# The Measurement of Income and Prices Instructor: MELTEM INCE

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The Measurement of Income and Prices Instructor: MELTEM INCE
Lecture notes 2 Instructor: MELTEM INCE

Types of Investment (I)
Inventory Investment is the change in the stock of raw materials, parts, and finished products held by businesses. Fixed Investment includes all final goods (mainly structures and equipment) purchased by businesses not intended for resale.

Relation of Investment and Saving
Personal Saving (S) is that part of personal income that is not consumed or paid out in taxes Also referred to as Private Saving Algebraically: S = (Y-T) - C (where T = Net Taxes) Funds from savings are channeled to firms in two basis ways: Households buy bonds and stocks issued by firms Households deposit savings in banks and other financial institutions that in turn lend money to firms Firms use the money channeled from savings to buy investment goods

Net Exports and Net Foreign Investment
Exports are goods produced within one country and shipped to another Imports are goods consumed within one country but produced in another country Net Exports (NX) are equal to the excess of exports over imports Net Foreign Investment (NFI) is equal to U.S. purchases of foreign financial assets minus foreign purchases of U.S. financial assets Interesting connection: NX = NFI

The Government Sector Government Purchases (G) is the value of goods and services purchased by the government at the federal, state and local levels Transfer Payments (F) are payments from the government to households that do not require the recipient to provide a service in return Examples: Social Security, Medicare, and Food Stamps Government Spending = G + F The Government pays for its spending by collecting Taxes (R) or by borrowing and/or printing money Net Taxes (T) = R – F Budget Surplus = T – G

Deriving the “Magic” Equation
The income accounting identity states that an economy’s income must equal its expenditures: Y ≡ E  Now, use the fact that household income must equal household outlays (and recall that T = R - F): Y + F = C + S + R  Equating (1) and (2) yields the “Magic Equation” C + S + T = C + I + G + NX  S + T = I + G + NX

Interpreting the “Magic Equation”
Recall the “Magic Equation:” S + T = I + G + NX Leakages (S + T) describe the portion of total income that is not available for consumption Injections (I + G + NX) is a term for non-consumption expenditures

Measurig National Output
Gross National Product (GNP) : The market value of all the final goods and services produced within a country during a given time period-usually a year; equal to the sum of all values added in the economy. Potential GNP ( Y*) : The real gross national product the economy could produce if its productive resources were full employed at their normal intensity of use. Also called full-employment GNP, full-employment national income.

Measurig National Output
Final Goods and Services : Many goods are produced in the economy are not classified as final goods, but instead as intermediate goods. Intermediate goods are produced by one firm for use in further processing by another firm or to produce final goods. For example; weat is an intermediate good for bread. So that is the value added to produce final goods and services.

Measurig National Output
Value added: During some stage of production is the difference between the value of goods as they leave a stage of product,on and the cost of the goods as they entered that stage. Value added is the value of firm’s production – all the inputs value which gets from other firms. Sum of value added = wage + rent + profit +interest.

Example Production level Market Value cost of intermediate good Value Added Wheat TL TL Flour TL TL TL Entrepreneurship TL TL TL Bread TL TL TL 12600 TL TL TL As you’ve seen, the market value of bread (final good) 5000 TL. also includes the market values of wheat, flour and entreprenurship services. In that reason; GNP is sum of the market value of all the final goods and services = sum of all values added.

Nominal GDP, Real GDP, and the GDP Deflator
Nominal GDP is the value of gross domestic product in current (actual) prices. Real GDP is the measure of gross domestic product using prices of an arbitrarily chosen base year. The GDP deflator is a price index that measures the aggregate economy’s price level. Algebraically: GDP Def = Nominal GDP / Real GDP * 100 The percentage change in the GDP deflator gives a measure of the economy’s inflation rate.

The Expenditure Approach
Expenditure approach a method of computing GDP that measures the amount spent on all final goods during a given period. Expenditure categories: personal consumption expenditures ( C): household spending on consumer goods. Gross private domestic investment (I ) : spending by firms and households on new capital , i.e. plant, equipment, inventory etc. Government consumption and gross investment (G ): expenditures by state and local governments for final goods and services. Net exports (EX-IM) : net spending by the rest of the world, or exports minus imports. GDP = C + I + G + (EX - IM)

The Income Approach A method of computing GDP that measures the income –wages, rents, ineterst, and profits- received by all factors of production in producing final goods. Personal income is the income received by households before paying personal income taxes. The amount of income that households have to spend or save is called “disposable personal income” or after-tax income. It is equal to personal income minus personal taxes.

GNP - GDP The difference between GDP and GNP is; GDP is the market value of all the final goods and services that are produced by that nation’s production factors but GNP also includes the market value of all the final goods and services that are produced by foreigners. On the other hand; GDP measures the output located in that country. Ex: only goods and services that are produced within a “country” as part of that country’s GDP. Toyota, a Japanese firm, produces automobiles if in Turkey, and the value of this production is part of Turkey’s GDP, not part of Japan’s GDP.

Growth Rate We use estimates of real GDP to calculate teh economic growth rate. The economic growth rate is the percentage change in the quantity of goods and services produced from one year to the next. Economic growth rate = Real GDP(t) -Real GDP(t-1) X 100 Real GDP (t-1)

National Income The value of a nation’s total production of goods and
services is called its “national product”. Hence when we study national product we are also studying national income. National Income =Total consumption expenditure Total savings

National Income National income is the total amount earned by the
factors of production in the economy; it is equal to NNP except for a statistical discrepancy. GNP – depreciation = Net NP Net NP – Ti = National Income

The Consumer Price Index (CPI)
A price index measures the price level at a given period relative to the base period. The Consumer Prices Index (CPI) covers price of commodities commonly bought by households. Changes in the value of the CPI are meant to measure changes in the typical household’s “cost of living”. Government statisticians periodically survey a group of households to discover how they spend their incomes.

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