least 6 mm in height - Number of marks per package: One - Color: Any contrasting color NOTE: The mark fulfills the requirement for the UN number so the package only requires the proper shipping name Biological substances, Category B. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Exempt patient specimens Marking of Exempt patient specimen packages as "Exempt human specimen" or "Exempt animal specimen“ Hazard label for Class 9 Miscellaneous dangerous goods Label Name: Miscellaneous hazard label - Minimum dimensions: 100 × 100 mm (for small packages: 50 × 50 mm) - Number of labels per package: One - Color: Black on white Hazard label for free liquid nitrogen Label name: Non-flammable, non-toxic gas - Minimum dimensions: 100 x 100 mm - Number of labels per package: One - Color: Green with black or white gas cylinder NOTE: Required for both open and closed receptacles. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Package Orientation Label name: Orientation label - Minimum dimensions: Standard A7: 74 × 105 mm - Number per package: Two on opposite sides - Color: Black and white or red and white (on a contrasting background) NOTE: For infectious substances the orientation arrows are only required when the primary receptacle exceeds 50 mL. If primary containers exceed 50 mL then the closures of the primaries must be oriented with the orientation arrows. NOTE: The words "THIS SIDE UP" or "THIS END UP" may also be displayed on the top cover of the package. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

124 Cargo Aircraft Only Label
Label name: Cargo Aircraft Only - Minimum dimensions: 120 x 110 mm (for small packages of infectious substances dimensions may be halved) - Color: Black on orange NOTE: Until Jan 01, 2009 the CAO label contained the words "Do not load in passenger aircraft". Both labels will be accepted until Jan 01, 2013 at which time only the label with the words "Forbidden on passenger aircraft" will be accepted. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

125 Handling Labels for Free Liquid Nitrogen
"KEEP UPRIGHT" must be placed in 120° intervals or on all sides Mark clearly "DO NOT DROP-HANDLE WITH CARE" Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

126 Keys to Marking and Labeling
Try to keep all required marks and labels on one face of the package Hazard labels should be placed in the diamond-on-point orientation Proper shipping name, UN number and net weight (or quantity) must be marked adjacent to corresponding hazard label Be sure to obliterate, remove, or completely cover any irrelevant marks or labels Do not write on or cover any portion of the hazard label within the diamond portion of the label Use the version of all hazard labels applicable for the country of origin Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

127 Marking and Labeling for Excepted Quantities
This label is an "E" inside a circle. The circle is inside a box of red hatchings. The "E" and circle are also in red Under the "E" the class or division of dangerous good is placed to indicate a basic risk If the shipper's name and address are not on the package, they are included on the mark under the class or division Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

128 Marking and Labeling for Limited Quantities
Shipper and consignee address Limited quantity mark All pertinent hazard labels UN number UN XXXX adjacent to the hazard label UN number in a diamond-on-point orientation - Line width: Minimum: 2 mm - Letter size: Minimum 6 mm Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

129 Marking and Labeling of Overpacks
Each package in an overpack must be packed, marked, labeled and addressed individually NOTE: Each package must be fully compliant with the regulations before it can be placed in an overpack. If the marks and labels on the inner packages are not visible they must be reproduced on the exterior of the overpack The quantity marked on the overpack is the sum of the packages inside of the overpack for identical dangerous goods When labels are reproduced the word "Overpack" must be included For example, if clear shrink-wrap is used to consolidate several packages and the marks and labels are visible through the shrink-wrap then further marking and labeling of the overpack shrink-wrap is not necessary NOTE: Do not reproduce the UN specification mark on the outside of an overpack. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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You are shipping 60 mL culture of Hepatitis B virus. What marks and labels are required? Infectious substance affecting humans UN 2814 Cargo aircraft only 60 mL Person responsible Class 6 label UN specification Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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You are shipping a 20 mL blood sample obtained directly from a patient who has tested positive for HIV. What marks and labels are required on the package? UN 3373 Label Person responsible ( if not on waybill) Biological substance, Category B Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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You are shipping a 3L sample of human blood to test for glucose levels. It has been determined that the sample does not contain any pathogens. What marks and labels are required on the package? Exempt human specimen Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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You are shipping a 3L sample of human blood to determine if it contains Herpes B virus. The sample is being sent with 7 kg of dry ice to keep the sample frozen. What marks and labels are required on the package? UN 3373 Label Person responsible ( if not on waybill) Biological substance, Category B UN 1845 Dry Ice 7kg Class 9 label Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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You are shipping a tissue sample from a dog to test for cancer. The sample is not infectious but it is being sent in 60mL of formalin. What marks and labels are required on the package? Exempt animal specimen UN 1198 Formaldehyde solution, flammable 60 mL Class 3 label Corrosive label LTD QTY Label Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Review Hazard labels Handling labels Overpacks Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Chapter 7 Documentation Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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Topics to Discuss General Information Shipping Document Waybills Examples Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

