7 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia Emerged from interaction between outer and inner Eurasia.What were inner and outer Eurasia?Led to exchange of goods between pastoral and settled peoples.Latter tried to control the former, extended the boundaries…Pastoral people often played a roleRise of large states also helped: Roman and Chinese states.Dunhuang, founded 117 BCE by Han Emperor Wudi
9 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia What kinds of goods were transported?How were they transported?
10 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia a vast array of goods traveled along the Silk Roads, often by camelmostly luxury goods for the elitehigh cost of transport did not allow movement of staple goodsSilk symbolized the Eurasian exchange systemat first, China had a monopoly on silk technology (serious production 3000 BCE; Korea had it by 300 BCE; India by 300 CE)led to drain of resources from Roman Empire to eastYet, Romans regarded silk as morally decadent by the sixth century CE, other peoples produced silk:Byzantine Empire, Japan, Persiasilk was used as currency in Central Asiasilk was a symbol of high statussumptuary laws restricted silk clothing to the elite (China and the Byzantine Empire)silk was sacred in Buddhism and Christianitysilk industry not developed in Western Europe until 12th century
11 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia Cultures in Transit:Buddhism: spread greatly, voluntaryappealed to merchants, snubbed Hindu-influenced caste systemMonasteries provided rest stops for merchantsMany converts in oasis citiesSpread more slowly amongst pastoralistsBuddhism itself was transformed: monasteries became rich and more involved in secular world.Mahayana Buddhism flourished: Buddha as deity, numerous Bodhisattvas, compassion, meritocratic
12 Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia Disease in TransitLong-distance trading led to spread of diseaseMost lethal junctures: when an unfamiliar disease arrives in a new cultureAthens, BCE, infect from EgyptSmallpox and measles periodically ravaged the Roman and Han empires.CE bubonic plague from India to Mediterranean regionBlack Death, but much later and largely due to Mongol EmpireStrengthened Eurasians over the long run.
13 Exchange across the Indian Ocean Sea routes:Exchange across the Indian OceanProbably most important trade networkMonsoon changes were crucial:Nov-Feb blew to SWApril-Sept blew to NEKey was regularitySea transport is cheaperSo more bulk goods: textiles, pepper, timber, rice, sugar, wheatTrade was between towns and cities, not states
15 Exchange across the Indian Ocean Sea routes:Exchange across the Indian OceanAlready some trading during Indus Valley periodEgyptians and Phoenicians traded along the Red SeaChinese merchants reached India 100 CEFulcrum was India: along with trade, spread Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia.Reunified China (Tang and Song Dynasties, ) brought cheap goods and provided markets.Rise of Islam crucial to further spreadwidespread conversion made trade move more freely
16 Led to the creation of various states: Sea routes:Led to the creation of various states:Srivijaya civilization:Malay sailors gained control of the Straits of Malacca ca. 350 CE.Srivijaya came to dominate trade in this region from CE.Adopted Buddhism and became major centerSwahili civilization:Grew from demand for East African products: gold, ivory, quartz, leopard skins, slaves, iron, woodFlourished CEVery urban and city-state orientedSharp class distinctionsMost trade in Arab shipsGreat Arab and Muslim influenceTrade for gold led to Great Zimbabwe, CE
19 Sand Roads: Exchange across the Sahara Commercial Beginnings in West Africa:North had manufactured goods, salt, horses, cloth, datesSouth had crops, gold, ivory, kola nuts, slavesIntroduction of camel was crucial, early in CERegular trans-Saharan commerce by CEHuge caravans, up to 5000 camelsLed to a number of states in western and central Sudan: Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Kanem, and Hausaland.Slaves came mostly from south, most sold in North Africa.
23 Comparison: Why did the Western Hemisphere produce a less extensive long-distance trading system than the Eastern Hemisphere?a. Fewer desirable goods or raw materials were available to trade for in the Americas.b. Particularly violent warfare in the Americas as compared to Eurasia suppressed trade.c. The lack of large domesticated animals and oceangoing vessels made long-distance trade more difficult.d. Native Americans were unable to use the river systems of the Americas for trade.
24 Change: Which of the following was NOT an outcome of the growth of Eurasian long-distance trade between 500 c.e. and 1500 c.e.?a. Increased spread of religious ideasb. The decline of empires as an important political structurec. Greater specialization of some economiesd. Increased spread of diseases
25 Discussion Starter: In terms of the course of world history, which of the following exchanges that occurred because of long-distance trade between 500 c.e. and 1500 c.e. had the greatest impact?a. The spread of diseasesb. The spread of technologiesc. The spread of religionsd. The trade of goods
26 Discussion Starter: Which do you think was more significant to world history, the Silk Roads or the Sea Roads?a. The Silk Roads were more significant to world history.b. The Sea Roads were more significant to world history.