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Chapter 1: What is Economics? Section 1. Slide 2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Objectives 1.Explain why scarcity and choice.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: What is Economics? Section 1. Slide 2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Objectives 1.Explain why scarcity and choice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1: What is Economics? Section 1

2 Slide 2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Objectives 1.Explain why scarcity and choice are the basis of economics. 2.Describe what entrepreneurs do. 3.Define the three factors of production and the differences between physical and human capital. 4.Explain how scarcity affects the factors of production.

3 Slide 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Key Terms need: something essential for survival want: something that people desire but that is not necessary for survival goods: the physical objects that someone produces services: the actions or activities that one person performs for another scarcity: the principle that limited amounts of goods and services are available to meet unlimited wants

4 Slide 4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Key Terms, cont. economics: the study of how people seek to satisfy their needs and wants by making choices shortage: a situation in which consumers want more of a good or service than producers are willing to make available at particular prices entrepreneur: a person who decides how to combine resources to create goods and services factors of production: the resources that are used to make goods and services

5 Slide 5 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Key Terms, cont. land: all natural resources used to produce goods and services labor: the effort people devote to tasks for which they are paid capital: any human-made resource that is used to produce other goods and services physical capital: the human-made objects used to create other goods and services human capital: the knowledge and skills a worker gains through education and experience

6 Slide 6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Introduction How does scarcity force people to make economic choices? –Scarcity forces all of us to make choices by making us decide which options are most important to us. –The principle of scarcity states that there are limited goods and services for unlimited wants. Thus, people need to make choices in order to satisfy the wants that are most important to them.

7 Slide 7 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Scarcity and Choice Activity Purpose of this activity is to help you to become familiar with the three economic terms: Scarcity, productive resources, and opportunity costs.

8 Slide 8 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Scarcity scarcity: the principle that limited amounts of goods and services are available to meet unlimited wants and needs

9 Slide 9 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Factors of Production/Production Resources Productive resources (factors of production): land, labor, capital – resources used to make goods and services

10 Slide 10 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Trade-offs and Opportunity Costs Trade-off: The act of giving up one benefit in order to gain another, greater benefit Opportunity costs – the most desirable alternative (trade-off) given up as a result of a decision.

11 Slide 11 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Production Possibilities Curve Production Possibilities Curve: A graph that shows alternative ways to use an economys productive resources

12 Slide 12 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Scarcity and Choice People satisfy their needs and wants with goods and services. –Peoples needs and wants are unlimited, yet goods and services are limited.

13 Slide 13 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Scarcity and Choice, cont. Economics begins with the idea that people cannot have everything they need and want. –The fact that limited amounts of goods and services are available to meet unlimited wants is called scarcity. Scarcity forces people to make choices but it is not the same as a shortage. Shortages are temporary while scarcity always exists.

14 Slide 14 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Entrepreneurs Entrepreneurs play a key role in turning scarce resources into goods and services. Entrepreneurs are willing to take risks in order to make a profit. They: –Develop original ideas –Start businesses –Create new industries –Fuel economic growth

15 Slide 15 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Entrepreneurs, cont An entrepreneurs first task is to assemble the factors of production: land, labor, and capital.

16 Slide 16 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Factors of Production: Land Land refers to all natural resources used to produce goods and services. These resources include: –Fertile land for farming –Oil –Coal –Iron –Water –Forests

17 Slide 17 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Factors of Production: Labor Labor is the effort people devote to tasks for which they are paid. Labor includes: –The medical care provided by a doctor –The classroom instruction provided by a teacher –The tightening of a bolt by an assembly-line worker –The creation of a painting by an artist –The repair of a television by a technician

18 Slide 18 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Factors of Production: Capital Capital refers to any human-made resource that is used to produce other goods and services. An economy requires both physical and human capital to produce goods and services. –Physical capital includes: Buildings Equipment Tools –Human capital includes: A college education Training Job experience

19 Slide 19 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Benefits of Capital Capital is a key factor of production because people and companies can use it to save a great deal of time and money. The benefits of capital include: –Increased efficiency –Increased knowledge –Better time management –Increased productivity

20 Slide 20 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Scarce Resources Checkpoint: Why are goods and services scarce? –All goods and services are scarce because the resources used to produce them are scarce. –There are only so many natural resources available to produce particular goods.

21 Slide 21 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Scarce Resources, cont. The amount of labor available to produce goods and services can be limited. Physical capital is also limited for many industries. Each resource may also have alternative uses. Individuals, businesses, and governments have to choose which alternative they want most.

22 Slide 22 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc.Chapter 1, Section 1 Review Now that you have learned how scarcity forces people to make economic choices, go back and answer the Chapter Essential Question. –How can we make the best economic choices?


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