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© 2005 Thomson C hapter 20 Gross Domestic Product Accounting.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2005 Thomson C hapter 20 Gross Domestic Product Accounting."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2005 Thomson C hapter 20 Gross Domestic Product Accounting

2 © 2005 Thomson 2 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Economic Principles The circular flow of resources, goods, and services The circular flow of money The expenditure approach to measuring GDP

3 © 2005 Thomson 3 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Economic Principles The income approach to measuring GDP The relationship between GDP, NDP, and national income The limitations of GDP as a measure of economic well-being

4 © 2005 Thomson 4 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Gross Domestic Product Accounting Circular flow of goods, services, and resources The movement of goods and services from firms to households, and of resources from households to firms.

5 © 2005 Thomson 5 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e EXHIBIT 1THE CIRCULAR FLOW OF GOODS, SERVICES, AND RESOURCES

6 © 2005 Thomson 6 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Two Approaches to Calculating GDP Economists calculate GDP in two ways: the expenditure approach to GDP and the income approach to GDP. Regardless of which method is used, the values should be equivalent.

7 © 2005 Thomson 7 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach Expenditure approach A method of calculating GDP that adds all expenditures made for final goods and services by households, firms and government.

8 © 2005 Thomson 8 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach When using the expenditure approach to GDP, one must be certain that only final goods and services are counted. Otherwise, goods may be double counted.

9 © 2005 Thomson 9 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach Final goods Goods purchased for final use, not for resale. Intermediate goods Goods used to produce other goods.

10 © 2005 Thomson 10 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach Value added The difference between the value of a good that a firm produces and the value of the goods the firm uses to produce it.

11 © 2005 Thomson 11 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e EXHIBIT 3MARKET VALUE AND VALUE ADDED OF GOODS PRODUCED

12 © 2005 Thomson 12 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach There are four expenditure categories of GDP: 1. Personal consumption 2. Gross private domestic investment 3. Government purchases 4. Net exports

13 © 2005 Thomson 13 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 1. Personal consumption expenditures (C) All goods and services bought by households. These expenditures are grouped into categories of durable goods, nondurable goods, and services.

14 © 2005 Thomson 14 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 1a. Durable goods Goods expected to last at least a year. For example, refrigerators, automobiles, and washing machines.

15 © 2005 Thomson 15 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 1a. Durable goods During recessions, consumers tend to hang on to their durable goods, so that sales of new durable goods are relatively weak. During times of prosperity, consumers are more likely to discard old durables, and sales of new durables are strong.

16 © 2005 Thomson 16 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 1b. Nondurable goods Goods expected to last less than a year. For example, food, clothing, gasoline and toiletries. Households spend more on nondurables than on durables.

17 © 2005 Thomson 17 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 1c. Services Productive activities that are instantaneously consumed. For example, medical care, a lecture, and appliance repair. Households spend more on services than durable and nondurable goods combined.

18 © 2005 Thomson 18 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 2. Gross private domestic investment (I) The purchase by firms of plant, equipment, and inventory goods.

19 © 2005 Thomson 19 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 2. Gross private domestic investment (I) Plant (or new structure) and equipment purchases may either replace worn out plants and equipment or increase the quantity of plants and equipment.

20 © 2005 Thomson 20 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 2a. Inventory investment Stocks of finished goods and raw materials that firms keep in reserve to facilitate production and sales.

21 © 2005 Thomson 21 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 3. Government purchases (G) All goods and services bought by government. For example, goods such as national defense materials, interstate highway, and post offices, and services such as justice and education.

22 © 2005 Thomson 22 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach 4. Net exports (X - M) An economys exports to other economies, minus its imports from other economies.

23 © 2005 Thomson 23 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Expenditure Approach All final goods and services that make up GDP, then, can be expressed in the form: GDP = C + I + G + (X – M).

24 © 2005 Thomson 24 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e EXHIBIT 4EXPENDITURE APPROACH TO 2003 GDP ($ BILLIONS) Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2003.

25 © 2005 Thomson 25 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Income Approach Income approach A method of calculating GDP that adds all the incomes earned in the production of final goods and services.

26 © 2005 Thomson 26 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Income Approach National income The sum of all payments made to resource owners for the use of their resources.

27 © 2005 Thomson 27 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Income Approach Corporate profit represents the return to owners of incorporated firms. Corporate profit is divided into three categoriesdividends, corporate reinvestment, and corporate taxes. All three are included in the income approach to GDP.

28 © 2005 Thomson 28 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e The Income Approach Proprietors income is the income earned by unincorporated firms for the goods and services they produce. Proprietors income is the net income after paying such expenses as rent, utilities, and supplies.

29 © 2005 Thomson 29 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e EXHIBIT NATIONAL INCOME ($ BILLIONS) Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2003.

30 © 2005 Thomson 30 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Bringing GDP and National Income into Accord Gross National Product (GNP) The market value of all final goods and services in an economy produced by resources owned by people of that economy, regardless of where the resources are located.

31 © 2005 Thomson 31 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Bringing GDP and National Income into Accord While GDP measures location, GNP measures ownership. For example, the value of goods produced by a U.S.-owned firm in Spain are not counted in our GDP, but are counted in our GNP.

32 © 2005 Thomson 32 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e EXHIBIT 7THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT, GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT, NET NATIONAL PRODUCT, AND NATIONAL INCOME: 2003 ($ BILLIONS) Note: Net domestic product = $8,767.7 billion. The use of NNP instead of NDP to derive national incomes conforms to the derivation of national income used by government sources. Note also that because GDP and GNP are almost identical, NDP and NNP are almost identical. Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2003.

33 © 2005 Thomson 33 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Relationship Between GDP and GNP GDP is converted to GNP. This is done by subtracting factor payments to the rest of the world and adding factor payments from the rest of the world.

34 © 2005 Thomson 34 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e Personal Income and Personal Disposable Income Disposable personal income Personal income minus direct taxes.

35 © 2005 Thomson 35 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e How Comprehensive Is GDP? GDP tries to measure everything that appears on the market. Yet, not everything produced in the economy gets onto the market, and some things that contribute to our economic well-being arent even produced.

36 © 2005 Thomson 36 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e How Comprehensive Is GDP? The value of housework is one example of an important service that is usually not included in GDP. The work is only included if it is performed by someone outside the household, such as a housekeeper, nanny, or cook.

37 © 2005 Thomson 37 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e How Comprehensive Is GDP? Underground economy The unreported or illegal production of goods and services in the economy that is not counted in GDP. Illegal unreported activities may include drug trafficking, money laundering, bribery, prostitution, illegal gambling, fraud and burglary. Tax avoidance is the main reason why legal activities may go unreported. Swapping services or simply understating the value of income earned are two ways to avoid paying taxes.

38 © 2005 Thomson 38 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e How Comprehensive Is GDP? The costs of environmental damage are another factor not taken into account in GDP. While the expense associated with cleaning up the pollution we create contributes to GDP, the actual pollution created is not subtracted from GDP.

39 © 2005 Thomson 39 Gottheil - Principles of Economics, 4e How Comprehensive Is GDP? Many economists agree that despite the exclusion of some forms of economic value, our measure of GDP is sufficiently comprehensive to be a reliable indicator of changes in the overall performance of the economy.


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