138 Shipping Documentation
Dangerous goods shipments require documentation unless otherwise specified Shipper must prepare three copies: 1 - Consignor, 2 - Operator, 3 – Consignee NOTE: Some carriers may require more than three copies. Both the carrier and the shipper must maintain these records for two years ICAO, ADR and RID - Transport document DOT - Shipping paper IATA - Shipper's Declaration for Dangerous Goods Note: This training will refer to the shipping document by the IATA term "Shipper's Declaration". Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

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140 Shipper’s Declaration not needed for:
UN 3373 Biological substance, Category B Exempt human specimens Exempt animal specimens UN 1845 Dry ice NOTE: When dry ice is used as a refrigerant for dangerous goods which require a Shipper's Declaration, the shipper must include dry ice in the declaration. Excepted Quantities Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

141 Preparing the Shipper's Declaration
Complete all the information on the form Ensure that the information on the form is accurate, easy to identify, legible and durable Ensure that the information on the form exactly matches the information on the package Including addresses, weight, proper shipping name, etc. Only trained and certified persons may sign the form The person who signs the form does not need to be the same as the person listed in the shipper's address box Mistakes may be amended by drawing a single line through the incorrect text, making the change and then signing (full signature, not initials) next to the change. Do not use correction fluid The diagonal hatchings printed vertically in the left and right margins must be printed in red ink There are only three areas that can be left blank by the shipper which may be completed or amended by the operator: Waybill number, Airport of departure, Airport of destination NOTE: Fed Ex requires the form to be computer generated or typewritten (see FX-12). NOTE: IATA will allow shippers to use electronic data transmission of the information required on the Shipper's Declaration in lieu of a paper document, provided that the shipper has the agreement of the operator. Ensure that the shipment has been prepared in accordance with the regulations (see the declaration statement at the end of the form) The signature for the corrections must match the signature on the bottom of the document IATA The declaration form may be printed in black or red on white paper, or it may be printed in red ink only on white paper NOTE: The declaration form must be completed in the English language. The English wording may be accompanied by an accurate translation in another language (IATA ). Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

142 Shipper’s Declaration
If the Shipper’s Declaration is not 100% correct, it is wrong and operators will not accept your shipment. Enter the name and address of the shipper. A phone number is not required, but recommended. Enter the full name and deliverable address of the consignee. A PO Box is not acceptable. Enter the waybill number if it is known. This box may be left blank as the operator may enter or amend as needed. The pages section is the number of pages needed to record or list all of the dangerous goods in the consignment, not the number of copies. For infectious substance shipments, it should always be page 1of 1 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

143 Shipper’s Declaration
Aircraft Limitation-If the package exceeds passenger aircraft limitations, the “Passenger and Cargo Aircraft” section must be crossed out. Airport of Departure- Full name of airport of departure (if known) Airport of Destination- Full name of airport of destination (if known) Shipment Type- cross out “Radioactive”. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

144 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

145 Nature and Quantity of Goods
The info should be transferred from the List of Dangerous Goods Enter the four digit UN ID Number for each dangerous good in the consignment. Enter the Proper Shipping Name,. A technical name in parenthesis is required by most authorities. Enter the class and division. Enter the Packing Group if it is applicable if, not applicable, leave it blank. Do not forget the UN. Division 6.2 forInfectious substances Class 9 for genetically modified organisms or Dry ice Packing groups do not apply to infectious substances or genetically modifed organisms Enter the roman numeral III for dry ICe Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

