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Transportation of Goods and Consumption A Crash Course in the History of Freight.

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Presentation on theme: "Transportation of Goods and Consumption A Crash Course in the History of Freight."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transportation of Goods and Consumption A Crash Course in the History of Freight

2 American Attitudes Expressed in Production, Transportation, and Consumption of Goods Democracy: Widespread consumption Inexhaustible natural resources: in the way goods are produced, transported, used, and disposed of

3 Roads and Streets Rural roads were dirt paths in colonial era Plank roads were an improvement Streets in cities are used more for meeting places and commerce than for transportation

4 Horse Drawn Vehicles Variety of vehicles for hauling freight existed Horses regarded as machines Conestoga Wagon, circa 1840 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID# THF17493

5 Conestoga Wagon 1750 to early 20 th century Developed in Pennsylvania Pulled by teams of horses or oxen Speed of about two miles per hour Conestoga Wagon, circa 1840 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID# THF17493

6 Canals 1820s-1830s Erie Canal completed 1826 Increased pace of settlement Connected states and regions Created national markets for goods to benefit of producers and consumers Lithograph, "View of the Junction of the Northern and Western Canals," 1825 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF68299

7 Steamboats By 1830, 200 operate in West By 1855, 727 in West Trips are faster and cheaper upriver travel now possible Further widen national markets Steam power also used in production of goods Wood Engraving, "View of the Public Landing at Louisville, Kentucky," 1850-1855 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID# THF68301

8 Travel Time In 1817, the trip from Cincinnati to New York took: 50 days to transport goods by keelboat and wagon 28 days to go by steam boat down the Mississippi and sailing packet up the coast 18 days by Erie Canal to the Hudson River, then on the New York Harbor In 1850, the trip from Cincinnati to New York took: 6-8 days including loading and unloading

9 Time = Money In 1816, the trip from Philadelphia to Quebec: –Took 100 hours –Cost $47 In 1860, the same trip by railroad: –Took 31 hours –Cost $19

10 Miles of Railroad Track in the U.S. 1840: 3,000 1850: 15,000 1860: 30,600 Steam Locomotive "Sam Hill," 1858 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF18578

11 Railroads Provide cheap transportation for heavy, bulky items like coal, wheat, and cattle Boost economy Encourage settlement west of the Mississippi River Amassed huge economic power Transcontinental Railroad completed 1869 Steam Locomotive "Sam Hill," 1858 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF18578

12 Railroads and the Civil War North had a more developed railroad system than the South Gave it economic and military advantages Steam Locomotive "Sam Hill," 1858 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF18578

13 Railroads and Consumption of FOOD! Refrigerated railroad cars big business by 1890s Florida and California can market produce in other areas Changed Americans eating habits Railroad Refrigerator Car, 1924, Used by Fruit Growers Express From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF68309

14 Roads in the Later 19 th and Early 20 th Centuries With railroads dominating long-distance travel, highways are ignored and fall into disrepair In 1890, half of city streets are unpaved Roads are still needed: goods need to be transported from railroad station to next destination Horse Drawn Dray, circa 1890 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF69349

15 Trucks Small loads relatively short distances Transport goods from train station or dock to their next destination Bad roads so little long-distance trucking Crane Unloading Cargo from Railroad Cars into a Mack Model AC Dump Truck. 1927 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF68323.

16 Improving Roads for Automobiles in Early 20 th Century 1916 Federal Aid Road Act 1919 U.S. Army expedition from Washington, D.C. to San Francisco 1921 Federal Highway Act Crane Unloading Cargo from Railroad Cars into a Mack Model AC Dump Truck. 1927 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF68323.

17 Air U.S. Air Mail Service 1926 Air Commerce Act In 1950s, reduces inventories, cuts warehouse costs, and simplifies handling procedures for industries including floral and fashion "Highways of the Sky," Advertisement Promoting Commercial Air Travel on Ford Tri-Motor Airplanes, 1928 From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF68349

18 Trucking After WWII Refrigerated trucks Diesel semi-trailers 1956 Federal Aid Highway Act Intermodal containers carried via truck, rail, ship, or aircraft Ford 707E C-Series Truck, Made 1974, Used by Roadway Express From the Collections of The Henry Ford. ID#THF67948


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