Presentation on theme: "Public Goods and Common Resources. Introduction We consume many goods without paying: parks, national defense, clean air & water. When goods have no prices,"— Presentation transcript:
Introduction We consume many goods without paying: parks, national defense, clean air & water. When goods have no prices, the market forces that normally allocate resources are absent. The private market may fail to provide the socially efficient quantity of such goods.
Characteristics of the Goods A good is excludable if a person can be prevented from using it. A good is rival in consumption if one persons use of it diminishes others use. A public good is a commodity for which use of a good by one agent does not preclude its use by other agents.
Rival in consumption? YesNo Excludabl e? Yes Private Goods §ice-cream cones §garbage §congested toll roads Club Goods §fire protection §cable TV §uncongested toll roads No Common Resources §fish in the ocean §the environment §congested nontoll roads Public Goods §national defense §knowledge §uncongested nontoll roads
A road is which of the four kinds of goods? Hint: The answer depends on whether the road is congested or not, and whether its a toll road or not. Consider the different cases. Categorizing roads 5
Rival in consumption? Only if congested. Excludable? Only if a toll road. Four possibilities: Uncongested non-toll road: public good Uncongested toll road: natural monopoly Congested non-toll road: common resource Congested toll road: private good Answers 6
Notes on public vs. private goods Private goods can be publicly provided: education, public health program, welfare program Public goods can be privately provided: lobbying, protection system, newspaper, The Nature Conservancy
8 Free Rider Problem Public goods and common resources are difficult for private markets to provide because of the free-rider problem. Free rider: a person who receives the benefit of a good but avoids paying for it – If good is not excludable, people have incentive to be free riders, because firms cannot prevent non-payers from consuming the good. Result: The good is not produced, even if buyers collectively value the good higher than the cost of providing it.
9 The Tragedy of the Commons A parable that illustrates why common resources get used more than is socially desirable. Setting: a medieval town where sheep graze on common land. As the population grows, the # of sheep grows. The amount of land is fixed, the grass begins to disappear from overgrazing. The private incentives (using the land for free) outweigh the social incentives (using it carefully). Result: People can no longer raise sheep.
EXTERNALITIES14 Easter Island Mystery The stone images at first caused us to be struck with astonishment, because we could not comprehend how it was possible that these people, who are devoid of heavy thick timber for making any machines, as well as strong ropes, nevertheless had been able to erect such images, which were fully 30 feet high and thick in proportion. –Jacob Reggeveen
EXTERNALITIES15 Private Solutions to Externalities and Common Resources The Coase theorem: If private parties can costlessly bargain over the allocation of resources, they can solve the externalities problem on their own by given property rights.
EXTERNALITIES16 The Coase Theorem: An Example Dick owns a dog named Spot. Negative externality: Spots barking disturbs Jane, Dicks neighbor. The socially efficient outcome maximizes Dicks + Janes well-being. – If Dick values having Spot more than Jane values peace & quiet, the dog should stay. Coase theorem: The private market will reach the efficient outcome on its own…
EXTERNALITIES17 The Coase Theorem: An Example CASE 1: Dick has the right to keep Spot. Benefit to Dick of having Spot = $500 Cost to Jane of Spots barking = $800 Socially efficient outcome: Spot goes bye-bye. Private outcome: Jane pays Dick $600 to get rid of Spot, both Jane and Dick are better off. Private outcome = efficient outcome.
EXTERNALITIES18 The Coase Theorem: An Example CASE 2: Dick has the right to keep Spot. Benefit to Dick of having Spot = $1000 Cost to Jane of Spots barking = $800 Socially efficient outcome: See Spot stay. Private outcome: Jane not willing to pay more than $800, Dick not willing to accept less than $1000, so Spot stays. Private outcome = efficient outcome.
EXTERNALITIES19 The Coase Theorem: An Example CASE 3: Jane has the legal right to peace & quiet. Benefit to Dick of having Spot = $800 Cost to Jane of Spots barking = $500 Socially efficient outcome: Dick keeps Spot. Private outcome: Dick pays Jane $600 to put up with Spots barking. Private outcome = efficient outcome. The private market achieves the efficient outcome regardless of the initial distribution of rights.
Samuelson Rule At the optimal level of the public good the sum of consumers MB from the public good is set equal to its MC.
Benefit Quantity Person A Benefit Quantity Person B Benefit Quantity Market Demand o a o b oa ob oa+ob MC
Collectively, the 1000 residents of Green Valley value swimming in Blue Lake at $100,000. A nearby factory pollutes the lake water, and would have to pay $50,000 for non-polluting equipment. A. Describe a Coase-like private solution. B. Can you think of any reasons why this solution might not work in the real world? Applying Coase 22
23 Why Private Solutions Do Not Always Work 1. Transaction costs: The costs parties incur in the process of agreeing to and following through on a bargain. These costs may make it impossible to reach a mutually beneficial agreement. 2. Stubbornness: Even if a beneficial agreement is possible, each party may hold out for a better deal. 3. Coordination problems: If # of parties is very large, coordinating them may be costly, difficult, or impossible.