146 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

147 Nature and Quantity of Goods
Enter the total quantity of the consignment. For a single package, it will be the net weight or volume of the infectious substance and must match the quantity previously marked on the package. Type of package refers to the material of the outer packaging. Most infectious substance packages will be fibreboard. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

148 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

149 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Enter the Packaging Instruction used. If you have used a special provision, then the number must be indicated in the authorization section LTD QTY packing instructions start with Y Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

150 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
In the additional handling information, enter the name and number of the person responsible for the shipment. The 24 hour number must be monitored at all times while the dangerous good is in transportation by a person who is: Knowledgeable of the hazards and characteristics of the dangerous goods being transported. Has comprehensive emergency response and accident information for the dangerous good or who has immediate access to a person who possesses such knowledge and info. The words “Emergency Contact or 24 hour Number” must be written. A name is not required. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

151 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

152 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Enter the name and title of the person signing the shipper’s declaration Enter the city and date This person is certifying that all regulations have been met. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

153 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

154 20mL culture of Hepatitis B virus in a fibreboard box?
UN 2814 Infectious substance affecting humans (Hepatitis B virus) 6.2 I fibreboard box x 20mL 620 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

155 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
5 L shipment of non-pathogenic Genetically modified organism packed in a fibreboard box? UN 3245 Genetically Modified organism Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

156 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Waybills This document can be completed by the shipper or the operator If the waybill contains information on both dangerous goods and non-dangerous goods, the dangerous goods must be listed first (ICAO 5;4.2/ IATA 8.2) Waybills for dangerous goods shipments must include, in the Handling Information Box, the statements: "Dangerous Goods per attached Shipper's Declaration" or "Dangerous Goods per attached DGD" (Dangerous Goods Document) "Cargo Aircraft Only" or "CAO" (as applicable) Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

157 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
If a shipment does not require a Shipper's Declaration, then the nature and quantity of goods section on the waybill must contain: UN number Proper shipping name Class or division number Number of packages Net quantity per package For example: UN 1845 Dry ice, 5 kg, Class 9 Check-off boxes containing the correct information are acceptable NOTE: For Category B shipments the waybill needs to contain the following information: UN 3373 Biological substances, Category B and the number of packages. NOTE: For Excepted Quantities the waybill requires-"Dangerous Goods in Excepted Quantities". Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

158 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Review General Information Shipper’s Declaration for Dangerous Goods Waybills Need for accurate, neat, legible entries Shipper’s checklist Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

159 Emergency Response and Security Training
Chapter 8 Emergency Response and Security Training Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

160 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Topics to Discuss Emergency Response Guidebook Reporting of spills or emissions Response to fire Incident reporting General security awareness Security training Security plans Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

161 Emergency Response Information
More information is now needed along with the 24 Hour Emergency Response telephone number. Now, you must include the contractor name and customer number. Again, besides a 24 Hour Emergency Response number, DOT requires you to provide additional emergency response information in a manner that is available for use when away from the package containing the hazardous material. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

162 Emergency Response Information
To comply with this requirement, either provide the MSDS for the material along with your shipping paper (DDG) or provide the proper emergency response guide book pages for your material based upon its UN number. In either case, whether you use the MSDS or the ERG pages, the following information must be present: The basic description and technical name of the hazardous material, Immediate hazards to health , Risks of fire or explosion, Immediate precautions to be taken in the event of an accident or incident , Immediate methods for handling fires, Initial methods for handling spills or leaks in the absence of fire, Preliminary first aid measures Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

163 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
If you use the ERG guide book pages to meet the above requirements then you need to indicate the "basic description and technical name of the hazardous material" (its proper shipping name and UN number) on the guide book pages. Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

164 Emergency Response Guidebook
Transport Canada, U.S. DOT, the Secretary of Transport and Communications of Mexico with collaboration from the Centro de Información Química para Emergencias of Argentina have developed an Emergency Response Guidebook This book is used by fire fighters, ambulance, police and other emergency services personnel who may be the first to respond to a dangerous goods accident and incident Potential hazards - public safety, fire, spills, leaks and first aid 3 key color-coded sections Orange pages contain emergency response information. Click Here for a full size version of the orange page example. Each instruction is assigned a guide number The first two sections of the guidebook are similar to the List of Dangerous Goods The yellow pages list dangerous goods by their UN number. Click Here for a full size version of the yellow page example. The blue pages list dangerous goods by their proper shipping name. Click Here for a full size version of the blue page example. Both lists indicate the reference or guide number in the corresponding orange pages For example: UN 3373 Biological substances, Category B -reference number 158 Simple errors in proper shipping name and UN number could lead to incorrect emergency response For example: UN 3373 Biological substances, Category B and UN Toxic flammable liquid This is one of the many reasons operators need to be vigilant in their efforts to detect and reject improperly prepared shipments of dangerous goods Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

165 Emergency Response Procedures
Avoid handling the package Handle only while wearing protective clothing Inspect adjacent packages for contamination and set them aside Inform the appropriate public health or veterinary authority Provide information on any other countries of transit Inform the local authorities, the consignor, consignee and the person responsible Contact the appropriate national authority In the United States the reporting number is the Director-CDC Atlanta Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

166 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Spills, Leaks or Fires Do not touch or walk through the spilled material. Do not touch damaged containers or spilled materials Absorb the spill with earth, sand or other non-combustible material Cover the damaged package or spilled material with a damp towel or rag Keep it wet with liquid bleach or other disinfectant Small fire - Use a dry chemical, soda ash, lime or sand Larger fire - Use an extinguishing agent suitable for the type of surrounding fire Move containers from the fire area DO NOT scatter any spilled material with high-pressure water streams Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

167 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
First Aid If possible, move the victim to a safe, isolated area Call emergency medical care if required Remove contaminated clothing and shoes Immediately flush the victim's skin or eyes with running water for at least 20 minutes Effects of exposure to the substance, be it inhalation, ingestion or skin contact, may be delayed The victim may be a source of contamination Ensure that any medical personnel are made aware of the material involved so they can take precautions Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

168 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Incident Reporting ICAO 7;4.4 An operator must report dangerous goods accidents and incidents to the appropriate authorities of the state of the operator and the state in which the accident or incident occurred in accordance with the reporting requirements of those appropriate authorities. (IATA 9.6.1) The DOT requirements for incident reporting are found in 49 CFR and An incident report will require the following information: Name and address of the person presenting the report Phone number where the reporter can be contacted Date, time and location of the incident The extent of any injuries and the number of affected individuals Class or division, proper shipping name, UN number and quantity of dangerous goods involved in the incident Description of the condition of the packaging The number of individuals evacuated if necessary U.S. Incident Reporting Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

169 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Security Awareness Dangerous goods have and can cause major incidents with loss of life, property and environmental damage Intentional misuse of dangerous goods Strict security measures are recommended ICAO 1;5.1.1 International regulations dictate that any individual who handles dangerous goods should consider security requirements for dangerous goods according to their responsibilities (IATA ) The DOT requires that each hazmat employee must receive training that provides an awareness of security risks associated with hazardous materials transportation and methods designed to enhance transportation security [49 CFR (4)] ICAO 1; Dangerous goods should only be offered to operators that have been appropriately identified (IATA ) ICAO 1;5.2.2 Security awareness training is recommended (IATA ) Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

170 Security Awareness Training
ICAO 1; 5.2 The nature of security risks Recognition of security risks Methods to address and reduce such risks Actions to be taken in the event of a security breach (IATA 1.6.2) Including security plans (if appropriate) Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

171 Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)
Security Plans Category A Infectious substances are High Consequence Dangerous Goods This means they have a high potential for misuse in a terrorist incident and which may result in or produce serious consequences such as mass casualties or mass destruction (ICAO 1; IATA ) Any shipper or operator who handles and/or transports high consequence dangerous goods should adopt a security plan to guard against potential incidents Tulane University - Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS)

172 Take Quiz To complete your training, please click on the “take quiz” box above or use this direct test link: https://audubon.tulane.edu/ehs/enterssn.cfm?testnum=109 Tulane University Office of Environmental Health & Safety (OEHS) Please contact Kellie C. Mayer (504) for questions and/or interactive discussion.


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